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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That radioactive tracer is a tracer used in hydrological direction and velocity determinations [16]. the two most common types are tritium and deuterium.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for ground water (Keyword) returned 272 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 272
Discovery of fluorescent substances in the yellow organ of Caecospaeroma burgundum Dollfus, Isopod Crustacean of underground waters., 1967, Descimon Henry, Marvillet Claude
Chromatographic analysis of the yellow organs of the fresh-water Isopod Crustacean Caecosphaeroma burgundum Dollfus revealed, through observation of the chromatograms in ultraviolet light, the occurrence of both absorbing and fluorescent substances. Among the latter, only isoxanthopterin has been identified. The yellow pigment, which probably has a pteridine nucleus, could not be identified as a known compound and will be the object of later investigations.

On the faculty of absorption of coloured substances by the cuticle of Caecospaeroma burgundum Dollfus, Isopod Crustacean of underground waters., 1967, Graf Franois, Marvillet Claude
The discovery, in certain subterranean waters, of "pigmented," brown or black Caecosphaeroma burgundum, led to the systematic study of the action of pigmented substances on these crustaceans. The results of these experiments demonstrate that the colorations thus obtained or observed in nature are due to the agglutination of coloured substances on the surface of the carapace and, in certain cases, to an impregnation of the cuticle itself.

The ecological classification of cave and fissure water in the underground water habitats., 1967, Husmann Siegfried
Bodies of waters in caves and in crevices of rocks are distinguished from the other subsoil water ecosystems ("eustygon", "stygorhithron", "stygopotamon") under the names "troglostygon" and "petrostygon". The colonisation of subsoil water biotopes involves a fundamental principle which controls the development of the main biotopes for the stygobiont undergroundwater organisms. According to this ecological rule, which is described in detail and formulated, the several interstitial biotopes (for example "eustygopsammal," "rhithrostygopsammal," "potamostygopsephal") are to be considered as the real biotopes of the stygobiont subsoil water organisms; waters in caves, on the contrary, are secondary biotopes of these animals. Caves which contain marine water are described as ecostystem "Thalassotroglon" in their relation to "limnotroglon" (= "stygotroglon"). In this why the contact between "limnospeology" and "thalassospeology" is established, and the limnic and marine microcavernal biotopes; "thalassopsammal" and "thalassopsephal"; are also taken in consideration. "Limnospeology" and "thalassospeology" as limnological and thalassological investigations of subsoil water are characterized as biological fields of work, which serve for the investigation of an ecological unit.

Discovery of fluorescent substances in the yellow organ of Caecospaeroma burgundum Dollfus, Isopod Crustacean of underground waters., 1967, Descimon Henry, Marvillet Claude
Chromatographic analysis of the yellow organs of the fresh-water Isopod Crustacean Caecosphaeroma burgundum Dollfus revealed, through observation of the chromatograms in ultraviolet light, the occurrence of both absorbing and fluorescent substances. Among the latter, only isoxanthopterin has been identified. The yellow pigment, which probably has a pteridine nucleus, could not be identified as a known compound and will be the object of later investigations.

The ecological classification of cave and fissure water in the underground water habitats., 1967, Husmann Siegfried
Bodies of waters in caves and in crevices of rocks are distinguished from the other subsoil water ecosystems ("eustygon", "stygorhithron", "stygopotamon") under the names "troglostygon" and "petrostygon". The colonisation of subsoil water biotopes involves a fundamental principle which controls the development of the main biotopes for the stygobiont undergroundwater organisms. According to this ecological rule, which is described in detail and formulated, the several interstitial biotopes (for example "eustygopsammal," "rhithrostygopsammal," "potamostygopsephal") are to be considered as the real biotopes of the stygobiont subsoil water organisms; waters in caves, on the contrary, are secondary biotopes of these animals. Caves which contain marine water are described as ecostystem "Thalassotroglon" in their relation to "limnotroglon" (= "stygotroglon"). In this why the contact between "limnospeology" and "thalassospeology" is established, and the limnic and marine microcavernal biotopes; "thalassopsammal" and "thalassopsephal"; are also taken in consideration. "Limnospeology" and "thalassospeology" as limnological and thalassological investigations of subsoil water are characterized as biological fields of work, which serve for the investigation of an ecological unit.

A Review of the Available Methods for Tracing Underground Waters, 1968, Drew D. P.

Ecology, systematics and distribution of two sympatric in North-Germany living Bathynella species (Crustacea, Syncarida)., 1968, Husmann Siegfried
The sympatric occurrence of two bathynellids previously considered races of Bathynella natans; natans and stammeri; is evaluated as a natural ecological-genetic experiment. Since no hybrids appear in mixed populations, these forms are proven to be full species: Bathynella natans Vejdovsky and Bathynella stammeri (Jakobi). Besides the form of the mandibles, which until now was the only taxonomically useful diagnostic character in the genus Bathynella, 7 additional, suitably applicable morphological characters have been found (Table 3). The Bathynella biotope investigated is assigned to the "eustygopsammal" subterranean life province (Husmann 1966), which is associated with the "Parastenocaris-Bathynella" biocoenosis (Husmann 1962). This particular biocoenosis is evidently resistant to organic pollution of ground water. The sympatric existence of Bathynella natans and B.stammeri can be explained by consideration of the geo-limnological developmental history of the interstitial zone of the North German low plain. Sands and gravels were widely deposited in the North German Basin by northward-retreating glaciers, creating microcavernous living space and passages for the interstitial fauna. This microfauna could find passages in layers of sand under and along the northward-flowing streams. Primitive Ice-Age streams (,,Urstromtler" of Keilhack) formed east-to-west cross-connections between the south-north distributional corridors. The great geographical expansion of the tributary river courses which reached the north German plain before, during, and after the Ice Age suggests that ground water habitats were temporarily separated and later rejoined by orogenic movements of the earth's surface. Such an orogenically caused, geomorphological isolation lasting for a sufficiently long geological period could have led to the result that species, originating in isolation from the same phylogenetic stock, subsequently were brought together again in the same biotope. This is particularly true for bathynellids, which as archaic types (Lebensformtypen) of the ancient, extreme "mesopsammal" biotope (Remane) are quite likely to have become sympatric in such a manner.

Ecology, systematics and distribution of two sympatric in North-Germany living Bathynella species (Crustacea, Syncarida)., 1968, Husmann Siegfried
The sympatric occurrence of two bathynellids previously considered races of Bathynella natans; natans and stammeri; is evaluated as a natural ecological-genetic experiment. Since no hybrids appear in mixed populations, these forms are proven to be full species: Bathynella natans Vejdovsky and Bathynella stammeri (Jakobi). Besides the form of the mandibles, which until now was the only taxonomically useful diagnostic character in the genus Bathynella, 7 additional, suitably applicable morphological characters have been found (Table 3). The Bathynella biotope investigated is assigned to the "eustygopsammal" subterranean life province (Husmann 1966), which is associated with the "Parastenocaris-Bathynella" biocoenosis (Husmann 1962). This particular biocoenosis is evidently resistant to organic pollution of ground water. The sympatric existence of Bathynella natans and B.stammeri can be explained by consideration of the geo-limnological developmental history of the interstitial zone of the North German low plain. Sands and gravels were widely deposited in the North German Basin by northward-retreating glaciers, creating microcavernous living space and passages for the interstitial fauna. This microfauna could find passages in layers of sand under and along the northward-flowing streams. Primitive Ice-Age streams (,,Urstromtler" of Keilhack) formed east-to-west cross-connections between the south-north distributional corridors. The great geographical expansion of the tributary river courses which reached the north German plain before, during, and after the Ice Age suggests that ground water habitats were temporarily separated and later rejoined by orogenic movements of the earth's surface. Such an orogenically caused, geomorphological isolation lasting for a sufficiently long geological period could have led to the result that species, originating in isolation from the same phylogenetic stock, subsequently were brought together again in the same biotope. This is particularly true for bathynellids, which as archaic types (Lebensformtypen) of the ancient, extreme "mesopsammal" biotope (Remane) are quite likely to have become sympatric in such a manner.

Hydrology of carbonate rock terranes -- A review , : With special reference to the United States, 1969, Stringfield V. T. , Legrand H. E. ,
Limestone and other carbonate rocks are characterized by many unusual features and extreme conditions, either involving the hydrologic system within them or wrought by hydrologic conditions on them or through them. Perhaps there could be little agreement as to what is typical or average for the many features of carbonate rocks, as indicated by the following conditions: bare rock and thin soils are common, but so are thick soils; very highly permeable limestones are common, but so are poorly permeable ones; and rugged karst topographic features with underlying solution caverns are common, but so are flat, nearly featureless topographic conditions. Some conditions of carbonate terranes are suitable to man's needs and interests, such as the use of some permeable aquifers for water supply and the exploitation of caves for tourist attractions. On the other hand, many problems may exist, including: permeability too low for adequate water supply or so high that the aquifer retains too little water for use during periods of fair weather, soils too thin for growing of crops and for adequate filtration of wastes near the ground surface, instability of the ground for buildings and foundations in sinkhole areas, and unusually rugged topography. Some of the many variable conditions are readily observable, but others can be determined only by careful geologic and hydrologic studies.The need for knowing the specific geologic and hydrologic conditions at various places in limestone terranes, as well as the variations in hydrologic conditions with changing conditions and time, has resulted in many published reports on local areas and on special topical problems of limestone hydrology. Many of these reports have been used to advantage by the present writers in preparing this paper.The concept that secondary permeability is developed by circulation of water through openings with the accompanying enlargement of these openings by solution is now universally accepted in limestone terranes. Emphasis is placed on the hydrogeologic framework, or structural setting, in relation to the ease or difficulty of water to move from a source of recharge, through a part of the limestone, to a discharge area. Parts of the limestone favored by circulating ground water tend to develop solution openings, commonly in the upper part of the zone of saturation; as base level is lowered (sea level or perennial stream level), the related water table lowers in the limestone leaving air-filled caverns above the present zone of saturation in sinkhole areas. Reconstruction of the geologic and hydrologic history of a limestone area aids in determining the extent of development and the positions of fossil and present permeability. References are made to the hydrology of many limestone regions, especially those of the United States

Two new Monolistrinae (Crustacea, Isopoda) of underground waters of Croatia., 1971, Deelemanreinhold C. L.
A new subspecies and a new species are described: Monolistra (Monolistra) caeca meridionalis nov. subspec. was found in three caves in the northern part of Croatia, Yougoslavia. It is distinguishable from the typical form principally by the thin, acuminate form of the protuberance of the protopodite of the IInd male peraeopod, by the endopodite of the Ist pleopod which bears 3-4 setae (1-2 in M. c. caeca), by the somewhat wider endopodite of the IIIrd pleopod and by the shorter, only slightly curved uropods. A sketch shows the situation of 6 newly discovered localities in northern Croatia, 3 of the typical form and three of the new subspecies. Microtistra sketi is the 6th species known of its genus and lives in a cave, in stagnant water of a periodic spring, tributary to the river Gacka in Croatia. The number (three pairs), and the length of the spines of the carapace and the pointedness of the epimers of the pereion are intermediate between those of the spiny forms living in Slovenia and the tubercular species M. pretneri Sket from Dalmatia and M. schottlaenderi (Stammer) from the vicinity of Trieste.

Stenasellus skopljensis thermalis ssp. n. (Crustacea, Isopoda) of a hot spring in Bosnia., 1971, Lattingerpenko Romana, Mestrov Milan
The new subspecies Stenasellus skopljensis thermalis, from Banja Luka (Bosnie, Yugoslavia) is described. From the ecological point of view this form differs from the others because it inhabits underground waters of elevated temperature (240C). Another constantly abundant species, St. hungaricus thermalis Mestrov, also occurs in Yugoslavia under the same ecological conditions, in the warm springs of Podsused near Zagreb. This indicates that these underground waters at elevated temperature are not accidental but preferred habitats for these forms, and confirms once again that thermal waters of this type are the biotopes-refuges in which certain relic forms are retained.

Two new Monolistrinae (Crustacea, Isopoda) of underground waters of Croatia., 1971, Deelemanreinhold C. L.
A new subspecies and a new species are described: Monolistra (Monolistra) caeca meridionalis nov. subspec. was found in three caves in the northern part of Croatia, Yougoslavia. It is distinguishable from the typical form principally by the thin, acuminate form of the protuberance of the protopodite of the IInd male peraeopod, by the endopodite of the Ist pleopod which bears 3-4 setae (1-2 in M. c. caeca), by the somewhat wider endopodite of the IIIrd pleopod and by the shorter, only slightly curved uropods. A sketch shows the situation of 6 newly discovered localities in northern Croatia, 3 of the typical form and three of the new subspecies. Microtistra sketi is the 6th species known of its genus and lives in a cave, in stagnant water of a periodic spring, tributary to the river Gacka in Croatia. The number (three pairs), and the length of the spines of the carapace and the pointedness of the epimers of the pereion are intermediate between those of the spiny forms living in Slovenia and the tubercular species M. pretneri Sket from Dalmatia and M. schottlaenderi (Stammer) from the vicinity of Trieste.

Stenasellus skopljensis thermalis ssp. n. (Crustacea, Isopoda) of a hot spring in Bosnia., 1971, Lattingerpenko Romana, Mestrov Milan
The new subspecies Stenasellus skopljensis thermalis, from Banja Luka (Bosnie, Yugoslavia) is described. From the ecological point of view this form differs from the others because it inhabits underground waters of elevated temperature (240C). Another constantly abundant species, St. hungaricus thermalis Mestrov, also occurs in Yugoslavia under the same ecological conditions, in the warm springs of Podsused near Zagreb. This indicates that these underground waters at elevated temperature are not accidental but preferred habitats for these forms, and confirms once again that thermal waters of this type are the biotopes-refuges in which certain relic forms are retained.

Seminar on Karst Denudation - An accurate method for calculating Saturation Levels of Ground Waters with respect to Calcite and Dolomite, 1972, Jacobson R. L. , Langmuir D.

Two new cavernicolous Stenasellidae of Central America: Mexistenasellus parzefalli n. sp. Et Mexistenasellus wilkensi n. sp. (Crustacea Isopoda Asellota)., 1972, Magniez Guy
Description of the females of two new species of the family Stenasellidae (anophthalmous and unpigmented Asellota from underground waters). They were found in a little cave of San-Luis Potosi state (Mexico).

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