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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That coupole is (french.) cupola or hemispheric hill [10].?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for environments (Keyword) returned 298 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 298
Messinian event in the black sea, 1979, Hsu Kenneth J. , Giovanoli Federico,
Three holes were drilled during the 1975 DSDP Leg 42B drilling the Black Sea. A section from Hole 380, at 2107 m water depth on the western edge of the abyssal plain, is 1074 m thick, and provides the most complete stratigraphic section. Dating of the sediments is based upon (1) fossil evidence from pollen, crustaceans, benthic foraminifera, and diatoms, (2) correlation with climatic changes and with unusual isochronous events that have been dated elsewhere, (3) paleomagnetic data, and (4) estimates of sedimentation rate.The history of Black Sea sedimentation recorded by the DSDP cores includes black shale sedimentation during the Late Miocene, followed by periodic chemical sedimentation from Late Miocene to Early Quaternary, and a change to dominantly terrigenous sedimentation from the Middle Quaternary. These hemipelagic and turbiditic sediments were deposited in lacustrine and brackish marine environments. The Messinian sediments, however, consist of stromatolitic dolomite, oolitic sands, and coarse gravels, deposited in supratidal and intertidal environments. The intercalation of the shallow-water sediments in a deep-water sequence suggests a drastic lowering of the water-level within the Black Sea basin during the Messinian so that the edge of the present abyssal plain was then the edge of a shallow lake.The Messinian draw-down phase of the Black Sea was in existence for about 100,000 years during the Lago-Mare stage of the salinity crisis. The evaporated waters formed an alkaline lake before it was drowned by a brackish marine transgression correlative to the Trubi transgression of the Mediterranean

Cave and Landscape Evolution At Isaacs Creek, New South Wales, 1979, Connolly M. , Francis G.

Isaacs Creek Caves are situated in the Hunter Valley of New South Wales and form a distinct unit within the Timor karst region. The larger caves such as Man, Helictite and Belfry all show evidence of early development under sluggish phreatic conditions. Nevertheless later phases of dynamic phreatic and vadose development occurred in Belfry and Helictite caves. In the case of Helictite Cave sluggish phreatic, dynamic phreatic and vadose action may have operated simultaneously in different parts of the same cave. After each cave was drained through further valley incision by Isaacs Creek, extensive clay fills derived from surface soil were deposited in it. There has been considerable re-excavation of the fills; in Main Cave younger clay loams have partially filled the resulting cavities and thus underlie the older clays. The earliest speleogenesis took place in Main Cave which pre-dates the valley of Isaacs Creek. This cave now lies in the summit of Caves Ridge about 100m above the modern valley floor. Helictite and Shaft Caves formed when the valley had been cut down to within 30m of its present level and some early phreatic development also took place in the Belfry Cave at this time. Later phases of dynamic phreatic and vadose development in Belfry Cave occurred when the valley floor lay about 12m above its present level and can be correlated with river terraces at this height. Evidence from cave morphology, isotopic basalt dates and surfaces geomorphology indicates that Main Cave formed in the Cretaceous and that Helictite Cave, Shaft Cave and the early development in Belfry Cave date from the Palaeogene. Although the dynamic phreatic and vadose action in Belfry Cave is more recent, it may still range back into the Miocene. This is a much more ancient and extended chronology than has hitherto been proposed for limestone caves and is in conflict with widely accepted ideas about cave longevity. Nevertheless evidence from Isaacs Creek and other parts of the Hunter Valley indicates that the caves and landforms are ancient features and thus notions of cave longevity developed in younger geological environments of the northern hemisphere do not apply in the present context.

Geomorphology and Past Environments at Nombe Rockshelter, Simbu Province, Papua New Guinea, 1981, Gillieson David S. , Mountain Maryjane

The geomorphic development of a limestone rockshelter in the Chimbu region of New Guinea is outlined. The sedimentary sequence and associated artifactual material are described and related to regional chronology. Disturbance of the rockshelter deposits by seismic and erosive processes is indicated, and must be borne in mind when excavating and analysing material from similar sites.

Environmental Implications of Competitive Growth Fabrics in Stalactitic Carbonate., 1983, Broughton Paul L.
Competitive growth fabrics in stalactitic carbonate are not as widespread as commonly supposed. Most radial columnar crystals are attributed to the coalescence of a precursor crystallite mosaic comprised of syntaxial overgrowths. This secondary fabric is the consequence of carbonate precipitation from a thin water film. Competitive growth, however, is much rarer and arises from two contrasting environments: an influx of detritus interrupting carbonate precipitation, and cave flooding. Thick layers of impurities favour deposition of randomly oriented seed crystals on the growth surface. These result in competitive growth centres when the renewal of carbonate precipitation fails to have crystallographic allegience to the substrate. Competitive growth centres resulting in regularly spaced stellate arrays are favoured habits of fibrous aragonite. Competitive growth in calcite is more likely with conditions of cave flooding, when normal growth of syntaxial overgrowths is suppressed. This results in competitive growth between large terminations with planar faces.

Water chemistry of some karst environments in Norway, 1984, Bakalowicz M.

Phases d'effondrements aux grottes prhistoriques, du Wrm l'Holocne dans le Midi de la France, 1985, Blanc, J. J.
SEQUENCES OF COLLAPSES FROM WRM TO HOLOCENE IN PREHISTORIC CAVES (SOUTH-EAST OF FRANCE) - Multivariates methods (factorial and discriminant analysis) applied to many accurate stratigraphy and sedimentary sequences files deal just-dated cave-collapses observed into cavity and rock-shelters in the SE of France, show some detailed interpretations about the mechanism inducing the blocks-falls. This work places in a prominent position the various influences relative to cold climates and wet environments, degree of rock jointing of cave-walls and the sismo-tectonic impacts.

Shallow-marine carbonate facies and facies models, 1985, Tucker M. E. ,
Shallow-marine carbonate sediments occur in three settings: platforms, shelves and ramps. The facies patterns and sequences in these settings are distinctive. However, one type of setting can develop into another through sedimentational or tectonic processes and, in the geologic record, intermediate cases are common. Five major depositional mechanisms affect carbonate sediments, giving predictable facies sequences: (1) tidal flat progradation, (2) shelf-marginal reef progradation, (3) vertical accretion of subtidal carbonates, (4) migration of carbonate sand bodies and (5) resedimentation processes, especially shoreface sands to deeper subtidal environments by storms and off-shelf transport by slumps, debris flows and turbidity currents. Carbonate platforms are regionally extensive environments of shallow subtidal and intertidal sedimentation. Storms are the most important source of energy, moving sediment on to shoreline tidal flats, reworking shoreface sands and transporting them into areas of deeper water. Progradation of tidal flats, producing shallowing upward sequences is the dominant depositional process on platforms. Two basic types of tidal flat are distinguished: an active type, typical of shorelines of low sediment production rates and high meteorologic tidal range, characterized by tidal channels which rework the flats producing grainstone lenses and beds and shell lags, and prominent storm layers; and a passive type in areas of lower meteorologic tidal range and higher sediment production rates, characterized by an absence of channel deposits, much fenestral and cryptalgal peloidal micrite, few storm layers and possibly extensive mixing-zone dolomite. Fluctuations in sea-level strongly affect platform sedimentation. Shelves are relatively narrow depositional environments, characterized by a distinct break of slope at the shelf margin. Reefs and carbonate sand bodies typify the turbulent shelf margin and give way to a shelf lagoon, bordered by tidal flats and/or a beach-barrier system along the shoreline. Marginal reef complexes show a fore-reef--reef core--back reef facies arrangement, where there were organisms capable of producing a solid framework. There have been seven such phases through the Phanerozoic. Reef mounds, equivalent to modern patch reefs, are very variable in faunal composition, size and shape. They occur at shelf margins, but also within shelf lagoons and on platforms and ramps. Four stages of development can be distinguished, from little-solid reef with much skeletal debris through to an evolved reef-lagoon-debris halo system. Shelf-marginal carbonate sand bodies consist of skeletal and oolite grainstones. Windward, leeward and tide-dominated shelf margins have different types of carbonate sand body, giving distinctive facies models. Ramps slope gently from intertidal to basinal depths, with no major change in gradient. Nearshore, inner ramp carbonate sands of beach-barrier-tidal delta complexes and subtidal shoals give way to muddy sands and sandy muds of the outer ramp. The major depositional processes are seaward progradation of the inner sand belt and storm transport of shoreface sand out to the deep ramp. Most shallow-marine carbonate facies are represented throughout the geologic record. However, variations do occur and these are most clearly seen in shelf-margin facies, through the evolutionary pattern of frame-building organisms causing the erratic development of barrier reef complexes. There have been significant variations in the mineralogy of carbonate skeletons, ooids and syn-sedimentary cements through time, reflecting fluctuations in seawater chemistry, but the effect of these is largely in terms of diagenesis rather than facies

Histoplasmosis and Australian Cave Environments, 1985, Harden T. J. , Hunt P. J.

Histoplasma Capsulatum is a fungus which is the causative agent of histoplasmosis, a disease of worldwide distribution. The prevalence of this disease and its manifestation in clinical cases of disease in humans are described. The association of this fungus with dung enriched soil is discussed, particularly in relation to caves which are frequented by colonial bats. Histoplasma capsulatum has been associated on several occasions with the respiratory form of Histoplasmosis in Australia but has only been isolated from the Church Cave. It is suggested that although Histoplasma capsulatum in Australia has been found in association with only Miniopterus schreibersii, other genera of bats may also harbour this fungus.

Pseudosinella revisited (Collembola, Entomobryinae), 1988, Christiansen Kenneth, Moberg Thomas
Eight controversies are active in the study of macroevolution. These are: 1) the meaning of the term macroevolution, 2) the role of chance, 3) the role of stasis and gradualism, 4) whether significant change Is Iimited to speciation events, 5) the environmental conditions where macroevolutionary change occurs, 6) whether Neodarwinian mechanisms are adequate to explain change, 7) the existence and nature of hierarchical evolutonary processes, and 8) Darwin's views about all this. After a brief examination of each of these issues we used the extensive data available for 9 species of European and Nearctic cave Pseudosinella to examine the third, fourth and fifth controversies mentioned above. Our conclusions are that while we are unable to demonstrate ongoing directional selection, we have clear evidence that significant adaptive change is not limited to speciation events. It does however appear that the amount of adaptive change is greater in the process of speciation than in between. We also show that there is no evidence for clear periods of stasis in the evolution of these forms. This leads us to a new model of the macroevolutionary process combining features of gradualism and punctuated equilibrium. We also showed that evolutionary change Is not associated with unstable environments but rather with more stable ones.

Lascaux 1988, une grotte orne, un fac simile et... 400 000 visiteurs par an, 1989, Vouve J. , Brunet J. , Vidal P.
Lascaux 1988, a hill, an ornated cave, a fac-simile and... 400,000 tourists every year - We have wished to give in this note some results of researches realised between 1963 and 1988 (geological study, indirect discovery of cave development, hydrogeological and climatological subterranean environments). These works were undertaken in order to save the paintings, which are suffering from the attacks of bacteria and chemical deposits. The recent human aggression is dependent since 1983 on the use of the ground of the hill after the opening of the fac-simile. This human aggression has shown us new dangers and has obliged us to study a different workmanship to protect the surficial and underground environments around the cave.

Chemical hydrogeology in natural and contaminated environments, 1989, Back W, Baedecker Mj,
Chemical hydrogeology, including organic and inorganic aspects, has contributed to an increased understanding of groundwater flow systems, geologic processes, and stressed environments. Most of the basic principles of inorganic-chemical hydrogeology were first established by investigations of organic-free, regional-scale systems for which simplifying assumptions could be made. The problems of groundwater contamination are causing a shift of emphasis to microscale systems that are dominated by organic-chemical reactions and that are providing an impetus for the study of naturally occurring and manmade organic material. Along with the decrease in scale, physical and chemical heterogeneity become major controls.Current investigations and those selected from the literature demonstrate that heterogeneity increases in importance as the study site decreases from regional-scale to macroscale to microscale. Increased understanding of regional-scale flow systems is demonstrated by selection of investigations of carbonate and volcanic aquifers to show how application of present-day concepts and techniques can identify controlling chemical reactions and determine their rates; identify groundwater flow paths and determine flow velocity; and determine aquifer characteristics. The role of chemical hydrogeology in understanding geologic processes of macroscale systems is exemplified by selection of investigations in coastal aquifers. Phenomena associated with the mixing zone generated by encroaching sea water include an increase in heterogeneity of permeability, diagenesis of minerals, and formation of geomorphic features, such as caves, lagoons, and bays. Ore deposits of manganese and uranium, along with a simulation model of ore-forming fluids, demonstrate the influence of heterogeneity and of organic compounds on geochemical reactions associated with genesis of mineral deposits. In microscale environments, importance of heterogeneity and consequences of organic reactions in determining the distributions and concentrations cf. constituents are provided by several studies, including infiltration of sewage effluent and migration of creosote in coastal plain aquifers. These studies show that heterogeneity and the dominance of organically controlled reactions greatly increase the complexity of investigations

Laboratory studies of predatory behaviour in two subspecies of the Carabid cave beetle: Neaphaenops tellkampfi., 1990, Griffith David M.
Comparative studies on the foraging behaviour of Neaphaenops tellkampfi tellkampfi and N. t. meridionalis demonstrated adaptation to different environments. The southern subspecies N. t. meridionalis, which is found in wet muddy caves where cave cricket eggs are unlikely prey, did not locate buried cricket eggs and dug fewer and less accurate holes in the lab than the nominate subspecies. N. t. tellkampfi, which reaches high densities in sandy deep cave environments where cricket eggs are the only viable prey, gained significantly greater weight than meridionalis when presented buried cricket eggs as prey. There was no difference with respect to weight change between the subspecies in the presence of Ptomaphagus larvae. N. t. meridionalis gained weight at a significantly greater rate than the nominate subspecies with enchytraeid worms as prey. Enchytraeid worms represent the natural prey most likely to be encountered by N. t. meridionalis. 25% of beetle holes were dug deep enough to potentially located buried cricket eggs. Since Hubbell and Nortons' morphological data on the relationship between cricket ovipositor length and beetle predation have some problems with sample sizes and minor assumptions I conclude that there are no unequivocal data that support the possibility of coevolution between Neaphaenops and Hadenoecus.

Differences in the fracture type of limestone rocks have resulted in the formation of several main plant soil ecosystems in the montane and subalpine zones of the Jura (800-1 700 m). The sites were on stable landscape with slope < 5%. Locations were chosen to reflect the variation in physical properties of the bedrock and lithic contact. The rock fractures (densities and size), the shape and size of the fragments and the hydraulic conductivities were described and analyzed to characterize the 3 main bedrocks in the area studied (table 1): 1), lapiaz, ie, large rock fragments separated from each other by wide fractures (figs 1-2), 'broken' rocks traversed by numerous fine fractures (fig 2-3), paving-stones crossed by infrequent narrow fractures (fig 3). The effects of rock fracturing on vegetation (table II) and soil formation were significant in reference to porosity and permeability relationships (figs 6-7). Under similar precipitation, meteoric waters flow through the soil and porosity is relative to fracture systems (figs 4, 5). The weathering of cobbles in the soil profiles and along the lithic contacts maintains different soil solution Ca levels and is an important variable in soil and ecosystem formation (table III). Regarding the regional orogenic phases and the tectonic origin of the fractures, we postulate that the different types of fracturation originated from the different chemical and mineralogic composition of the rocks. Significant differences exist in both the calcite and dolomite content, in the insoluble residue content (table IV) and in the percentage of organic matter of the carbonate-free residues (table V, fig 8). The results indicate that the differences in rock composition arose early at about the period of sedimentation. The origin of the differentiation might be due to the sedimentation conditions and environment (fig 9). It is concluded that the present-day plant soil ecosystems may be related to the marine sediment environments of the Jurassic period (fig 10)

In the valleys of southeastern France, below karst massifs, river deposits with travertines show vertical sedimentary sequences always similar, with, from bottom to top: gravels, silts, chalks, travertines s.s. (stromatolitic encrustations with laminated facies), travertinous sand, silts. The study of flora and fauna fossilized by these formations shows a good correlation between the maximum of carbonate deposition (travertinous facies s.s.) and the optimum of vegetation development (forest). And finally, behind calcareous dams edified by travertine, paludal and lacustrine fields are environments developed trapping diversified sediments (clays, peats, silts,...). Then, dam and lake are forming a unit that we can call a 'travertine system'

The Hammam Zriba mine is located in a lenticular horst structure, of varying width (0.3 to 1 km) and NNW-SSE strike over about 3 kms. The mineralization is strata-bound at the top of massive Portlandian limestones and is overlain by embedded Middle to Upper Campanian limestones with marl intercalations. This horst has formed during the late Jurassic as an emerged block bound by major faults that were remobilized later during various deformation stages. These facts are clearly documented by field observations and tectonic analysis essentially along the N160-N180 trending faults in the Portlandian lithofacies. These fractures have also controlled the palaeomorphological framework of the uppermost part of the Portlandian massive facies. The overlying Campanian unit exhibits onlap structures that rest on the irregular eroded karstified and mineralized surface which forms a screen surface for the upward channelized fluids and mineral formations in karst and graben. Fluids were apparently channelized by faults trending N070-N090 and N160-180, a few hundred metres long, that have facilitated karst, dissolution and mineral deposition during tectonic events

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