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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That phonolite is a type of volcanic rock, common as lava flows in some areas, that is capable of supporting the formation of extensive lava caves, including those on mount suswa in kenya [9].?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for karst water (Keyword) returned 263 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 263
ANALYSIS OF HYDROLOGIC RELATIONS BETWEEN EGIRDIR-BEYSEHIR-SUGLA LAKES SYSTEM AND ADJACENT BASINS BY MEANS OF REMOTE-SENSING TECHNIQUES (SOUTHERN TURKEY), 1992, Degirmenci M, Gunay G,
The study area is situated within the complex structure and karst system of the western Taurids. Basinwide interpretation of the structural features, each of which has great importance, will enlighten many complicated hydrogeologic problems encountered in the area. Thus, considering the previous views on the structural geology of the area, an interpretation of the structural and tectonic features of the study area by means of satellite images was undertaken, and based on the data gained, new approaches were suggested to solve the hydrogeological problems, in particular, determination of the recharge-discharge mechanisms of the Olukkopru and Dumanli karst springs, which are the most important karst groundwater discharge points in the region, has been attempted. Within the framework of this study, a tectonic-lineament map of a large area covering Eqirdir, Beysehir, and Sugla lakes at the north and the basins to the south of these lakes was prepared

Periglacial waters within the Muschelkalk aquifer in southern Poland. [in Polish], 1993, R?kowski, Andrzej

Use of hydrologic, hydrochemical and isotopic data in identification of groundwater flow patterns in Lower Zamantı Basin (Eastern Taurids-Turkey), 1993, Bayari Celal Serdar, Gurer Ibrahim
In karst basins where hydraulic structures ARE designed to utilize the existing water potential, determination of the distinct groundwater flow patterns and the inter-relations among them bears great importance from the view point of the geotechnical safety of the structure. The combined use of hydrologic, hydrochemical and isotopic data enables us to identify different groundwater flow patterns prevailing in karst basins. Once the inter-relation among the groundwater flow patterns is established, the decision regarding the implementation of projects will be easier. Hydrologic investigations including analyses of the "stream yield" and "groundwater balance", produce invaluable information that can be used to locate the important karstic effluents along the basin. The study of the hydrochemistry of major karstic effluents reveals reliable information on the "depth" of underground circulation and the "recharge conditions" dominating within the karst system. Evaluation of environmental isotopic data introduces important details pertaining to the "mean recharge area elevations" and "turn-over times" of the karst waters and inter-relation among each other. Sometimes very closely located karstic outflows may have quite different circulation/recharge characteristics. This paper attempts to demonstrate the combined use of hydrologic, hydrochemical and isotopic techniques for the determination of the "deep-regional" and "shallow" groundwater circulation patterns existing in the Lower Zamanti Basin.

Approche thorique _simplifie de la dissolution karstique, 1994, Gombert, P.
The specific behaviour of karsts makes the estimation of karstic denudation very difficult: discharge and water chemical variabili-ties are in fact major characteristics of aquifer karstic systems and cannot be properly estimated by the way of random sampling. The classical empirical methods provide generally high relative errors due to the bad knowledge of the hydrogeological catchment basin and even of the total number of springs. In the case of CORBEL's or WILLIAM's empirical formulas, average relative error can be estimated to about 100 % for a normally known aquifer karstic system : therefore it is impossible to compare different karsts that have not been studied with the same accuracy. The theoretical statisti-cal relationships between karstic denu-dation and a single climatic parameter (rainfall) are open to criticism: main authors tell that effective rainfall and pedological C02 are essential parame-ters of karstic denudation, which are never taken into account. For example, there are different PULINA's formula for different climatic types indicating that it is necessary to use another climatic parameter different from rain-fall! Moreover this way of modelling the data restrains the statistical repre-sentativity of each formula and intro-duces a difficult choice for karsts, which are at the border of two climatic types (or with mountainous parts). Another problem is the case of polar countries karsts where most precipitation is snowy and does not participate in karstic denudation. Therefore a mathematical modelling of carbonate dissolution is shown, based on infiltra-tion rate calculation and knowledge of calco-carbonic equilibrium. Temperature and rainfall are taken into account to determine the efficient part of precipitation, the productivity of pedogenetic C02 and the carbonate solubility constants. This theoretical approach gives the same results but with relative errors under 50 %. Consequently it is easy to compare different karstic countries in the world: hot and wet climates are confirmed to have the main karstogenetic activity but the role of cold countries is rehabilita-ted. Then paleokarstic denudation can be estimated.

LAND SUBSIDENCE, SINKHOLE COLLAPSE SAND EARTH FISSURE OCCURRENCE AND CONTROL IN CHINA, 1994, Deng As, Ju Jh,
There are many varieties of geological hazard in China which are widely dispersed. Land subsidence is one such hazard and occurs mainly in the coastal cities of east China. Sinkhole collapses are mainly found near those cities of east and middle China that have karst water and karst water-impregnated ore deposits. Earth fissures also occur in east and middle China. All these geological hazards have a great influence upon the construction of engineering works. Though the causes of the hazards may be different, a major contributor is human economic activity. Therefore, a major countermeasure is to control human economic development

HYDROLOGIC RESPONSE OF A KARST WATERSHED, 1994, Felton Gk,
A ground water catchment was instrumented as a karst hydrology and water quality laboratory to develop long-term flow and water quality data. This catchment located in Woodford and Jessamine Counties in the Inner Bluegrass, Central Kentucky encompasses approximately 1620 ha, 40 water wells, over 400 sinkholes, 2 karst windows, and 1 sinking stream. The land uses consist of approximately 59% beef pasture, horse farm, and golf course; 16% row crops; 6% orchard; 13%forest; and 6% residential. The instrumentation consisted of a recording rain gage, an H-flume, a water stage recorder, and an automated water sampler. Flow data for 312 days were analyzed, and a peak flow rate prediction equation, specific to this catchment, was developed Recession curves were analyzed and found to be of two distinct mathematical forms, log curves and exponential curves. Prediction equations were good for the log-type recession curve and fair for the exponential-type recession curve. For the exponential recessions, the peak flow rate was found to be bimodally distributed The recession events were classified as either high flow or low flow, with the point of separation at 113 L/s. It was hypothesized that the flow system was controlled by pipe flow above 113 L/s and by open channel flow below 113 L/s. Subsequent analysis resulted in adequate prediction for the low flow events. Explained variation associated with the high flow events was low and attributed to storage in the karst system that was not incorporated into the predictor equation

Classification of cave dypsum deposits derived from oxidation of H2S, 1994, Buck M. J. , Ford D. C. , Schwarcz H. P.

KARST LANDS, 1995, White W. B. , Culver D. C. , Herman J. S. , Kane T. C. , Mylroie J. E. ,

Radiocarbon concentration and origin of thermal Karst waters in the region of the Bukk Mountains, northeastern Hungary, 1995, Hertelendi E. , Veres M. , Futo I. , Svingor E. , Miko L. , Lenart L. , Deak J. , Suveges M. ,
Karst springs are abundant in Hungary, and many are thermal (temperatures >30 degrees C). As thermal springs are a significant part of Hungary's water resources, it is important to quantify their travel times in the karst systems. Thus, we chose to measure T and delta(18)O in the water and delta(13)C and C-14 in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in water from 50 thermal and nonthermal springs and wells in the Bukk Mountains, northeastern Hungary, Environmental isotope data confirm the karst waterflow pattern implied by earlier studies. We found the water in warm springs and boreholes to be mixtures of cold young and old thermal water. We also determined short mean-residence times for some large cold springs. The C-14 activities measured in these springs indicate that the recharge area of the karst aquifer is open to the atmosphere, and atmospheric CO2 contributes to the C-14 activity of these groundwaters. We observed good correlation between C-14 and H-3 activities and we determined negative correlations between C-14 concentration and delta(13)C values and temperature. From the delta(18)O values of the oldest thermal waters, we attribute their origin to precipitation during colder temperatures than at present

Sannur Cave: A Crescent shaped cave developed in Alabaster formation in Eastern Desert, Egypt, 1995, Gü, Nay G. , Elbedewy F. , Ekmekci M. , Bayari S. , Kurttas T.
An expedition to Egypt set out to explore the Wadi Sannur where no speleological work had taken place. The most notable karst feature identified to date is the Sannur Cave, the largest subterranean chamber known in Egypt. It is situated about 70 km to the southeast of Beni-Suef city in the remote Wadi Sannur of the Eastern Desert where the main rock units belong to Eocene and Pliocene periods. The Eocene is represented by limestone including alabaster which is known to be quarried first by the ancient Egyptians. Sannur Cave is first explored during blasting in the alabaster quarry which caused an artificial entrance to the cave. The cave is a single crescent shape chamber approximately 275 m long and can be arbitrarily divided into two sectionshaving different characteristics; left side gallery and right side gallery. Few speleothems occur in the left side gallery while the right side gallery is decorated intensively with many kinds of spelethem including stalagtites, stalagmites, flowstones, microgours, helictites and soda-straws etc. In addition to surveying the cave, based on the geologic, structural and morphologic observation inside and outside the cave some interpretations on the paleoenvironment an the origin of the cave. Surveying was performed with grade 5D according to BCRA Gradings.

The Chronology of Early Agriculture and Intensive Mineral Mining in the Salts Cave and Mammoth Cave Region, Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky, 1996, Kennedy, M. C. , Watson, P. Jo.
Thermography was used to locate hydrological features in karst watersheds. The approach was demonstrated by flying a thermal camera over the Keel Mountain area of north Alabama. Known features were identified and features not on United State Geological Survey topographic maps and unknown to the authors were discovered. Springs with flow rates less than 3 liters/sec and a region of strong infiltration in a losing stream were easily identified.

Grottes hydrothermales dans le nord-ouest de la Namibie : splogense et implications dans le dveloppement des karsts en climat aride, 1996, Martini J. E. J. , Marais J. C. E.
The authors investigated ten caves in Western Namibia, which is characterised by a semi- to hyper-arid climate. They seem to have formed in the past under hydrothermal conditions, which are evidenced by circular embayments, ceiling alveoles, avens, deposits of dog-tooth calcite and barite. The latter has been observed in one cave only. Fluid inclusions in calcite and barite indicate very low salinity and temperatures generally below + 70? C. It is proposed that the caves formed by mixing of hydrothermal solutions of deep origin with more surficial ground water in the vicinity of karst springs. Such ground water circulation patterns, close to the water-table, are suggested in several cases by the horizontal extension in caves, forming definite levels of passage networks cutting across the country rock stratigraphy. The alveolar avens developed upwards from these horizontal passages and seem to have formed subaerally by water evaporation from warm pools at the bottom, with condensation and corrosion above, against cooler rock. The suggested genetic processes are in agreement with models proposed by other authors. It is suggested that in arid climates, conditions are more favourable for development of this type of deep karst water circulation than under wetter conditions. It could possibly even be the predominant process of speleogenesis in very arid conditions. By extension, this concept - mixing of water of deep origin, not necessarily significantly hydrothermal with surficial ground water - could explain the peculiar nature of most of the Namibian caves. The latter are typically characterised by the development of very large chambers and phreatic networks, but with restricted extension and not forming well integrated systems.

Herbicides in karst groundwater in southeast West Virginia, 1996, Pasquarell G. C. , Boyer D. G. ,
A field study was conducted to determine the karst groundwater impact of herbicide application to feed crops in support oil livestock production in southeast West Virginia, Grab samples were taken on a weekly/biweekly schedule at three resurgences for two agriculturally intensive karst watersheds. Two surface water sites were also sampled, The samples were analyzed for the presence of 12 different analytes: atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine), its two metabolites, desethylatrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-amino-1,2,5-triazine) and desisopropylatrazine (2-chloro-4-amino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine), and nine additional triazine herbicides. Little impact was detected at the two surface water sites. In contrast, 6 of the 10 herbicides were detected in at least two of the three resurgences. Three of them, atrazine (ATR), metolachlor [2-chloro-N(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-acetamide], and simazine [2-chloro-4-6-(ethylamino)-s-triazine], were detected in more than 10% of all samples at all three resurgences, ATR and desethylatrazine (DES) were detected in more than 50% of samples at all three resurgences; median ATR values were 0.060, 0.025, and 0.025 mu g/L. DAR* the ratio of DES to ATR plus DES, was used to differentiate atrazine leaching following storage for long periods in the soil, from transport that bypassed deethylation in the soil through sinkholes and other solutionally developed conduits. DAR* was low (median of <0.5) and highly varied during the periods immediately following ATR application, indicating that significant quantities of ATR were present. In the winter, a release of ATR metabolites from the soil was evidenced by a steadier, and higher DAR* (median of 0.64). The maximum detected ATR concentration was 1.20 mu g/L, which is within the USEPA maximum contaminant level of 3 mu g/L

Quaternary cave and landform development in the Tysfjord region, north Norway., 1996, Lauritsen A. , Lauritzen S. E.

Late Quaternary climatic history of the Helderberg Plateau, New York, USA;Preliminary results from U/Th dating of speleothems, 1996, Lauritzen Se. , Mylroie J. E.

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