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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That producers is green plants, the basic link in any food chain; by means of photosynthesis, green plants manufacture the food on which all other living things ultimately depend. they are available in the cave community only in the twilight zone, or as debris that falls or washes in. a few types of bacteria also manufacture food from nonliving substances and therefore serve as producers in some cave communities [23]. see also consumer.?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for alabama (Keyword) returned 28 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 28 of 28
A New Troglobitic Crayfish of the Genus Orconectes, Subgenus Orconectes (Decapoda: Cambaridae), Endemic to Shelta Cave, Huntsville, Alabama, 1997, Cooper, J. E. , Cooper, M. R.
Orconectes (Orconectes) sheltae is a new species of troglobitic crayfish endemic to Shelta Cave, Huntsville, Alabama, where it is the smallest and rarest member of a subterranean crayfish triad that includes O. (O.) a. australis and Cambarus (A.) jonesi. The new species may be distinguished from all other members of the subgenus by a combination of: (1) the absence of first pleopods in the female, (2) a broad median trough in the annulus, (3) the narrow, elongate chela of the cheliped, with its very long palm and subvertical orientation, (4) the length, conformation, and orientation of the terminal elements of the form I male gonopod (first pleopod), and (5) the lack of prominent spines on the mesial margin of the carpus. The mature oocytes of O. sheltae are large and few (8-12), and the young at recruitment may be larger than those of O. a. australis and C. jonesi

A Summary of Diversity and Distribution of the Obligate Cave-inhabiting Faunas of the United States and CanadaStewart, 1998, Peck, S. B.
A summary is given of families, genera, species numbers, and state distributions of the obligate subterranean (cave and groundwater) faunas of the contiguous United States and Canada. A total of 425 aquatic and 928 terrestrial species (1353 species in all) is now known. Total genus level diversity is greatest (in descending order) in the states of Texas, Alabama, Kentucky, Tennessee and Virginia. This genus and species richness is vulnerable to a variety of land use and pollution problems

Simulating time-varying cave flow and water levels using the Storm Water Management Model, 2002, Campbell Cw, Sullivan Sm,
The Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is an Environmental Protection Agency code used to estimate runoff through storm water drainage systems that include channels, pipes, and manholes with storage. SWMM was applied to simulate flow and water level changes with time for a part of Stephens Gap Cave in Jackson County, Alabama. The goal of the simulation was to estimate losses from a surface stream to the cave. The cave has three entrances that can remove water from the surface stream. These entrances connect through several passages to an 8-m (27-ft) high waterfall in a dome room. After a storm, the walls of this dome room had leaves on the wall as high as 4.6 m (15 ft) above the floor. The model showed that the height of the leaves did not represent a water level that could have occurred following any recent storm.Campbell, Livingston and Garza in 1997 developed the CLG model to estimate losses from karst surface streams. This model treats losses as pipe flow from a reservoir and gives the loss flow rate as ~h0.5 where h is the depth of flow in the surface stream. Losses to Stephens Gap Cave calculated with SWMM varied as h1.8. This depth dependence is more characteristic of flow over a weir than of pipe flow.The SWMM-calculated losses to Stephens Gap Cave showed no hysteresis, that is, the rising and falling limbs of the stage-discharge plot followed the same curve. Loss curves with significant hysteresis are difficult to simulate with simple models such as CLG or a weir flow model. However, an SWMM model of a simple hypothetical cave demonstrated that storage in Stephens Gap Cave is far below that required to cause hysteresis. Losses from many karst surface streams can probably be adequately estimated with a calibrated weir flow model. The utility of SWMM for analyzing cave flows was established. SWMM produced stable solutions with very low continuity errors for this cave

Engineering approaches to conditions created by a combination of karst and faulting at a hospital in Birmingham, Alabama, 2002, Cooley T,
Foundations for a major expansion and modification of a multistory hospital in Birmingham, AL, were founded on faulted and karst-dissolutioned dolomite. The foundation approach had to accommodate a high degree of uncertainty concerning local conditions due to limited access for exploration and extremely variable rock conditions. The scope of the construction included excavation of a subbasement into rock with associated tiebacks to support adjacent foundations, installation of rock-bearing shear walls and rock anchors under the existing hospital, and installation of rock-bearing caissons and wall foundations outside the existing hospital. Local complications included areas of highly shattered rock, a generally pinnacled rock surface with average relief of 3-6 m (10-20 ft), locally very deep cutters and pits, areas where dolomite was weathered to sand or weak rock up to 3 m (10 ft) thick, and pockets of flowing sand and mud near the rock surface. Because of the complexity of site conditions and limited initial access to the site, on-site geotechnical services required innovative approaches to gather additional information on the highly variable and ambiguous rock conditions and adapt detailed foundation design and foundation approaches to the actual conditions encountered. These approaches included triple-tube coring of shattered rock at selected caisson locations; development of a technique for installation of rock anchors into shattered rock, determination of required undercut depths, and remediation at individual foundations where rock was shattered, disaggregated, or steeply pinnacled; characterization of individual cutters by airtrack probing for remediation information in wall foundations; low-angle coring for cutter characterization in the tieback area; change in foundations from walls to caissons or caissons to mat foundations in select areas; and above all, careful judgment-based design. Limitations of characterization methods are also discussed. A fundamental understanding of karst processes and three-dimensional conceptualization was an essential part of the engineering required for this project. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Geochemical methods for distinguishing surface water from groundwater in the Knox Aquifer System, 2002, Redwine J. C. , Howell J. R. ,
The Knox Group, a thick package of Cambro-Ordovician rocks, occurs over a wide geographic area in the southeastern US. Characteristics of the Knox Group include strong structural control on porosity and permeability, deep near-vertical solution features, great depth of water circulation, dolomite, as well as limestone, hosting the karstic features, and extreme anistropy and heterogeneity. In this study, geochemical methods were used to distinguish ambient groundwater, in the Knox aquifer from surface water, specifically, water leaking from the Logan Martin resevoir in east-central Alabama. Major cations and anions, as well as stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen, were used to distinguish lake water from groundwater, and to determine mixed waters. Lake water and groundwater components for mixed waters were calculated, and mapped in plan view. A relatively narrow zone of mixing occurs in the vicinity of Logan Martin dam in map view, which is consistent with the hydrogological conceptual model of deep near-vertical solution-widened fractures (fissures), oriented east-norteast and to a lesser extent north-west, in a much less permeable dolomite matrix

BIOLOGICAL MONITORING IN CAVES, 2002, Culver David C. , Sket Boris

In 1999, we described the twenty caves and karst wells that have 20 or more species of obligate cave organisms living in them. Among these caves five are developed as tourist caves &emdash; Postojna-Planina Cave System (Slovenia), Baget - Sainte Catherine System (France), Shelta Cave (Alabama, USA), Mammoth Cave (Kentucky, USA), and Vjetrenica Cave (Bosnia & Herzegovina). For these and other tourist caves, there is a special responsibility to protect this fauna. The very fact that caves with large numbers of visitors and with modifications to the cave can have high species diversity shows that the two are not incompatible. Many of the standard sampling techniques, may work in some caves only; they are of restricted use. Pollution may be either directly detrimental to the cave fauna or may enable surface species to outcompete the endemic cave fauna. Therefore, changes in the quantity of fauna have to be monitored as well as changes in its taxonomic composition. In the case of new tourist installations, the local cave and surface fauna has to be investigated prior to any modifications. For biological monitoring, we recommend one of the following: 1. minimum-time census, rather than minimum-area census; 2. baiting in both terrestrial and aquatic habitats; 3. pitfall traps (baited or unbaited) in terrestrial habitats.


Cadmium and zinc adsorption maxima of geochemically anomalous soils (Oxisols) in Jamaica, 2003, Davies Be, Vaughan J, Lalor Gc, Vutchkov M,
Soil samples were collected from a Miocene limestone area of Jamaica (Manchester Parish) where unusual accumulations of Cd and other metals have been described previously. The source of the metals is natural (geological). The soils are aluminous Oxisols and, geochemically, are closely similar to local karst bauxite deposits. For comparison a karst bauxite sample was collected from Alabama (USA) and an Ultisol sample from South Carolina (USA). All the Jamaican soils were in the pH range neutral to slightly alkaline and CaCO3 contents ranged from 1.3 to 23.1 %. Mean total Cd = 102.5 mg/kg (range 13.6-191.8 mg/kg) and mean Zn = 362.6 (range = 125.8-683.3) mg/kg. These values are higher than world averages. The mean readily exchangeable Cd was 0.05 (range 0.01-0.15) mmol/kg and for Zn mean = 0.02 (range 0.01-0.02) mmol/kg. Adsorption data were obtained experimentally and modelled using the Langmuir isotherm. For the Manchester soils the mean Cd adsorption maximum was 9.15 (range 2.26-32.0) mmol/kg; the values were higher than the karst bauxite sample (0.08 mmol/kg) or the Ultisol (0.08 mmol/kg). Reliable Zn isotherms were not obtained for all soils; for three Manchester soils the mean Zn sorption maximum was 2.99 mmol/kg compared with 3.13 mmol/kg for Cd in the same three soils. Mean Al and Fe values are 38.7% Al2O3 and 17.7% Fe2O3 compared with the Ultisol (14.5% Al2O3,11.3% Fe2O3) and the bauxite (52.6% Al2O3, 0.7%Fe2O3). Interpretation of the major element values and the known mineralogy of the soils implies that the high adsorption maxima of the Manchester soils can best be explained by their calcareous nature. It is concluded that the Manchester soils have ample adsorption capacity to trap any incoming Cd or Zn solutes

Dictyostelid cellular slime molds from caves., 2006, Landolt J. C. , Stephenson S. L. , Slay M. E.
Dictyostelid cellular slime molds associated with caves in Alabama, Arkansas, Indiana, Missouri, New York, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, West Virginia, Puerto Rico, and San Salvador in the Bahamas were investigated during the period of 1990-2005. Samples of soil material collected from more than 100 caves were examined using standard methods for isolating dictyostelids. At least 17 species were recovered, along with a number of isolates that could not be identified completely. Four cosmopolitan species (Dictyostelium sphaerocephalum, D. mucoroides, D. giganteum ac/Polysphondylium violaceumj and one species (D. rosariumj with a more restricted distribution were each recorded from more than 25 different caves, but three other species were present in more than 20 caves. The data generated in the present study were supplemented with all known published and unpublished records of dictyostelids from caves in an effort to summarize what is known about their occurrence in this habitat.

Evaluating the effectiveness of a fixed wellhead delineation: Regional case study, 2006, Hodgson J. Y. S. , Stoll J. R. , Stoll R. C. ,
The 1996 Safe Drinking Water Act amendments mandated that every state must determine the hydrogeologic origin of each public drinking water system and assess the degree to which each system may be adversely affected by potential sources of contamination. Wisconsin delineated and assessed one specific class of systems, transient noncommunity drinking water wells, with the least stringent standards of all governed system types. This study evaluates the effectiveness of Wisconsin's arbitrarily fixed radius approach used in determining susceptibility to potential contamination from 1,872 transient noncommunity ground water wells. Nearly 28 percent of the wells with contaminated water did not have any recorded potential sources of contamination within the delineation radii. Additionally, regression models derived from potential contaminant inventories within the delineation radii could not accurately predict actual incidences of water contamination. Differences between observed and expected frequencies of contamination further suggest that some transient noncommunity systems should probably be delineated with larger and more sophisticated methods that would account for varying geology and contaminant susceptibility. The majority of contamination cases without recorded potential sources of contamination within the delineation radii were in a karst area. Subsequently, the arbitrarily fixed radius delineation method should not be used in areas with karst aquifers

Escherichia coli, other Coliform, and Environmental Chemoheterotrophic Bacteria in Isolated Water Pools from Six Caves in Northern Alabama and Northwestern Georgia, 2011, J. W. Campbell, A. Watson, C. Watson, H. Ball, And R. Pirkle

Escherichia coli and other bacteria can be used as indicators of water quality within a cave ecosystem. However, bacterial species within caves have not been thoroughly documented, especially in the southeastern United States. Water from isolated pools was gathered along transects from six caves in northern Alabama and northwestern Georgia. We used cultivation techniques to isolate and characterize bacteria. Diversity of coliforms and some environmental genera were determined for each cave, and abundance was determined for E. coli and other coliforms. Distance from the entrance in most caves did not statistically correlate with abundance or species richness of bacteria. A total of fifty bacterial species and one fungal species were isolated from the six caves, with over half of these species considered potentially pathogenic in humans. Some species isolated, such as Vibrio alginolyticus and V. fluvialis, are considered primarily marine and are not expected isolates of cave waters. Most of the species we isolated have never been reported from limestone cave ecosystems. Overall, coliforms were found in all tested caves, indicating fecal contamination of all six caves.


Observations on the biology of the endangered stygobiotic shrimp Palaemonias alabamae, with notes on P. ganteri (Decapoda: Atyidae), 2011, Martha Cooper, John Cooper

Palaemonias alabamae is endemic to subterranean waters in northern Alabama. Its type locality is Shelta Cave, Madison County, and ostensibly conspecifi c shrimps have been found in Bobcat and two other caves. Pollution and other factors may have extirpated the shrimp from the type locality. In Shelta Cave the species is smaller than the shrimp in Bobcat Cave and P. ganteri in Mammoth Cave, Kentucky. Adult female P. alabamae(s.s.) and P. ganteri are larger than males. Female P. alabamae with visible oocytes or, rarely, attached ova, were observed from July through January in Shelta Cave. Each female there produces 8 to 12 large ova, whereas females of the population in Bobcat Cave produce 20 to 24 ova, and P. ganteri produces 14 to 33 ova. Plankton samples taken in Shelta and Mammoth caves yielded nothing identifi able as zoea or postlarvae.Palaemonias alabamae and P. ganteri usually feed by fi ltering bottom sediments through their mouthparts, but both sometimes feed upside down at the water’s surface. Although there is some overlap, the compositions of the aquatic communities in Shelta and Mammoth caves differ, and there are some major differences among the Alabama shrimp caves. The stygobiotic fi sh, Typhlichthys subterraneus, is a known predator on P. alabamae in Shelta Cave.


Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) from caves in Alabama and Georgia, USA, 2011, R. Henry Disney, Joshua Campbell

Four species of scuttle fl y are reported from caves in Alabama and Georgia.


The current status of mapping karst areas and availability of public sinkhole-risk resources in karst terrains of the United States, 2015,

Subsidence from sinkhole collapse is a common occurrence in areas underlain by water-soluble rocks such as carbonate and evaporite rocks, typical of karst terrain. Almost all 50 States within the United States (excluding Delaware and Rhode Island) have karst areas, with sinkhole damage highest in Florida, Texas, Alabama, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Pennsylvania. A conservative estimate of losses to all types of ground subsidence was $125 million per year in 1997. This estimate may now be low, as review of cost reports from the last 15 years indicates that the cost of karst collapses in the United States averages more than $300 million per year. Knowing when a catastrophic event will occur is not possible; however, understanding where such occurrences are likely is possible. The US Geological Survey has developed and main-tains national-scale maps of karst areas and areas prone to sinkhole formation. Several States provide additional resources for their citizens; Alabama, Colorado, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and Pennsylvania maintain databases of sinkholes or karst features, with Florida, Kentucky, Missouri, and Ohio providing sinkhole reporting mechanisms for the public.


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