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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That thermokarst is 1. a pitted periglacial or former periglacial surface in superficial deposits, produced by settling or caving of the ground after melting of ground ice [10]. 2. a term applied to topographic depressions in karstic terranes resulting from the thawing of ice. see cryokarst.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for laminae (Keyword) returned 27 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 27 of 27
First 226Ra-210Pb dating of a young speleothem, 2006, Condomines M, Rihs S,
Whereas the method based on the decrease of excess 210Pb has already been used to date young (210Pb -- A new technique, Geophys. Res. Lett. 20 (1993) 603-606.]), this paper presents the first dating of a speleothem through the 226Ra-210Pb method. Dating of a young hydrothermal stalagmite from the Mt Cornadore cave (St Nectaire, French Massif Central) was made possible by the high 226Ra and negligible 210Pb contents of such carbonates, formed by precipitation from CO2-rich thermal waters. (210Pb/226Ra) ratios regularly increase with depth along the axis of the 33[no-break space]cm long stalagmite. The age-depth relationship can be interpreted by two main phases of growth, with high but variable axial growth rates of 5.3[no-break space]mm/yr from 1909 to 1967, and 2.6[no-break space]mm/yr from 1967 to 1989 (alternatively, the oldest phase can be subdivided in three episodes with growth rates varying from 2 to 7[no-break space]mm/yr). Thin-section examination reveals the presence of numerous laminae, indicating infra-annual variations. We suggest that this fine layered structure might reflect short-term fluctuations in drip waters, possibly induced by near-surface mixing between thermal and ground waters, and ultimately linked to the pluviometry. A detailed examination of this laminated structure combined with 226Ra-210Pb dating could thus provide a high-resolution record of local paleohydrological fluctuations

Applications of stalagmite laminae to paleoclimate reconstructions: Comparison with dendrochronology/climatology, 2006, Tan Ming, Baker Andy, Genty Dominique, Smith Claire, Esper Jan, Cai Binggui,
Laminated stalagmites, observed in either ultra-violet or visible light or recognized via trace elements, are now widely recognized as a common deposition form. Annually laminated stalagmites should be expected in caves which have an overlying climate that has a strong seasonality, similar climate zones to where trees grow with distinct annual rings. Continuous laminated stalagmite chronologies (up to several thousand years) should be expected where some mixing of stored water occurs. Such stalagmites can be used to reconstruct climate, particularly through variations in lamina width. Such climate records would be relatively damped by mixing of `event' water with `stored' groundwater, constraining the amount of high-frequency climate signals contained in the stalagmite, but relatively long continuous lamina sequences permit the preservation of low frequency, centennial scale, climate signals. This contrasts with numerous tree ring climate records, which are frequently limited in preserving multi-centennial trends, due to the necessary removal of age related noise from relatively short tree segments. Laminated stalagmites and tree rings should therefore to some degree provide complementary climate information. Appropriate methods for compiling stalagmite layer chronologies and climatologies are presented

Influence of depositional setting and sedimentary fabric on mechanical layer evolution in carbonate aquifers, 2006, Graham Wall Brita R. ,
Carbonate aquifers in fold-thrust belt settings often have low-matrix porosity and permeability, and thus groundwater flow pathways depend on high porosity and permeability fracture and fault zones. Methods from sedimentology and structural geology are combined to understand the evolution of fracture controlled flow pathways and determine their spatial distribution. Through this process bed-parallel pressure-solution surfaces (PS1) are identified as a fracture type which influences fragmentation in peritidal and basinal carbonate, and upon shearing provides a major flow pathway in fold-thrust belt carbonate aquifers. Through stratigraphic analysis and fracture mapping, depositional setting is determined to play a critical role in PS1 localization and spacing where peritidal strata have closer spaced and less laterally continuous PS1 than basinal strata. In the peritidal platform facies, units with planar lamination have bed-parallel pressure-solution seams along mudstone laminae. In contrast, burrowed units of peritidal strata have solution seams with irregular and anastamosing geometries. Laminated units with closely spaced bed-parallel solution seams are more fragmented than bioturbated units with anastamosing solution seams. In the deeper-water depositional environment, pelagic settling and turbidity currents are the dominant sedimentation processes, resulting in laterally continuous deposits relative to the peritidal platform environment. To quantify the fracture patterns in the basinal environment, mechanical layer thickness values were measured from regions of low to high bed dip. The results define a trend in which mechanical layer thickness decreases as layer dip increases. A conceptual model is presented that emphasizes the link between sedimentary and structural fabric for the peritidal and basinal environments, where solution seams localize in mud-rich intervals, and the resulting pressure-solution surface geometry is influenced by sedimentary geometry (i.e., stacked fining upward cycles, burrows, planar laminations). In both facies types, laterally continuous PS1 can behave as mechanical layer boundaries. As layer-parallel slip increases to accommodate shear strain in the fold-thrust belt, more PS1 behave as mechanical layer boundaries

Petrographic and geochemical study on cave pearls from Kanaan Cave (Lebanon), 2007, Nader Fadi. H.
The Kanaan cave is situated at the coastal zone, north of Beirut City (capital of Lebanon). The cave is located within the upper part of the Jurassic Kesrouane Formation (Liassic to Oxfordian) which consists mainly of micritic limestone. Twenty seven cave pearls were subjected to petrographic (conventional and scanning electron microscopy) and geochemical analyses (major/trace elements and stable isotopes). The cave pearls were found in an agitated splash-pool with low mud content. They are believed to have formed through chemical precipitation of calcite in water over-saturated with calcium. The nucleus and micritic laminae show ? 18OV-PDB values of about -5.0 and ? 13C V-PDB values of -11.8, while the surrounding calcite spar laminae resulted in ?18OV-PDB ranging between -5.3 and -5.2, and ? 13C V-PDB between -12.3 and -12.1. A genesis/diagenesis model for these speleothems is proposed involving recrystallization which has selectively affected the inner layers of the cave pearls. This is chiefly invoked by sparry calcite crystals invading the inner micrite cortical laminae and the nuclei (cross-cutting the pre-existing mud-envelopes), and the slight depletion in ? 18O values from inner to outer cortical layers. The calculated ? 18OV-SMOW of the water (-4.2) matches with data on meteoric water signature for the central eastern Mediterranean region.

Petrographic and geochemical study on cave pearls from Kanaan Cave (Lebanon), 2007, Nader Fadi H.
The Kanaan cave is situated at the coastal zone, north of Beirut City (capital of Lebanon). The cave is located within the upper part of the Jurassic Kesrouane Formation (Liassic to Oxfordian) which consists mainly of micritic limestone. Twenty seven cave pearls were subjected to petrographic (conventional and scanning electron microscopy) and geochemical analyses (major/trace elements and stable isotopes). The cave pearls were found in an agitated splash-pool with low mud content. They are believed to have formed through chemical precipitation of calcite in water over-saturated with calcium. The nucleus and micritic laminae show ? 18OV-PDB values of about -5.0 and ? 13C V-PDB values of -11.8, while the surrounding calcite spar laminae resulted in ?18OV-PDB ranging between -5.3 and -5.2, and ? 13C V-PDB between -12.3 and -12.1. A genesis/diagenesis model for these speleothems is proposed involving recrystallization which has selectively affected the inner layers of the cave pearls. This is chiefly invoked by sparry calcite crystals invading the inner micrite cortical laminae and the nuclei (cross-cutting the pre-existing mud-envelopes), and the slight depletion in ? 18O values from inner to outer cortical layers. The calculated ? 18OV-SMOW of the water (-4.2) matches with data on meteoric water signature for the central eastern Mediterranean region.

Annually Laminated Speleothems: a Review, 2008, Baker A. , Smith C. L. , Jex C. , Fairchild I. J. , Genty D. And Fuller L.
This review of annually laminated speleothems firstly considers the four types of annual laminae found within speleothems: fluorescent laminae formed by annual variations in organic matter flux; visible or petrographic laminae, formed by annual variations in calcite texture or fabric; calcite-aragonite couplets; and finally trace element laminae. The methods available to confirm the annual nature, or otherwise, of lamina deposition are reviewed. We consider the use of annual laminae in chronology building, with particular relevance to palaeoclimate reconstructions. Finally, the use of annual lamina width as a palaeoclimate proxy is reviewed.

Hypogene calcitization: Evaporite diagenesis in the western Delaware Basin, 2008, Stafford Kevin W. , Ulmerscholle Dana, Rosaleslagarde Laura

Evaporite calcitization within the Castile Formation of the Delaware Basin is more widespread and diverse than originally recognized. Coupled field and GIS studies have identified more than 1000 individual occurrences of calcitization within the Castile Formation outcrop area, which includes both calcitized masses (limestone buttes) and laterally extensive calcitized horizons (limestone sheets). Both limestone buttes and sheets commonly contain a central brecciated zone that we attribute to hypogene dissolution. Lithologic fabric of calcitized zones ranges from little alteration of original varved laminae to fabries showing extensive laminae distortion as well as extensive vuggy and open cavernous porosity. Calcitization is most abundant in the western portion of the Castile outcrop region where surface denudation has been greatest. Calcitization often forms linear trends, indicating fluid migration along fractures, but also occurs as dense clusters indicating focused, ascending, hydrocarbon-rich fluids. Native sulfur, secondary tabular gypsum (i.e. selenite) and hypogene caves are commonly associated with clusters of calcitization. This assemblage suggests that calcium sulfate diagenesis within the Castile Formation is dominated by hypogene speleogenesis.


Annually Laminated Speleothems: a Review, 2008, Baker A. , Smith C. L. , Jex C. , Fairchild I. J. , Genty D. , Fuller L.

This review of annually laminated speleothems firstly considers the four types of annual laminae found within speleothems: fluorescent laminae formed by annual variations in organic matter flux; visible or petrographic laminae, formed by annual variations in calcite texture or fabric; calcite-aragonite couplets; and finally trace element laminae. The methods available to confirm the annual nature, or otherwise, of lamina deposition are reviewed. We consider the use of annual laminae in chronology building, with particular relevance to palaeoclimate reconstructions. Finally, the use of annual lamina width as a palaeoclimate proxy is reviewed.


Wavelet analysis of Late Holocene stalagmite records from Ortigosa Caves in Northern Spain, 2009, Muoz A. , Sen A. K. , Sancho C. , And Genty D.
We have deduced short-term climatic changes from millennial to annual scales from the study of laminae thickness and radiocarbon analysis of Holocene stalagmite records from two caves in Ortigosa de Cameros (Iberian Range, northern Spain). Speleothems are made up of dark compact laminae (DCL) and white porous laminae (WPL) of seasonal origin. Couplets seasonality is deduced from monitoring calcite laminae growth, drip water rates, and soil organic matter flushed into the caves. The thickness variations of the couplets are analyzed using a continuous wavelet transform and the various periodicities at interannual, decadal, multidecadal, and centennial scales are revealed from the wavelet power spectrum. The periodicities at decadal, multidecadal and centennial scales, with periods around 9.7, 10.4, 14, 16, 22, 43, 73, 83 and 180 years, are mainly related to solar activity. Among the interannual periodicities, oscillations around the 2.4-yr-period may be linked to the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO), whereas periods ranging from 4 to 7 years may be associated with the El Nin o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and/or the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO).

Karren on laminar calcarenitic rock of Lagoa Santa (Minas Gerais, Brazil) , 2011, Knez Martin, Slabe Tadej, Panisset Travassos Luiz Eduardo

The form of the karren is dictated by the horizontal laminated beds and fissuring. They are dissected by characteristic rock forms that are traces of their development and current shaping.
The permeable contacts between laminae and the vertical fissuring of the rock fostered a distinctive three-dimensional development of karren and with it unique forms.


Paleoflood events recorded by speleothems in caves, 2014, Gazquez F. , Calaforra J. M. , Forti P. , Stoll H. , Ghaleb B. , Delgadohuertas A.

Speleothems are usually composed of thin layers of calcite (or aragonite). However,
cemented detrital materials interlayered between laminae of speleothemic carbonate have been also observed in many caves. Flowstones comprising discontinuous carbonate layers form due to flowing water films,while flood events introduce fluviokarstic sediments in caves that, on occasion,are recorded as clayey layers inside flowstones and stalagmites. This record provides a potential means of understand­ing the frequency of palaeofloods using cave records.In this work,we investigate the origin of this type of detritaldeposit in El Soplao Cave (Northern Spain). The age of the lowest aragonite layer
of a flowstone reveals that the earliest flood period occurred before 500 ka, though most of the flowstone formed between 422 +69/-43 ka and 400 +66/-42 ka. This suggests that the cave was periodically affected by palaeoflood events that introduced detrital sediments from the surface as a result of occasional extreme rainfall events,especially at around 400 ka.The mineralogical data enable an evolutionary modelfor this flowstone to be generated based on the alternation offload events with laminar flows and carbonate layers precipitation that can be extrapolated to other caves in which detrital sediments inside speleothems have been found. 


Speleothem and biofilm formation in a granite/dolerite cave, Northern Sweden., 2014,

Tjuv-Antes grotta (Tjuv-Ante's Cave) located in northern Sweden is a round-abraded sea cave ('tunnel cave'), about 30 m in length, formed by rock-water abrasion in a dolerite dyke in granite gneiss. Abundant speleothems are restricted to the inner, mafic parts of the cave and absent on granite parts. The speleothems are of two types: cylindrical (coralloid, popcorn-like), and flowstone (thin crusts). Coralloids correspond to terrestrial stromatolite speleothems in which layers of light calcite alternate with dark, silica-rich laminae. The dark laminae are also enriched in carbon and contain incorporated remains of microorganisms. Two types of microbial communities can be distinguished associated with the speleothems: an Actinobacteria-like biofilm and a fungal community. Actinobacteria seem to play an important role in the formation of speleothem while the fungal community acts as both a constructive and a destructive agent. A modern biofilm dominated by Actinobacteria is present in the speleothem-free parts of the dolerite and located in cave ceiling cracks. These biofilms may represent sites of early speleothem formation. Because of its unusual position in between two types of host rock, Tjuv-Ante's Cave represents a unique environment in which to study differences in microbe-rock interactions and speleothem genesis between the granite and dolerite host rock. Our study shows that the mafic rock is superior to the granite in hosting a microbial community and to support formation of speleothems.


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