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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That metabolism is the sum of the chemical activities taking place in the cells of a living thing; the sum of the processes by which a living thing transforms food into energy and living tissue [23].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for logs (Keyword) returned 38 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 38
The environmental hazards of locating wastewater impoundments in karst terrain, 2002, Memon B. A. , Azmeh M. M. , Pitts M. W. ,
A wastewater storage lagoon failed due to the development of a sinkhole at a site in the Lehigh River valley in Allentown, Pennsylvania (PA). The polluted wastewater from the lagoon entered into the underlying aquifer and moved within a narrow pathway controlled by cracks, fissures, and solution channels within the karstified Allentown Formation of the Cambrian Period. The Allentown Formation serves as the principal aquifer for the public water supply of the area. To develop appropriate remedial measures, a thorough understanding of the geologic setting was required. Therefore, a geologic and hydrogeologic characterization of the area was completed, aerial photography and satellite imagery interpretations were performed, stratigraphic core holes were drilled and geophysically logged, and the data correlated to define structural control and movement of ground water and pollutants. A number of wells were drilled and constructed, and water levels were monitored on a continuous basis to correlate with climatic changes and determine the direction of flow. Water samples were collected periodically and analyzed to delineate the vertical and lateral extent of migration of pollutants. Five saturated (water-bearing) zones were identified within the bedrock based on the analysis of cores and interpretation of geophysical logs. Ground water in the lower zones is polluted; the concentration of pollution increases with depth. Monitoring stations were established in the creek, south of the site, to measure flow rate several times during different seasons, and at different reaches, to determine the losing and gaining sections of the creek. Pumping tests were conducted to determine hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer. Based on the hydrogeologic model of the karstified aquifer, flow regime and structural control, a plan of action was defined and initiated to remediate the aquifer. The ground water is being remediated using a pump and treat methodology. The cleanup effort is continuous and the pollutant level is fluctuating with an overall-declining trend. The application of this technology has also created a pressure trough, thereby controlling off the site migration of pollutants. (C) 2002 Published by Elsevier Science B.V

Preliminary investigations of seasonal changes in the geochemical evolution of the Logdson River, Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, 2003, Anthony D. M. , Groves C. , Meiman J.

Many geochemical studies have been made of karst waters worldwide. Most data that provide the framework for our current understanding of the evolution of karst waters have come from sampling at discrete times and locations, such as springs or wells. Relatively few studies have been made of the geochemical evolution of groundwater as it moves through an open flow system. This paper addresses the seasonal changes in the geochemistry of the Logsdon River conduit as it passes through nearly 10km of the carbonate aquifer of south-central Kentucky .
The most important control on the ability of groundwaters to dissolve limestone is their carbon dioxide pressure, which is influenced by a variety of complex interactions with soil, bedrock, and in-cave organic decay. The fieldwork involved in this research combines seasonal sampling of the entire traversable length of the Logsdon River conduit, as well as continuous monitoring of the chemistry at key points within the flow system. Preliminary results of this study indicate both seasonal changes in CO 2 , transport through the Mammoth Cave karst aquifer during summer and winter conditions, along with significant geochemical changes as the water moves through a distance of 10km.


Discrimination of effective from ineffective porosity in heterogeneous Cretaceous carbonates, Al Ghubar field, Oman , 2003, Smith L. B. , Eberli G. P. , Masaferro J. L. , Aldhahab S.

The Natih E heavy-oil reservoir (21j API) atAl Ghubar field, Oman has produced less than 5% of the calculated oil in place. Porosity logs used to calculate reserves show high porosity throughout the reservoir, but further analysis of the only continuous core taken from the field indicates that much of the porosity is ineffective. There are four heavily oil-stained, high-permeability skeletalpelletal grainstone units with interparticle porosity in the core that probably contributed most of the production. The four permeable grainstone units occur at the top of small-scale accommodation cycles that have wackestone and packstone bases. These grainstones make up about 20% of the total thickness of the porous Natih E reservoir. The other 80% is composed of packstone and wackestone with ineffective microporosity, interparticle porosity in burrows, and isolated moldic and intraskeletal porosity. The small-scale reservoirbearing cycles can be correlated across the field using the separation between the medium and deep induction curves as a guide. Resistivity logs are the most reliable tool to distinguish effective from ineffective porosity. Most high-permeability grainstone units have deep induction values more than 100 ohmmand separation of more than 10 ohm m between the medium and deep induction curves. The ineffective intervals with microporosity, burrow porosity, and moldic porosity have lower resistivity and little separation between the medium and deep induction curves 


Characterization of ground water flow from spring discharge in a crystalline rock environment, 2004, Gentry Wm, Burbey Tj,
Recent investigations describing the hydrogeology of the Blue Ridge Province of Virginia suggest the occurrence of multiple aquifers and flow paths that may be responsible for the variable flow behavior of springs and seeps appearing throughout the region. Deep, confined aquifers associated with ubiquitous faults and shallow, variably confined saprolite aquifers may contribute water to spring outlets resulting in significantly different quantities of discharge and water quality. Multiple analyses are required to adequately identify the flow paths to springs. In this investigation, hydrograph analyses, surface electrical resistivity surveys, aquifer tests, and nitrate concentrations are used in conjunction with previously reported analyses from borehole logs and age dating of ground water to identify two distinct flow paths. Results indicate that base flow occurs from a deep fault zone aquifer and such discharge can be maintained even during prolonged periods of drought, while increased discharge identified on hydrograph peaks suggests the occurrence of rapid flow through the saprolite aquifer within a radius of about 25 meters of the spring orifice. Springflow hydrograph analysis is suitable for rapid characterization of flow paths leading to spring outlets. Rapid characterization is important for evaluation of potential water quality problems arising from contamination of shallow and deep aquifers and for evaluation of water resource susceptibility to drought. The techniques evaluated here are suitable for use in other locations in fractured crystalline rock environments

Weathering, geomorphic work, and karst landscape evolution in the Cave City groundwater basin, Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, 2005, Groves C. , Meiman J. ,
Following the pioneering work of Wolman and Miller [Wolman, M.G., Miller, J.P., 1960. Magnitude and frequency of forces in geomorphic processes. J. Geol., 68, 54-74.] in evaluation of geomorphic work and the frequencies and magnitudes of forces that drive it, a large number of quantitative studies have focused on the evolution of fluvial systems and transport of elastic sediment. Less attention has been given to understanding frequencies and magnitudes of processes in rock weathering, including investigation of rates at which solutes are removed from landscapes under various flow distributions as an analog to Wolman and Miller's [Wolman, M.G., Miller, J.P., 1960. Magnitude and frequency of forces in geomorphic processes. J. Geol., 68, 54-74.] concept of geomorphic work. In this work, we use I year of high-resolution flow and chemical data to examine the work done in landscape evolution within and at the outlet of Kentucky's Cave City Basin, a well-developed karst landscape/aquifer system that drains about 25 km(2). We consider both removal of solutes contributing to landscape denudation based on calcium mass flux as well as predicted dissolution rates of the conduit walls at the outlet of this basin based on limestone dissolution kinetics. Intense, short-duration events dominate. Storms that filled the Logsdon River conduit occurred < 5% of the year but were responsible for 38% of the dissolved load leaving the system and from 63% to 100% of conduit growth for various scenarios of sediment influence. Landscape denudation is a linear function of the amount of water moving through the system, but conduit growth rates, and thus rates of recharge area evolution from fluvial to karst surface landscapes, depend both on the amount of water available and the distribution of precipitation. © 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V

Paleozoic Carbonates of the Commonwealth Of Independent States (CIS): Subsurface Reservoirs and Outcrop Analogs: SEPM Special Publication No. 74, 2005, Franseen Ek,

Applications of GIS and database technologies to manage a karst feature database, 2006, Gao Y. , Tipping R. G. , Alexander Jr. E. C.
This paper describes the management of a Karst Feature Database (KFD) in Minnesota. Two sets of applications in both GIS and Database Management System (DBMS) have been developed for the KFD of Minnesota. These applications were used to manage and to enhance the usability of the KFD. Structured Query Language (SQL) was used to manipulate transactions of the database and to facilitate the functionality of the user interfaces. The Database Administrator (DBA) authorized users with different access permissions to enhance the security of the database. Database consistency and recovery are accomplished by creating data logs and maintaining backups on a regular basis. The working database provides guidelines and management tools for future studies of karst features in Minnesota. The methodology of designing this DBMS is applicable to develop GIS-based databases to analyze and manage geomorphic and hydrologic datasets at both regional and local scales. The short-term goal of this research is to develop a regional KFD for the Upper Mississippi Valley Karst and the long-term goal is to expand this database to manage and study karst features at national and global scales.

Seismic geomorphology of Palaeozoic collapse features in the Fort Worth Basin (USA), 2007, Sullivan E. C. , Marfurt K. J. , Blumentritt C. , Ammerman M. ,
Modern multi-trace geometric attributes produce three-dimensional volumes that can facilitate the recognition of karst geomorphology by avoiding the need to pre-interpret irregular horizons and by enhancing subseismic lateral variations in reflectivity. These geometric attributes include the well-established coherence technology, coupled with recent developments in spectrally limited estimates of volumetric curvature. Coherence measures lateral changes in waveform, and as such, is often sensitive to joints, small faults, sinkholes and collapse features. The many components of reflector curvature, including the most negative, most positive, Gaussian curvature and related shape indices (e.g. valleys, saddles, domes), are complimentary to coherence measures. Short wavelength estimates of curvature will illuminate small-scale lineaments while longer wavelength estimates of curvature illuminate more subtle flexures and compaction features. We show the results of applying a variety of multi-trace geometric attributes to a three-dimensional seismic volume from the Fort Worth Basin, where a collapse system extends vertically some 800m from the Ordovician Ellenburger carbonates through the dominantly siliciclastic Mississippian-- Pennsylvanian interval. The collapse features in our data set appear as rounded, sinkhole-like appearances on time and horizon slices in the Pennsylvanian Marble Falls Limestones and the Ellenburger horizon displays features that can be interpreted as cockpit karst, dolines and frying pan valleys. Although a variety of palaeocave breccia facies in core and image logs indicate that the Ellenburger surface has been karsted, these breccias are not confined to the mega collapse features visible in seismic. The large (up to 700 m diameter) collapse chimneys can be shown in multi-spectral curvature attributes to have elongate rhombohedral shapes associated with intersections of Pennsylvanian age, field-scale to basin-scale, basement lineaments and faults. Isochores indicate greatest tectonic growth on faults from Mississippian until early Pennsylvanian, coincident with thickest fill of collapse features. Thus we interpret the origin of the chimneys to be primarily tectonic. The multi-trace geometric attributes permit better imaging of the three-dimensional shapes of the collapse features, provide better constraints on timing of their formation, allow us to begin to separate karst processes from tectonic processes and provide a means of predicting most likely locations of fluid movement along faults

FAULT DETERMINATION DUE TO SINKHOLE ARRAY ON LAR VALLEY, NORTHEAST OF TEHRAN (IRAN), 2007, Khorsandi A. , Miyata T.

The main objective of this paper is to present an approach to identify active faults in karstic enviroments. This is achieved by a releasing relationship between sinkholes or dolines forma­tion, array and active faults mechanism. In this research , Lar valley on the Northeast of Tehran, Capital of Iran was selected as a case study. The sinkholes array in the valley shows that their formation and location is influenced by active faults. As a result of active faults mechanism, a number of young and old dolines have been formed on north and south of the study area. Ac­cording to Aerial Photographs, Satellite images and geological logs corelation three major active faults were distingushed in the study area specially under Lar dam structure. Two of the faults are elongated to the north and the one extends to the south, seven sinkholes were formed on faults. Based on the available evidences, it is assumed that the formation and array of dolines in the study area has been formed and controlled by active faults. Conversely , it is deduced that faults activity may be determinated by sinkholes formation and array. This results may be applied for the similar cases of world,s karstic belt.


Hydrogeochemical processes as environmental indicators in drip water: Study of the Cueva del Agua (Southern Spain), 2008, Fernandezcortes A. , Calaforra J. M. , Snchezmartos F.

Karst caves exhibit a wide range of hydrological and hydrochemical responses to infiltration events, due to their physical heterogeneity space and dynamic variability over time, and due to non-Gaussian inputs (rain) and outputs (discharge). This paper reviews different approaches of studying seepage water in caves, in order to understand the infiltration regimen in the non-saturated zone of karst areas. As an illustration, we describe a four-year study of the active carbonate-water system the Cueva del Agua (Granada, southern Spain) that automatically logs the discharge from a stalactite. The results indicate that: (1) the drip water regime is not seasonal, but is linked instead to slow infiltration. Sudden changes in drip water regime occur due to infiltration along preferential flow paths and the draining of water of supersaturated water from reserves in the microfissure and pore system; (2) the drip rate is not linear over time. When dripping is constant, barometric oscillation of the air is the principal factor causing a chaotic a drip flow regime. Over a short period of two to three days, a mean variation in air pressure inside the cave of 10 (±3.7) mbar causes a oscillation the drip rate of 0.5 (±0.2) mm/h. The increase air translates into an the relative thickness of the gaseous phase of the drip water at the cost of the aqueous phase, so leading to a reduction the drip rate from the stalactite.


Effectiveness and adequacy of well sampling using baited traps for monitoring the distribution and abundance of an aquatic subterranean isopod, 2009, Hutchins B. And Orndorff W.
Land-use practices in karst can threaten aquatic subterranean species (stygobionts). However, since their habitat is mostly inaccessible, baseline ecological data such as distribution and population size are not known, making monitoring and risk assessment difficult. Wells provide easy and inexpensive access for sampling subterranean aquatic habitats. Over three years, including a two-month period of intensive sampling, the authors sampled sixteen wells (ten repeatedly) in Jefferson County, West Virginia, USA, for a threatened stygobiont, the isopod crustacean Antrolana lira Bowman, in two areas where the species was known to occur. A. lira was collected during 21 of 54 sampling events. A. lira was collected from 6 wells in which a total of 31 of the sampling events took place. Borehole logs suggest that only these 6 wells intersected appropriate habitat. Using the binomial approximation, the authors conclude that a random well has a 29% to 91% chance of intersecting appropriate habitat. In a well that intersects appropriate habitat, a single sampling event has a 51% to 85% chance of successful capture. The species occurs heterogeneously throughout the aquifer both in space and time, and thus, repeated sampling of multiple wells is needed to confidently establish presence or absence. In a contiguous block of phreatic carbonate- aquifer habitat analogous to that in the study area, at least 6 wells need to be sampled at least one time each to determine absence or presence of A. lira with 95% confidence. Additional studies with larger sample size would better constrain confidence intervals and facilitate refinement of minimum sampling requirements. In one well that consistently yielded from 8 to 19 animals, the population was estimated by mark- recapture methods. The limited data only allowed a very rough result of 112.3 6 110 (95% CI) individuals. Successful recapture suggests that animals are largely stationary when a food source is present. Animals were collected at depths below the water surface from ,1m (hand-dug well and cave) to , 30 meters in drilled wells. No migration of animals between wells was observed.

Buoyant convection resulting from dissolution and permeability growth in vertical limestone fractures, 2009, Chaudhuri A. , Rajaram H. , Viswanathan H. , Zyvoloski G. , Stauffer P.

and testing them on natural analogs provided by geologic systems may be fruitful. As example, we illustrate our attempts to simulate the development of two types of cave systems – branchwork in meteoric environments and mazework in hypogene or hydrothermal environments. Our computational models combine hydraulic, thermal and chemical processes in limestone fractures and consider the influence of subsurface heterogeneity as well. Our computational results vividly demonstrate the mechanisms by which branchwork patterns develop in meteoric environments and demonstrate how sustained dissolution along upward flow channels can be established in hypogene environments, thus creating favourable conditions for development of maze patterns. Investigations of system sensitivities in both types of environments indicate that a surprisingly robust pattern of behaviour results, thus serving as a target for developing simplified conceptual models of these systems. We also discuss the implications of our results for design, operation and risk analysis of engineered earth systems.


Deep confined karst detection, analysis and paleohydrology reconstruction at a basin-wide scale using new geophysical interpretation of borehole logs, 2011, Laskow M. , Gendler M. , Goldberg I. , Gvirtzman H. , Frumkin A.

Deep karst voids can be identified by a new geophysical interpretation method of commonly used borehole logs at deeply confined carbonate aquifers. We show that deep, buried karst voids can be characterized by combining this geophysical interpretation together with geological and hydrological data, and known speleological constraints. We demonstrate how this characterization can reveal past hydrological regimes and allow mapping of karst distribution on a basin-wide scale.

A combined analysis of geophysical, geological, hydrological and speleological data in the confined Yarkon-Taninim aquifer, Israel, led us to reconstruct past groundwater levels at different sea levels and reliefs, with the karst voids as a marker for long-term flow close to the water table. Paleo-canyons along the Mediterranean Sea shoreline strongly affected the region’s paleohydrology, by serving as major outlets of the aquifer during most of the Cenozoic. We conclude that intensive karstification was promoted by flow periods of longer duration and/or higher flux and flow velocities close to the aquifer’s past and present outlets. In addition, we suggest that karst voids found under shallow confinement was developed by renewed aggressivity achieved by hypogene water rising in cross-formational flow, mixed with fresh lateral water flow from the east.


Revised Hydrogeologic framework for the Floridan Aquifer System in the Northern Coastal Areas of Georgia and Parts of South Carolina, 2011, Gill H. E. , Williams L. J.

The hydrogeologic framework for the Floridan aquifer system was revised for eight northern coastal counties in Georgia and five coastal counties in South Carolina (fig. 1) as part of a regional assessment of water resources by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Groundwater Resources Program. In this study, selected well logs were compiled and analyzed to determine the vertical and horizontal continuity of permeable zones that make up the aquifer system, and define more precisely the thickness of confining beds that separate individual aquifer zones. The results of the analysis indicate that permeable zones in the Floridan aquifer system can be divided into (1) an upper group of extremely transmissive zones that correlate to the Ocala Limestone in Georgia and the Parkers Ferry Formation in South Carolina, and (2) a lower group of zones of relatively lower transmissivity that correlates to the middle part of the Avon Park formation in Georgia and updip clastic equivalent units of South Carolina (fig. 2). This new subdivision simplifies the hydrogeologic framework originally developed by the USGS in the 1980s and helps to improve the understanding of the physical geometry of the system for future modeling efforts. Revisions to the framework in the Savannah–Hilton Head area are particularly important where permeable beds control the movement of saltwater contamination. The revised framework will enable water-resource managers in Georgia and South Carolina to assess groundwater resources in a more uniform manner and help with the implementation of sound decisions when managing water resources in the aquifer system


Horizontal Bedding-Plane Conduit Systems in the Floridan Aquifer System and Their Relation to Saltwater Intrusion in Northeastern Florida and Southeastern Georgia, 2011, Williams L. J. , Spechler R. M.

Acoustic televiewer (ATV) images, flowmeter, and borehole geophysical logs obtained from the open intervals of deep test wells were used to develop a revised conceptual model of groundwater flow for the Floridan aquifer system in northeastern Florida and southeastern Georgia. Borehole information was used to identify and map the types and distribution of highly-transmissive production zones in the Floridan aquifer system. The ATV images and flowmeter traverses indicate that water produced from most wells is largely derived from a system of highly-transmissive solution zones formed along bedding planes and major formational contacts. These “horizontal bedding-plane conduit systems” may locally influence the movement of brackish and saline water in the Floridan aquifer system. A modified conceptual model of regional flow in the Floridan aquifer system is proposed that incor-porates locally interconnected horizontal conduit systems within the largely porous matrix rock (fig. 1). Each of the conduit systems represents a highly-transmissive zone along which water can move preferentially through the aquifer system. These may or may not be laterally continuous across the area. Flow paths within the system are restricted vertically by local or regional confining units except where these are breached by collapse features or vertical fractures. Near major pumping centers, water probably moves preferentially along the horizontal conduits to reach the discharging well. The source of water moving into the transmissive open conduits is either derived from upward migration along vertical discontinuities in the rock or from diffuse leakage from adjacent porous rock units. Some trapped relict water in adjacent lower-permeability units may locally contribute to the higher chloride concentrations observed in some wells 


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