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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That bedrock is solid rock underlying unconsolidated material [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for hydrodynamics (Keyword) returned 33 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 33
Significance and dynamics of drip water responding to rainfall in four caves of Guizhou, China, 2005, Zhou Y. C. , Wang S. J. , Xie X. N. , Luo W. J. , Li T. Y. ,
In rainy season, NaCl is adopted to trace sources of cave drip water, time scales of drip water responding to precipitation, and processes of water dynamics in four caves of Pearl watershed in Guizhou, China (Liang-feng cave in Libo, Qixing cave in Duyun, Jiangjun cave in Anshun and Xiniu cave in Zhenning). Because of the variety of karst cave surroundings, interconnections of water transporting ways, water dynamics processes etc., time scales of drip-water in four caves responding to rainfall is 0-40 d. According to the characteristics of water transport in cave roof, pathways of water movement, types of water head etc., drip water of four caves can be divided into five hydrodynamics types. The differences of time scales, and ways of water-soil and water-rock interaction during water transporting in cave roof make it difficult to correctly measure speleothem record and trace material sources. In addition, there exist great differences in water dynamic conditions among the four caves. So the interpretation of the paleoenvironment records of speleothem must be supported by the understanding of hydrodynamics conditions of different drip sites. Based on the data got from drip sites in four caves, drip conductivity accords with precipitation, which indicates that element contents in speleothem formed by drip water record the change of karst paleoenvironment. But results of multi-points study are needed to guarantee the correctness of interpretation

Analysis of karst hydrodynamics through comparison of dissolved and suspended solids transport, 2005, Valdes D. , Dupont J. P. , Laignel B. , Rodet J. ,
In karst systems, rain events often result in a decrease of the conductivity (a tracer of dissolved phase transport) and an increase in turbidity (a tracer of suspended solids transport) at wells and springs. This study shows that the comparison of suspended solids and solute transport by the coupled approach of T-C curves (Turbidity-Conductivity) and autocorrelations gives evidence of the transport processes in the karst network and allows understanding the karst hydrodynamics. To cite this article: D. Valdes et al., C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005). (c) 2005 Academie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved

Temperature as a marker for karstic waters hydrodynamics. Inferences from 1 year recording at La Peyrére cave (Ariège, France), 2005, Genthon P, Bataille A, Fromant A, D'hulst D, Bourges F,
We present temperature measurements recorded at a 15 min time step between October 2002 and April 2003 inside the La Peyrére cave (Baget karstic system, Central Pyrenees) on six 0.01 °C sensitivity sensors distributed on the whole recognized cave, down to a depth of 57 m. Rainy events are associated to a steep signal of a few hundredth to a few tenth of degrees in amplitude starting 1 h to one day after rain, and with a sign depending mostly of the outside temperature. The temperature signal does not correlate well with the rainfall, while the water level does with a maximum water rising rate 2.5 h after rain. The spectral density of the temperature signal displays one peak at a period of 3 days, which is also present in the rain signal and which is likely to be related to climatic parameters, and a broad smooth zone of spectral energy close to a 1 day period.By comparing a 'superficial' and a 'deepest' group of sensors, we note that the flood signal is more pronounced on the deepest sensor group whatever the outside temperature, and that the annual temperature variation is also larger on this sensor group. This could indicate that rain water flows in the cave through its base and explain the development in depth of the cave. Due to the arrival of water with different temperatures and mineralizations at different levels, double diffusive convection is likely to be triggered in the cave. We suggest that the onset of convection could be associated to the oscillations observed on the temperature signal at the onset of the flood

Temperature as a marker for karstic waters hydrodynamics. Inferences from 1 year recording at La Peyrere cave (Ariege, France), 2005, Genthon P, Bataille A, Fromant A, D'hulst D, Bourges F,
We present temperature measurements recorded at a 15 min time step between October 2002 and April 2003 inside the La Peyrere cave (Baget karstic system, Central Pyrenees) on six 0.01 degrees C sensitivity sensors distributed on the whole recognized cave, down to a depth of 57 m. Rainy events are associated to a steep signal of a few hundredth to a few tenth of degrees in amplitude starting 1 h to one day after rain, and with a sign depending mostly of the outside temperature. The temperature signal does not correlate well with the rainfall, while the water level does with a maximum water rising rate 2.5 h after rain. The spectral density of the temperature signal displays one peak at a period of 3 days, which is also present in the rain signal and which is likely to be related to climatic parameters, and a broad smooth zone of spectral energy close to a I day period. By comparing a 'superficial' and a 'deepest' group of sensors, we note that the flood signal is more pronounced on the deepest sensor group whatever the outside temperature, and that the annual temperature variation is also larger on this sensor group. This could indicate that rain water flows in the cave through its base and explain the development in depth of the cave. Due to the arrival of water with different temperatures and mineralizations at different levels, double diffusive convection is likely to be triggered in the cave. We suggest that the onset of convection could be associated to the oscillations observed on the temperature signal at the onset of the flood. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Contribution of artificial galleries to the knowledge of karstic system behaviour in addition to natural cavern data, 2008, Garry B. , Blondel Th. , Emblanch Ch. , Sudre Ch. , Bilgot S. , Cavaillou A. , Boyer D. , Auguste M.
The study of karstic systems is mainly based on hydrodynamic and hydrochemical data collected at system inlets (rainfall) and outlets (springs). Indeed, some complementary data base coming from speleological and hydrogeological explorations of natural cavities exist. However, they are not completely representative of all the types of flows. These kinds of flow which have a large part in general hydrodynamics of a system are already the result of a structured organization of karst due to complex phenomena of limestone dissolution. Artificial galleries have the advantage to be easily accessible. Moreover, they cut randomly flows which are much less structured or not. Both types of information seem to be complementary in order to understand a karstic aquifer. In this paper, we focus on the hydrochemical and hydrodynamic study of unstructured flows of the Low-Noise Underground Laboratory of Rustrel- Pays dApt (LSBB), a former military site with 3,4 km of buried galleries.

Hydrodynamic aspect of caves, 2008, Prelovek M. , Turk J. And Gabrovek F.
From a hydrological point of view, active caves are a series of connected conduits which drain water through an aquifer. Water tends to choose the easiest way through the system but different geological and morphological barriers act as flow restrictions. The number and characteristics of restrictions depends on the particular speleogenetic environment, which is a function of geological, geomorphological, climatological and hydrological settings. Such a variety and heterogeneity of underground systems has presented a challenge for human understanding for many centuries. Access to many underground passages, theoretical knowledge and recent methods (modeling, water pressure-resistant dataloggers, precise sensors etc.) give us the opportunity to get better insight into the hydrodynamic aspect of caves. In our work we tried to approach underground hydrodynamics from both theoretical and practical points of view. We present some theoretical background of open surface and pressurized flow in underground rivers and present results of some possible scenarios. Moreover, two case studies from the Ljubljanica river basin are presented in more detail: the cave system between Planinsko polje and Ljubljansko barje, and the cave system between Bloko polje and Cerkniko polje. The approach and methodology in each case is somewhat different, as the aims were different at the beginning of exploration. However, they both deal with temporal and spatial hydrodynamics of underground waters. In the case of Bloko polje-Cerkniko polje system we also explain the feedback loop between hydrodynamics and Holocene speleogenesis.

Interactions hydrodynamiques surface/souterrain en milieu karstique [Surface water/Groundwater hydrodynamic interactions in karst watersheds], PhD Thesis, 2008, Baillycomte, Vincent

Ce travail de these s’inscrit dans la problematique generale de la caracterisation de l’alea inondation. Plus precisement, cette etude cherche a caracteriser l’influence des eaux souterraines sur la genese et la propagation des crues en surface dans les cas d’un bassin versant a forte composante karstique. Le site experimental du bassin versant du Coulazou, riviere temporaire qui traverse le massif karstique du Causse d’Aumelas a l’Ouest de Montpellier a ete retenu pour etudier de maniere approfondie les interactions entre les ecoulements de surface et les ecoulements souterrains en situation de crue.

L’etude hydrodynamique de ce systeme karst/riviere s’appuie sur un dispositif experimental adapte a l’observation des phenomenes hydrologiques (pluie, ruissellement) et hydrogeologiques (piezometrie en forage et dans les drains karstiques, suivi hydrodynamique des exutoires du systeme) tres rapides et tres intenses. La dynamique de ces ecoulements est liee au contexte climatique Mediterraneen mais aussi aux structures de drainage en surface et en souterrain qui permettent un transfert et un transit tres rapide des eaux au sein du systeme karst/riviere.

Une description hydrodynamique classique est completee par une approche fonctionnelle des echanges karst/riviere dans le but de mieux comprendre le fonctionnement hydrodynamique d’un tel systeme et de mettre en avant des indicateurs utilisables dans une demarche de modelisation des echanges surface/souterrain. Un premier modele est presente dans la derniere partie de ce document.

**********

This work aims at assessing the flooding hazard. More precisely, the study focuses on the influence of groundwater on the genesis and propagation of surface flows in the case of a highly karstified watershed. The experimental site of the Coulazou River, a temporary River which crosses the karstified formation of the Causse d’Aumelas (western Montpellier) has been selected to study hydrodynamic interactions between surface flows and groundwater flows during flood.

The hydrodynamic study of this karst/River system is based on a suitable experimental monitoring of both fast and intense hydrological (rain, runoff) and hydrogeological (water level in wells and karst drains, discharge measurements at the main outlets of the system) phenomenon. The specific hydrological response of this watershed is due to the Mediterranean climate but also to surface and underground drainage structures which allow very fast water flows within the karst/river system.

A common hydrodynamic description is followed by a functional approach of karst/river exchanges in order (i) to better understand the hydrodynamic behaviour of such a system and (ii) to highlight some indicators that can be used in a modelling approach. A first conceptual model of surface water/groundwater exchanges in karst terranes is presented in the latter part of the manuscript.
 


Hydrodynamic aspect of caves, 2008, Prelovek M. , Turk J. , Gabrovek F.

From a hydrological point of view, active caves are a series of connected conduits which drain water through an aquifer. Water tends to choose the easiest way through the system but different geological and morphological barriers act as flow restrictions. The number and characteristics of restrictions depends on the particular speleogenetic environment, which is a function of geological, geomorphological, climatological and hydrological settings. Such a variety and heterogeneity of underground systems has presented a challenge for human understanding for many centuries. Access to many underground passages, theoretical knowledge and recent methods (modeling, water pressure-resistant dataloggers, precise sensors etc.) give us the opportunity to get better insight into the hydrodynamic aspect of caves. In our work we tried to approach underground hydrodynamics from both theoretical and practical points of view. We present some theoretical background of open surface and pressurized flow in underground rivers and present results of some possible scenarios. Moreover, two case studies from the Ljubljanica river basin are presented in more detail: the cave system between Planinsko polje and Ljubljansko barje, and the cave system between Bloško polje and Cerkniško polje. The approach and methodology in each case is somewhat different, as the aims were different at the beginning of exploration. However, they both deal with temporal and spatial hydrodynamics of underground waters. In the case of Bloško polje-Cerkniško polje system we also explain the feedback loop between hydrodynamics and Holocene speleogenesis.


Contribution of artificial galleries to the knowledge of karstic system behaviour in addition to natural cavern data, 2008, Garry B. , Blondel Th. , Emblanch Ch. , Sudre Ch. , Bilgot S. , Cavaillou A. , Boyer D. , Auguste M

The study of karstic systems is mainly based on hydrodynamic and hydrochemical data collected at system inlets (rainfall) and outlets (springs). Indeed, some complementary data base coming from speleological and hydrogeological explorations of natural cavities exist. However, they are not completely representative of all the types of flows. These kinds of flow which have a large part in general hydrodynamics of a system are already the result of a structured organization of karst due to complex phenomena of limestone dissolution.
Artificial galleries have the advantage to be easily accessible. Moreover, they cut randomly flows which are much less structured or not. Both types of information seem to be complementary in order to understand a karstic aquifer.
In this paper, we focus on the hydrochemical and hydrodynamic study of unstructured flows of the Low-Noise Underground Laboratory of Rustrel- Pays d’Apt (LSBB), a former military site with 3,4 km of buried galleries.


Modeling stalagmite growth by first principles of chemistry and physics of calcite precipitation, 2008, Romanov D. , Kaufmann G. , Dreybrodt W.

Growth rates and morphology of stalagmites are determined by the precipitation kinetics of calcite and the supply rates of water to their apex. Current modeling attempts are based on the assumption that precipitation rates decrease exponentially with distance along the surface. This, however, is an arbitrary assumption, because other functions for decrease could be used as well. Here we give a process-oriented model based on the hydrodynamics of a water sheet in laminar radial flow spreading outwards from the apex, and the well known precipitation rates F = α(c − ceq); c is the actual calcium concentration at distance R from the growth axis, ceq the equilibrium concentration of calcium with respect to calcite, and α is a kinetic constant. This enables us to calculate the concentration profile c(R) for any point of an actual surface of a stalagmite and consequently the deposition rates of calcite there. The numerical results show that under conditions constant in time the stalagmite grows into an equilibrium shape, which is established, when all points of its surface are shifting vertically by the same distance during a time interval. We also show this by strict mathematical proof. This new model is based entirely on first principles of physics and chemistry. The results show that the modeled precipitation rates can be approximated by a Gaussian decrease along the equilibrium surface. In general from the mathematical proof one finds a relation between the equilibrium radius of the stalagmite, Q the supply rate of water, and α the kinetic constant. This is also verified by numerical calculations. An interesting scaling law is found. Scaling all stalagmites by 1/Req and presenting them with the origin at their apex yields identical shapes of all. The shapes of the modeled stalagmites are compared to natural ones and show satisfactory agreement. Finally we explore the effect of varying water supply Q and kinetic constant α on the shape of a growing stalagmite, and estimate the minimum period of change that can be imprinted into the morphology of the stalagmite.


Modelling Karst Hydrodynamics, 2008, Kovcs A. , Sauter M.

This article is a lightly edited version the article of the same title that appeared as Chapter 10 in Methods in Karst Hydrology, Nico Goldscheider and David Drew, Eds., Taylor and Francis, London, p. 201-222 (2007). It is reproduced here with the kind permission of Taylor and Francis, Publishers


Water exchange and pressure transfer between conduits and matrix and their influence on hydrodynamics of two karst aquifers with sinking streams, 2010, Baillycomte Vincent, Martin Jonathan B. , Jourde Hervé, , Screaton Elizabeth J. , Pistre Sé, Verin, Langston Abigail

Karst aquifers are heterogeneous media where conduits usually drain water from lower permeability volumes (matrix and fractures). For more than a century, various approaches have used flood recession curves, which integrate all hydrodynamic processes in a karst aquifer, to infer physical properties of the movement and storage of groundwater. These investigations typically only consider flow to the conduits and thus have lacked quantitative observations of how pressure transfer and water exchange between matrix and conduit during flooding could influence recession curves.

We present analyses of simultaneous discharge and water level time series of two distinctly different karst systems, one with low porosity and permeability matrix rocks in southern France, and one with high porosity and permeability matrix rocks in north-central Florida (USA). We apply simple mathematical models of flood recession using time series representations of recharge, storage, and discharge processes in the karst aquifer. We show that karst spring hydrographs can be interpreted according to pressure transfer between two distinct components of the aquifer, conduit and matrix porosity, which induce two distinct responses at the spring. Water exchange between conduits and matrix porosity successively control the flow regime at the spring. This exchange is governed by hydraulic head differences between conduits and matrix, head gradients within conduits, and the contrast of permeability between conduits and matrix. These observations have consequences for physical interpretations of recession curves and modeling of karst spring flows, particularly for the relative magnitudes of base flow and quick flow from karst springs. Finally, these results suggest that similar analyses of recession curves can be applied to karst aquifers with distinct physical characteristics utilizing well and spring hydrograph data, but information must be known about the hydrodynamics and physical properties of the aquifer before the results can be correctly interpreted.


DYNAMICS OF UNDERGROUND WATER IN THE KARST CATCHMENT AREA OF THE LJUBLJANICA SPRINGS, 2010, Turk, Janez

The book is based on a several years long record of water levels and temperatures in caves between Planinsko polje and the springs of Ljubljanica. Correlation between the data, the discharge of the Unica river and the meteorological data gave new insights into the groundwater dynamics in relation to the recharge events as well as into the hydrological role of Planinsko polje. The work clearly demonstrates caves as important observation points in karst hydrology.


Stability of dissolution flutes under turbulent flow, 2011, Hammer . , Lauritzen S. E. , Jamtveit B.

Dissolution of a solid surface under turbulent fluid flow can lead to the formation of periodic ripple-like structures with a wavelength dependent upon flow velocity. A model coupling hydrodynamics with mass transport and dissolution kinetics shows that the shape stability of these structures can be explained from fundamental
principles. The effects of a subgrid diffusion boundary layer must be included in the dissolution model to produce realistic results. The importance of including not only the mean flow velocity, but also the turbulent component of flow, in the dissolution model is emphasized. The numerical experiments also compare dissolution profiles for gypsum and calcite.


Hydrogeological approach to distinguishing hypogene speleogenesis settings, 2013, Klimchouk, A. B.

The hydrogeological approach to defining hypogene speleogenesis (HS) relates it to ascending groundwater flow (AF). HS develops where AF causes local disequilibria conditions favoring dissolution and supports them during sufficiently long time in course of the geodynamic and hydrogeological evolution. The disequilibrium conditions at depth are invoked by changing physical-chemical parameters along an AF paths, or/and by the interaction between circulation systems of different scales and hydrody-namic regimes. The association of HS with AF suggests a possibility to discern regulari-ties of development and distribution of HS from the perspectives of the regional hy-drogeological analysis. In mature artesian basins of the cratonic type, settings favorable for AF and HS, are as follows: 1) marginal areas of discharge of the groundwaters of the 2nd hydrogeological story (H-story), 2) zones of topography-controlled upward cir-culation within the internal basin area (at the 1st and, in places, at the 2nd H-stories; 3) crests of anticlinal folds or uplifted tectonic blocs within the internal basin area where the upper regional aquitard is thinned or partially breached; 4) linear-local zones of deep-rooted cross-formational faults conducting AF from internal deep sources across the upper H-stories. Hydrodynamics in the 3rd and 4th stories is dominated by ascending circulation strongly controlled by cross-formational tectonic structures. Specific circula-tion pattern develops in large Cenozoic carbonate platforms (the Florida-type), side-open to the ocean, where AF across stratified sequences in the coastal parts, driven by both topography-induced head gradients and density gradients, involves mixing with the seawater. The latter can be drawn into a platform at deep levels and rise in the plat-form interior (the Kohout’s scheme). In folded regions, AF and HS are tightly con-trolled by faults, especially those at junctions between large tectonic structures. In young intramontaine basins with dominating geostatic regime, HS is favored at margin-al discharge areas where circulation systems of different origins and regimes may inter-act, such as meteoric waters flows from adjacent uplifted massifs, basinal fluids expelled from the basin’s interiors, and endogenous fluids rising along deep-rooted faults. Spe-cific and very favorable settings for HS are found in regions of young volcanism with carbonate formations in a sedimentary cover


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