Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That rainfall intensity is the volume or depth of rainfall per unit time [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

What is Karstbase?

Search KARSTBASE:

keyword
author

Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for apulia (Keyword) returned 31 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 31
On Ra-226 and Rn-222 concentrations in the brackish waters of coastal aquifers: lab-investigations and confirmation in the carbonate aquifer of Brindisi (Italy), 2005, Spizzico M. , Sciannamblo D. ,
The ground waters circulating in the Apulian mesozoic carbonate aquifer, of coastal type, show high concentrations of Rn-222 everywhere. Considering their variation during the different phases of a hydrological year, such high concentration values can reach activity of 20 Bq/L, in the more internal zones of the aquifer. Moreover, it is often observed that, in correspondence of wells and springs nearest the coast, the concentrations of radioactive gas reach values greater than 400 Bq/L and vary considerably during the course of a day and with withdrawals. The research carried out over the last few years, has confirmed that Ra-226 and Rn-222 concentrations in the karst groundwater of Apulia, are mainly related to the occurrence of 'Terra Rossa' inside the aquifer and the capacity of these paleosols to fix the salts of Ra-226 coming from the dissolution of the calcareous and calcareous-dolomitic rocks. This paper shows the results of the analysis performed to define Rn-222 increase in the brackish waters that come in contact with carbonate rocks and 'terra rossa'. It also indicates the results of surveys performed in a coastal zone with well-known hydrogeological features. The controls performed during one hydrological year, have confirmed the relationships between the salt content of the ground waters and the enrichment of Rn-222 and have highlighted that the manner of increase of this radioisotope is related to cases of ionic exchange and adsorption regulated by the dynamics of marine intrusion

Radium and radon content in the carbonate-rock aquifer of the southern Italian region of Apulia, 2005, Michele Spizzico,

The influence of the geological setting on the morphogenetic evolution of the Tremiti Archipelago (Apulia, Southeastern Italy), 2005, Andriani Gk, Walsh N, Pagliarulo R,
The Tremiti Archipelago (Southern Adriatic Sea), also called Insulae Diomedae from the name of the Greek hero who first landed there, is an area of high landscape and historical value. It is severely affected by significant geomorphologic processes dominated by mass movements along the coast that constitute the most important and unpredictable natural hazard for the population and cultural heritage. Coastal erosion is favoured by the peculiar geological and structural setting, seismic activity, weathering, development of karst processes, and wave action. The present paper reports on descriptive and qualitative evaluation of the factors controlling landslides and coastline changes based on medium-term in situ observation, detailed surface surveys at selected locations since 1995, and historic and bibliographic data. The Tremiti Archipelago is part of an active seismic area characterised by a shear zone separating two segments of the Adriatic microplate that have shown different behaviour and roll back rates in the subduction underneath the Apennines since middle Pleistocene. Although coastal morphology can be basically considered to be the result of wave action, the continual action of subaerial processes contributes effectively to the mechanism of shoreline degradation. Weathering mainly affects the marly calcisiltites and calcilutites of the Cretaccio Fm. and the friable and low cemented calcarenites and biomicrites of the San Nicola Fm. The cliffs are characterised by different types of failure such as lateral spreads, secondary topples, rock falls and slides. At the Isle of San Nicola, landslides are controlled by the contrast in competence, shear strength and stiffness between the Pliocene re-crystallised dolomitic calcarenites and calcisiltites and the Miocene marly calcilutites and calcisiltites. At the Isles of San Domino and Caprara rock falls are attributed to the undercutting of waves at the base of the cliffs

Evolution of the Adriatic carbonate platform: Palaeogeography, main events and depositional dynamics, 2005, Vlahovic I. , Tisljar J. , Velic I. , Maticec D. ,
The Adriatic Carbonate Platform (AdCP) is one of the largest Mesozoic carbonate platforms of the Perimediterranean region. Its deposits comprise a major part of the entire carbonate succession of the Croatian Karst (External or Outer) Dinarides, which is very thick (in places more than 8000 m), and ranges in age from the Middle Permian (or even Upper Carboniferous) to the Eocene. However, only deposits ranging from the top of the Lower Jurassic (Toarcian) to the top of the Cretaceous can be attributed to the AdCP (defined as an isolated palaeogeographical entity). Although the entire carbonate succession of the Karst Dinarides was deposited within carbonate platform environments, there were different types of carbonate platforms located in different palaeogeographical settings. Carboniferous to Middle Triassic mixed siliciclastic-carbonate deposits were accumulated along the Gondwanian margin, on a spacious epeiric carbonate platform. After tectonic activity, culminating by regional Middle Triassic volcanism recorded throughout Adria (the African promontory), a huge isolated carbonate Southern Tethyan Megaplatform (abbreviated as STM) was formed, with the area of the future AdCP located in its inner part. Tectonic disintegration of the Megaplatform during the middle to late Early Jurassic resulted in the establishment of several carbonate platforms (including the Adriatic, Apenninic and Apulian) separated by newly drowned deeper marine areas (including the Adriatic Basin as a connection between the Ionian and Belluno basins, Lagonero, Basin, and the area of the Slovenian and Bosnian troughs). The AdCP was characterised by predominantly shallow-marine deposition, although short or long periods of emergence were numerous, as a consequence of the interaction of synsedimentary tectonics and eustatic changes. Also, several events of temporary platform drowning were recorded, especially in the Late Cretaceous, when synsedimentary tectonics became stronger, leading up to the final disintegration of the AdCP. The thickness of deposits formed during the 125 My of the AdCP's existence is variable (between 3500 and 5000 m). The end of AdCP deposition was marked by regional emergence between the Cretaceous and the Palaeogene. Deposition during the Palaeogene was mainly controlled by intense synsedimentary tectonic deformation of the former platform area-some carbonates (mostly Eocene in age) were deposited on irregular ramp type carbonate platforms surrounding newly formed flysch basins, and the final uplift of the Dinarides reached its maximum in the Oligocene/Miocene. The Adriatic Carbonate Platform represents a part (although a relatively large and well-preserved one) of the broader shallow-water carbonate platform that extended from NE Italy to Turkey (although its continuity is somewhat debatable in the area near Albanian/Greece boundary). This large carbonate body, which was deformed mostly in the Cenozoic (including a significant reduction of its width), needs a specific name, and the Central Mediterranean Carbonate Platform is proposed (abbreviated to CMCP), although the local names (such as AdCP for its NW part) should be kept to enable easier communication, and to facilitate description of local differences in platform evolution,

Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst, 2005, Beck B. F.

Conference Proceedings

Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst Contains over 70 papers addressing karst topography which impacts water resources, waste disposal, foundation stability, and a multitude of other geotechnical and environmental issues. These papers were presented at the 10th Multidisciplinary Conference held September 24-28, 2005 in San Antonio, Texas and Sponsored by the Geo-Institute of ASCE, P. E. LaMoreaux & Associates, Inc. and Edwards Aquifer Authority. The goal of this conference was to share knowledge and experience among disciplines by emphasizing practical applications and case studies. This proceedings will benefit environmental and geotechnical engineers, and others involved in water resources, water disposal, and foundation stability issues.

Contents:

Application of Geophysical Logging Techniques for Multi-Channel Well Design and Installation in a Karst Aquifer (by Frank Bogle, ...)

Case Studies of Massive Flow Conduits in Karst Limestone (by Jim L. Lolcama)

A Case Study of the Samanalawewa Reservoir on the Walawe River in an Area of Karst in Sri Lanka (by K. Laksiri, ...)

Characterization and Water Balance of Internal Drainage Sinkholes (by Nico M. Hauwert, ...)

Characterization of Desert Karst Terrain in Kuwait and the Eastern Coastline of the Arabian Penninsula (by Waleed Abdullah, ...)

Characterization of a Sinkhole Prone Retention Pond Using Multiple Geophysical Surveys and Closely Spaced Borings (by Nick Hudyma, ...)

Combining Surface and Downhole Geophysical Methods to Identify Karst Conditions in North-Central Iowa (by J. E. Wedekind, ...)

Complexities of Flood Mapping in a Sinkhole Area (by C. Warren Campbell, P.E.)

Conceptualization and Simulation of the Edwards Aquifer, San Antonio Region, Texas (by R. J. Lindgren, ...)

Database Development and GIS Modeling to Develop a Karst Vulnerability Rating for I-66, Somerset to London, KY (by Michael A. Krokonko, ...)

Design and Construction of the Foundations for the Watauga Raw Water Intake Facility in Karstic Limestone near the City of Johnson City, TN (by Tony D. Canale, P.E., ...)

Detection of Three-Dimensional Voids in Karstic Ground (by Derek V. Morris, P.E., ...)

Development and Evolution of Epikarst in Mid-Continent US Carbonates (by Tony L. Cooley, P.E.)

Dye Tracing Sewage Lagoon Discharge in a Sandstone Karst, Askov, Minnesota (by Emmit Calvin Alexander, Jr., ...)

The Effectiveness of GPR in Sinkhole Investigations (by E. D. Zisman, P.E., ...)

Effects of Anthropogenic Modification of Karst Soil Texture on the Water Balance of ?Alta Murgia? (Apulia, Italy) (by F. Canora, ...)

Environmental Isotope Study on Recharge and Groundwater Residence Time in a covered Ordovician Carbonate Rock (by Zhiyuan Ma, ...)

Error and Technique in Fluorescent dye Tracing (by Chris Smart)

Essential Elements of Estimating Engineering Properties of Karst for Foundation Design (by Ramanuja Chari Kannan, P.E., Fellow, ASCE)

Estimating Grout Quantities for Residential Repairs in Central Florida Karst (by Larry D. Madrid, P.E., ...)

Evaluation of Groundwater Residence Time in a Karstic Aquifer Using Environmental Tracers: Roswell Artesian Basin, New Mexico (by Lewis Land)

Experience of Regional Karst Hazard and Risk Assessment in Russia (by A. L. Ragozin, ...)

Experimental Study of Physical Models for Sinkhole Collapses in Wuhan, China (by Mingtang Lei, ...)

Fractal Scaling of Secondary Porosity in Karstic Exposures of the Edwards Aquifer (by Robert E. Mace, ...)

The Geological Characteristics of Buried Karst and Its Impact on Foundations in Hong Kong, China (by Steve H. M. Chan, ...)

Geophysical Identification of Evaporite Dissolution Structures Beneath a Highway Alignment (by M. L. Rucker, ...)

Geotechnical Analysis in Karst: The Interaction between Engineers and Hydrogeologists (by R. C. Bachus, P.E.)

The Gray Fossil Site: A Spectacular Example in Tennessee of Ancient Regolith Occurrences in Carbonate Terranes, Valley and Ridge Subpovince, South Appalachians U.S.A. (by G. Michael Clark, ...)

Ground-Water Basin Catchment Delineation by Bye Tracing, Water Table Mapping, Cave Mapping, and Geophysical Techniques: Bowling Green Kentucky (by Nicholas C. Crawford)

Groundwater Flow in the Edwards Aquifer: Comparison of Groundwater Modeling and Dye Trace Results (by Brian A. Smith, ...)

Grouting Program to Stop Water Flow through Karstic Limestone: A Major Case History (by D. M. Maciolek)

Highway Widening in Karst (by M. Zia Islam, P.E., ...)

How Karst Features Affect Recharge? Implication for Estimating Recharge to the Edwards Aquifer (by Yun Huang, ...)

Hydrogeologic Investigation of Leakage through Sinkholes in the Bed of Lake Seminole to Springs Located Downstream from Jim Woodruff Dam (by Nicholas C. Crawford, ...)

The Hydrologic Function of the soil and Bedrock System at Upland Sinkholes in the Edwards Aquifer Recharge Zone of South-Central Texas (by A. L. Lindley)

An Integrated Geophysical Approach for a Karst Characterization of the Marshall Space Flight Center (by Lynn Yuhr, ...)

Integrated Geophysical Surveys Applied to Karstic Studies Over Transmission Lines in San Antonio, Texas (by Mustafa Saribudak, ...)

Judge Dillon and Karst: Limitations on Local Regulation of Karst Hazards (by Jesse J. Richardson, Jr.)

Karst Groundwater Resource and Advantages of its Utilization in the Shaanbei Energy Base in Shaanxi Province, China (by Yaoguo Wu, ...)

Karst Hydrogeology and the Nature of Reality Revisited: Philosophical Musings of a Less Frustrated Curmudgeon (by Emmit Calvin Alexander, Jr.)

Karst in Appalachia ? A Tangled Zone: Projects with Cave-Sized Voids and Sinkholes (by Clay Griffin, ...)

Karstic Features of Gachsaran Evaporites in the Region of Ramhormoz, Khuzestan Province, in Southwest Iran (by Arash Barjasteh)

Large Perennial Springs of Kentucky: Their Identification, Base Flow, Catchment, and Classification (by Joseph A. Ray, ...)

Large Plot Tracing of Subsurface Flow in the Edwards Aquifer Epikarst (by P. I. Taucer, ...)
Lithology as a Predictive Tool of Conduit Morphology and Hydrology in Environmental Impact Assessments (by George Veni)

Metadata Development for a Multi-State Karst Feature Database (by Yongli Gao, ...)

Micropiling in Karstic Rock: New CMFF Foundation Solution Applied at the Sanita Factory (by Marc Ballouz)

Modeling Barton Springs Segment of the Edwards Aquifer Using MODFLOW-DCM (by Alexander Y. Sun, ...)

Multi-Level Monitoring Well Completion Technologies and Their Applicability in Karst Dolomite (by Todd Kafka, ...)

National-Scale Risk Assessment of sinkhole Hazard in China (by Xiaozhen Jiang, ...)

New Applications of Differential Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Time Domain Reflectometry to Modeling Infiltration and Soil Moisture in Agricultural Sinkholes (by B. F. Schwartz, ...)

Non-Regulatory Approaches to Development on Karst (by Jesse J. Richardson, Jr., ...)

PA State Route 33 Over Bushkill Creek: Structure Failure and Replacement in an Active Sinkhole Environment (by Kerry W. Petrasic, P.E.)

Quantifying Recharge via Fractures in an Ashe Juniper Dominated Karst Landscape (by Lucas Gregory, ...)

Quantitative Groundwater Tracing and Effective Numerical Modeling in Karst: An Example from the Woodville Karst Plain of North Florida (by Todd R. Kincaid, ...)

Radial Groundwater Flow at Landfills in Karst (by J. E. Smith)

Residual Potential Mapping of Contaminant Transport Pathways in Karst Formations of Southern Texas (by D. Glaser, ...)

Resolving Sinkhole Issues: A State Government Perspective (by Sharon A. Hill)

Shallow Groundwater and DNAPL Movement within Slightly Dipping Limestone, Southwestern Kentucky (by Ralph O. Ewers, ...)

Sinkhole Case Study ? Is it or Isn?t it a Sinkhole? (by E. D. Zisman, P.E.)

Sinkhole Occurrence and Changes in Stream Morphology: An Example from the Lehigh Valley Pennsylvania (by William E. Kochanov)

Site Characterization and Geotechnical Roadway Design over Karst: Interstate 70, Frederick County, Maryland (by Walter G. Kutschke, P.E., ...)

Soil Stabilization of the Valley Creek Trunk Sewer Relief Tunnel (by Jeffrey J. Bean, P.E., ...)

Some New Approaches to Assessment of Collapse Risks in Covered Karsts (by Vladimir Tolmachev, ...)

Spectral Deconvolution and Quantification of Natural Organic Material and Fluorescent Tracer Dyes (by Scott C. Alexander)

Springshed Mapping in Support of Watershed Management (by Jeffrey A. Green, ...)

Sustainable Utilization of Karst Groundwater in Feicheng Basin, Shandong Province, China (by Yunfeng Li, ...)

Transport of Colloidal and Solute Tracers in Three Different Types of Alpine Karst Aquifers ? Examples from Southern Germany and Slovenia (by N. Göppert, ...)

Use of the Cone Penetration Test for Geotechnical Site Characterization in Clay-Mantled Karst (by T. C. Siegel, ...)

The Utility of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Interferometry in Monitoring Sinkhole Subsidence: Subsidence of the Devil?s Throat Sinkhole Area (Nevada, USA) (by Rana A. Al-Fares)

Void Evolution in Soluble Rocks Beneath Dams Under Limited Flow Condition (by Emmanuel S. Pepprah, ...)


EVALUATING THE HUMAN DISTURBANCE TO KARST ENVIRONMENTS IN SOUTHERN ITALY, 2006, Cal Fabiana, Parise Mario
Karst environments are extremely vulnerable to degradation and pollution. Although the carrying capacity of these natural environments is low, a variety of human activities is implemented on karst settings generating impacts at the surface and subsurface. To evaluate the degree of disturbance to typical karst environments in the Mediterranean basin, two areas have been selected in Apulia (south-eastern Italy). The human-induced effects are being assessed by applying a recently developed Karst Disturbance Index (KDI), based on a categorical framework encompassing physical, biological, and social aspects, and the evaluation of a number of indicators for each category. Scores are assigned to the indicators, to assess the severity and the extent of the human impacts on the karst environment. Knowledge of the study areas derives from a combined use of direct experience and field surveys, and the critical evaluation of data available from research articles and local organization reports. Since this approach is an holistic and comprehensive method, different scientific branches and law issues have been considered. The results so far obtained for the study areas highlight the urgent need of a sustainable management of anthropogenic activities: for example, quarrying and stone clearing, both extensively widespread, are among the most dangerous practices for karst surface and subsurface landforms in Apulia. These activities are heavily changing the original karst landscape and causing the partial or total destruction of natural caves. This study represents a preliminary evaluation of the human disturbance to karst in Apulia, but has to be necessarily integrated by further applications in other areas of the region, aimed at a better understanding of the potentiality of the approach and its feasibility in different karst settings.

Evaluating the impact of quarrying on karst aquifers of Salento (southern Italy), 2007, Le Rose M. , Parise M. , Andriani G. F. ,
This paper describes a case study in the Salento karst (Apulia, southern Italy) in a site that has been intensively used to quarry limestones in the last 30 years. After quarrying activity had stopped, the site was transformed into legal and illegal landfills where solid and liquid wastes have been repeatedly dumped, with serious consequences for the groundwater resources. In this paper, through a geological, petrographical and hydrogeological approach, we attempt to assess the consequences of the anthropogenic activities on the local hydrogeology, with particular regard to the surficial aquifer that is contained in the Plio-Quaternary calcarenites cropping out in the area. Application of some well-known methods to assess the vulnerability of aquifer systems to contamination by human activities (DRASTIC, SINTACS, LeGrand and GOD) highlights the limits of such an approach in karst environment, and the necessity to include in the methods data strictly related to the peculiarity of karst. This is further evidenced by application of the EPIK method, specifically designed for karst areas. The final part of the paper focuses on the need of a thorough understanding of the hydrogeological setting for a better management and policy action of karst environments

On the formation of dissolution pipes in Quaternary coastal calcareous arenites in Mediterranean settings, 2010, De Waele Jo, Lauritzen Steinerik, Parise Mario

A large number of uniform cone-shaped dissolution pipes has been observed and studied in Quaternary coastal calcareous arenites in Apulia and Sardinia (Italy) and Tunisia. These cylindrical tubes have a mean diameter of 52·8 cm and are up to 970 cm deep (mean depth for sediment-free pipes is 1·38 m). They generally have smooth walls along their length, are perfectly vertical and taper out towards their bottoms. Their development is not influenced by bedding nor fractures. Sometimes their walls are coated by a calcrete crust. Their morphology has been studied in detail and their relationships with the surrounding rocks and with the environment have been analysed. The perfectly vertical development is a clear evidence of their genesis controlled by gravity. The depth of the dissolution pipes can be described by an exponential distribution law (the Milanovic distribution), strongly suggesting they developed by a diffusion mechanism from the surface vertically downward. We believe dissolution pipes preferentially form in a covered karst setting. Local patches of soil and vegetation cause infiltration water to be enriched in carbon dioxide enhancing dissolution of carbonate cement and local small-scale subsidence. This process causes the formation of a depression cone that guides infiltrating waters towards these spots giving rise to the downward growth of gravity-controlled dissolution pipes. A change of climate from wetter phases to drier and hotter ones causes the formation of a calcrete lining, fossilizing the pipes. When the pipes become exposed to surface agents by erosion of the sediment cover or are laterally breached the loose quartz sand filling them may be transported elsewhere. 


Surface and subsurface karst geomorphology in the Murge (Apulia, southern Italy), 2011, Parise, Mario

The Murge (Apulia, southern Italy) is the main karst area in the central part of the region, extending from the inland plateau to the Adriatic coastline. Along this transect, a relief energy of a few hundred meters is reached. Even though such relief may seem small when compared to mountain karst areas, actually it is not for Apulia, a very flat carbonate region that acted as the foreland during the building up of the Apenninic Chain in Miocene time. Murge can be subdivided into two sectors: High Murge, the inland plateau, where remnants of an ancient tropical karst are still recognizable; and Low Murge, closer to the sea, with smoother karst morphologies and landforms. Here, some of the most remarkable underground karst systems of Apulia are located: the Castellana caves, a show cave that has been opened since 1939 to tourists (only a few months after the discovery), and the Pozzo Cucù karst system. Overall, the two systems (that are located few hundreds of meters apart) are more than 5,5 km long. In addition, many other karst caves are widespread in the territory, showing different typologies, from percolation shafts, to intrastratal caves, to tectonically-controlled caves, down to marine caves along the coastline. At the surface, other interesting morphological features related to karst may be observed, the main one being the Canale di Pirro polje, which cuts the SE Murge with an E-W strike, until its easternmost reach against the Murge fault line scarp. This latter is the main morphological feature intervening between the Murge plateau and the Adriatic plain. In this article the karst morphological features of Murge are depicted, putting together surface and underground data, in the effort to contribute to the recognition of the main phases of development of karst processes in the region


A preliminary analysis of failure mechanisms in karst and man-made underground caves in Southern Italy, 2011, Parise M. , Lollino P.

Natural and anthropogenic caves may represent a potential hazard for the built environment, due to the occurrence of instability within caves, that may propagate upward and eventually reach the ground surface, inducing the occurrence of sinkholes. In particular, when caves are at shallow depth, the effects at the ground surface may be extremely severe. Apulia region (southern Italy) hosts many sites where hazard associated with sinkholes is very serious due to presence of both natural karst caves and anthropogenic cavities, the latter being mostly represented by underground quarries. The Pliocene–Pleistocene calcarenite (a typical soft rock) was extensively quarried underground, by digging long and complex networks of tunnels. With time, these underground activities have progressively been abandoned and their memory lost, so that many Apulian towns are nowadays located just above the caves, due to urban expansion in the last decades. Therefore, a remarkable risk exists for society, which should not be left uninvestigated.

The present contribution deals with the analysis of the most representative failure mechanisms observed in the field for such underground instability processes and the factors that seem to influence the processes, as for example those causing weathering of the rock and the consequent degradation of its physical and mechanical properties. Aimed at exploring the progression of instability of the cavities, numerical analyses have been developed by using both the finite element method for geological settings represented by continuous soft rock mass, and the distinct element method for jointed rock mass conditions. Both the effects of local instability processes occurring underground and the effects of the progressive enlargement of the caves on the overall stability of the rock mass have been investigated, along with the consequent failure mechanisms. In particular, degradation processes of the rock mass, as a consequence of wetting and weathering phenomena in the areas surrounding the caves, have been simulated. The results obtained from the numerical simulations have then been compared with what has been observed during field surveys and a satisfactory agreement between the numerical simulations and the instability processes, as detected in situ, has been noticed.


Sinkhole Evolution in the Apulian Karst of Southern Italy: A Case Study, with Some Considerations on Sinkhole Hazards, 2012, Festa V. , Fiore A. , Parise M. , Siniscalchi A.

Sinkholes are the main karst landforms characterizing the Salento Peninsula, which is the southernmost part of the Apulia region of southern Italy. They occur both as evolving recent phenomena and old or relict features testifying to ancient phases of karst processes acting in the area. Most of the sinkholes were formed by karst processes that may be reactivated, a risk to the anthropogenic structures nearby. To highlight such a subtle hazard, an area located a few kilometers from Lecce, the main town in Salento, was the subject of geological, morphological, and geophysical investigations. Historical analysis of multi-year aerial photographs, in particular, allowed identification of several phases in the recent evolution of a particular sinkhole, and demonstrated the need to carefully evaluate the likely evolution of similar features in Salento.Sinkholes are the main karst landforms characterizing the Salento Peninsula, which is the southernmost part of the Apulia region of southern Italy. They occur both as evolving recent phenomena and old or relict features testifying to ancient phases of karst processes acting in the area. Most of the sinkholes were formed by karst processes that may be reactivated, a risk to the anthropogenic structures nearby. To highlight such a subtle hazard, an area located a few kilometers from Lecce, the main town in Salento, was the subject of geological, morphological, and geophysical investigations. Historical analysis of multi-year aerial photographs, in particular, allowed identification of several phases in the recent evolution of a particular sinkhole, and demonstrated the need to carefully evaluate the likely evolution of similar features in Salento.


Drowned Karst Landscape Offshore the Apulian Margin (Southern Adriatic Sea, Italy), 2012, Taviani M. , Angeletti L. , Campiani E. , Ceregato A. , Foglini F. , Maselli V. , Morsilli M. , Parise M. , Trincardi F.

The south Adriatic shelf offshore of the predominently carbonate Apulian coast is characterized by a peculiar rough topography interpreted as relic karst formed at a time of lower sea level. The study area covers a surface of about 220 km2, with depths ranging from 50 to 105 m. The most relevant and diagnostic features are circular depressions a few tens to 150 m in diameter and 0.50 to 20 m deep thought to be dolines at various stages of evolution. The major doline, Oyster Pit, has its top at about 50 m water depth and is 20 m deep. It is partly filled with sediments redeposited by episodic mass failure from the doline’s flank. Bedrock samples from the study area document that Plio-Pleistocene calcarenites, tentatively correlated with the Calcarenite di Gravina Fm, are a prime candidate for the carbonate rocks involved in the karstification, although the presence of other units, such as the Peschici or Maiolica Fms, is not excluded. The area containing this subaerial karst landscape was submerged about 12,500 years ago as a result of the postglacial transgression over the continental shelf.


Discussion on the article Coastal and inland karst morphologies driven by sea level stands: a GIS based method for their evaluation by Canora F, Fidelibus D and Spilotro G, 2013, De Waele Jo, Parise Mario

Comments are presented on the article by Canora et al. (2012) dealing with karst morphologies driven by sea level stands in the Murge plateau of Apulia, southern Italy. Our comments start from cave levels, that are considered in the cited article as a proof of sea level stands. We argue that the presence of sub-horizontal passages in cave systems is not a sufficient condition for correlating them with hypothetical past sea level stands. Such a correlation must be based upon identification of speleogenetic features within the karst systems, and/or geological field data. The problems encountered when using cave surveys for scientific research, and their low reliability (especially in the case of old surveys) are then treated, since they represent a crucial point in the paper object of this discussion. Eventually, we present some final consideration on cave levels and terraces, and on the specific case study, pointing out once again to the need in including geological field data to correctly find a correspondance between flat landforms and sea level fluctuations. Our main conclusion is that field data and information on speleogenesis of the underground karst landforms cannot be disregarded in a study that claims to deal with the influence of sea-level changes on caves.


Hypogene speleogenesis in Italy, 2013, Menichetti, M.

Through more than one century of speleological research in Italy, many hypogenic limestone caves have been explored, mapped and studied. These caves are characterized by a variety of patterns and morphological sizes including three-dimensional maze sys-tems and deep shafts, with both active endogenic CO2 and H2S vents.
An integrate approach taking in account geological, hydrological and geochemical set-tings permit to recognize the main hypogenic speleogenetic process. The H2S oxidation to sulfuric acid, by oxygen-rich groundwaters as well as in the atmosphere is actually the main active hypogenic cave-forming processes. Both phreatic and vadose corrosion reactions involve chemotropic microbial activity, with sulfur-redox bacterial communi-ties that generate sulfuric acid as metabolic product. The bedrock corrosion produce sulfate ions in the phreatic zone and gypsum replacement in the limestone walls of the vadose sectors of the caves. The caves are characterized by both fossil and active pas-sages in which water rich in H2S as well as endogenic CO2 plays a determinant role in speleogenesis. Although sulfuric acid-related speleogenesis typically produces gypsum deposits, in caves where the karstification processes are driven by subterranean CO2 sources, voids and speleothems are the only final products.
In Italy all the end-members of the karst processes can be found, from solution caves to outcrop of carbonate travertine. The hypogenic caves are concentrated for largest and both fossils and active systems in the Tuscany, Umbria, Marche and Latium regions (Menichetti, 2009). These consist of few tens of kilometers of solutional passages with galleries and shafts, which are characterized by large rooms, cupola and blind pits, anas-tomotic passages, bubble trails roof pendants, knife edges, and phreatic passages. Ac-tive smaller karst systems are known in Southern Italy in Apulia, Campania and Sicily, related to the geothermal anomaly associated with CO2 and H2S vents.


Discussion on the article ‘Coastal and inland karst morphologies driven by sea level stands: a GIS based method for their evaluation’ by Canora F, Fidelibus D and Spilotro G, 2013, Waele J. D. , Parise M.

Comments are presented on the article by Canora et al. (2012) dealing with karst morphologies driven by sea level stands in the Murge plateau of Apulia, southern Italy. Our comments start from cave levels, that are considered in the cited article as a proof of sea level stands. We argue that the presence of sub-horizontal passages in cave systems is not a sufficient condition for correlating them with hypothetical past sea level stands. Such a correlation must be based upon identification of speleogenetic features within the karst systems, and/or geological field data. The problems encountered when using cave surveys for scientific research, and their low reliability (especially in the case of old surveys) are then treated, since they represent a crucial point in the paper object of this discussion. Eventually, we present some final consideration on cave levels and terraces, and on the specific case study, pointing out once again to the need in including geological field data to correctly find a correspondance between flat landforms and sea level fluctuations. Our main conclusion is that field data and information on speleogenesis of the underground karst landforms cannot be disregarded in a study that claims to deal with the influence of sea-level changes on caves.


Results 16 to 30 of 31
You probably didn't submit anything to search for