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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That cave onyx is see onyx marble.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for water management (Keyword) returned 44 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 44
Simulating time-varying cave flow and water levels using the Storm Water Management Model, 2002, Campbell Cw, Sullivan Sm,
The Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is an Environmental Protection Agency code used to estimate runoff through storm water drainage systems that include channels, pipes, and manholes with storage. SWMM was applied to simulate flow and water level changes with time for a part of Stephens Gap Cave in Jackson County, Alabama. The goal of the simulation was to estimate losses from a surface stream to the cave. The cave has three entrances that can remove water from the surface stream. These entrances connect through several passages to an 8-m (27-ft) high waterfall in a dome room. After a storm, the walls of this dome room had leaves on the wall as high as 4.6 m (15 ft) above the floor. The model showed that the height of the leaves did not represent a water level that could have occurred following any recent storm.Campbell, Livingston and Garza in 1997 developed the CLG model to estimate losses from karst surface streams. This model treats losses as pipe flow from a reservoir and gives the loss flow rate as ~h0.5 where h is the depth of flow in the surface stream. Losses to Stephens Gap Cave calculated with SWMM varied as h1.8. This depth dependence is more characteristic of flow over a weir than of pipe flow.The SWMM-calculated losses to Stephens Gap Cave showed no hysteresis, that is, the rising and falling limbs of the stage-discharge plot followed the same curve. Loss curves with significant hysteresis are difficult to simulate with simple models such as CLG or a weir flow model. However, an SWMM model of a simple hypothetical cave demonstrated that storage in Stephens Gap Cave is far below that required to cause hysteresis. Losses from many karst surface streams can probably be adequately estimated with a calibrated weir flow model. The utility of SWMM for analyzing cave flows was established. SWMM produced stable solutions with very low continuity errors for this cave

Karst groundwater basin delineation, Fort Knox, Kentucky, 2002, Connair Dp, Murray Bs,
Evaluation of karst groundwater quality concern at Fort Knox Kentucky has required the development of a sitewide karst groundwater flow model and basin delineation investigation. The karst aquifer underlying Fort Knox is developed within approximately 60 m of the St. Louis Limestone and is bounded on three sides by surface streams that represent the local base level. The underlying Salem Limestone acts as a regional aquitard and provides a lower limit to karst aquifer development. The study area covers over 130 km(2) and contains over 200-inventoried karst features. As a part of this investigation, innovative multiple dye trace events were conducted throughout the study area using up to six dyes per event with a total of eight dyes used to conduct 14 dye traces during three seasonal events. Dye trace results, structural and topographic controls, spring characteristics, and normalized base flow were used to establish groundwater basin limits and boundary zones and to develop a conceptual sitewide groundwater flow model. The primary finding of this work indicates sitewide groundwater flow is controlled directly or indirectly by local stratigraphy, geologic structure, and changes in stream levels in the geologic past, and that two groundwater basins dominate the study area, accounting for approximately 80% of measured sitewide groundwater discharge. The findings of this investigation will be used to assess the groundwater contaminant contribution from source areas in individual basins, develop an effective groundwater monitoring program, and guide future groundwater management strategies. (C) 2002 Published by Elsevier Science B.V

Particle transport in a karst aquifer: natural and artificial tracer experiments with bacteria, bacteriophages and microspheres, 2002, Auckenthaler A, Raso G, Huggenberger P,
Fast changes in spring water quality in karst areas are a major concern for production of drinking water and require detailed knowledge of the complex interaction between karst aquifer, transport behavior of microorganisms and water treatment We have conducted artificial and natural particle transport experiments at a karst spring with bacteria, bacteriophages, microspheres, and pathogens Transport of the investigated microorganisms, turbid matter and chemical pullutants as well as increase in discharge are strongly related to precipitation and the heterogeneity of the aquifer The indicator bacteria E cob revealed a significant correlation to verotoxin-producing E cob and Cryptosporidium spp We conclude that artificial particle tracers can help identify 'hot spots' for microbial recharge and that system parameters in spring water such as turbidity, UV-extinction and increase in discharge can be key parameters for efficient raw water management

Composite transfer functions for karst aquifers, 2003, Icjukic V. , Jukic D. ,
Linear transfer functions have been extensively used in hydrological studies. Generally, we support this conclusion: rainfall-runoff models based on the convolution between rainfall rates and a nonparametric transfer function (NTF) are not successful at simulating karst spring discharges during long recession periods. The tails of identified transfer functions have irregular shapes and they are not accurate physical representation of the transport through a karst system. Irregularities are the result of unavoidable errors in input and output time series and simplifications made by considering the system as linear and time invariant. This paper deals with a new form of the transfer functions for karst aquifers, the so-called composite transfer function (CTF). The CTF simulates discharges by two transfer functions adapted for the quick flow and the slow flow hydrograph component modeling. NTF is responsible for the quick flow component. The slow flow component is modeled by a parametric transfer function that is an instantaneous unit hydrograph mathematically formulated and defined from a conceptual model. By using the CTF, the irregular shape of the tail of the identified transfer function can be avoided, and the simulation of long recession periods as well as the simulation of a complete hydrograph becomes more successful. The NTF, the Nash model, the Zoch model and other similar conceptual models can be considered separately as simplified forms of the CTF. The rainfall-runoff model based on the convolution between rainfall rates and the CTF was tested on the Jadro Spring in Croatia. The results of the application are compared with the results obtained by applying NTFs independently. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Can we simulate regional groundwater flow in a karst system using equivalent porous media models? Case study, Barton Springs Edwards aquifer, USA, 2003, Scanlon B. R. , Mace R. E. , Barrett M. E. , Smith B. ,
Various approaches can be used to simulate groundwater flow in karst systems, including equivalent porous media distributed parameter, lumped parameter, and dual porosity approaches, as well as discrete fracture or conduit approaches. The purpose of this study was to evaluate two different equivalent porous media approaches: lumped and distributed parameter, for simulating regional groundwater flow in a karst aquifer and to evaluate the adequacy of these approaches. The models were applied to the Barton Springs Edwards aquifer, Texas. Unique aspects of this study include availability of detailed information on recharge from stream-loss studies and on synoptic water levels, long-term continuous water level monitoring in wells throughout the aquifer, and spring discharge data to compare with simulation results. The MODFLOW code was used for the distributed parameter model. Estimation of hydraulic conductivity distribution was optimized by using a combination of trial and error and automated inverse methods. The lumped parameter model consists of five cells representing each of the watersheds contributing recharge to the aquifer. Transient simulations were conducted using both distributed and lumped parameter models for a 10-yr period (1989-1998). Both distributed and lumped parameter models fairly accurately simulated the temporal variability in spring discharge; therefore, if the objective of the model is to simulate spring discharge, either distributed or lumped parameter approaches can be used. The distributed parameter model generally reproduced the potentiometric surface at different times. The impact of the amount of pumping on a regional scale on spring discharge can be evaluated using a lumped parameter model; however, more detailed evaluation of the effect of pumping on groundwater levels and spring discharge requires a distributed parameter modeling approach. Sensitivity analyses indicated that spring discharge was much more sensitive to variations in recharge than pumpage, indicating that aquifer management should consider enhanced recharge, in addition to conservation measures, to maintain spring flow. This study shows the ability of equivalent porous media models to simulate regional groundwater flow in a highly karstified aquifer, which is important for water resources and groundwater management. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Hydrogeologic and climatic influences on spatial and interannual variation of recharge to a tropical karst island aquifer, 2003, Jones I. C. , Banner J. L. ,
[1] The hydrology and geochemistry of groundwater in tropical island aquifers, such as on Barbados, are significantly influenced by tropical climatic conditions. Recharge to these aquifers is the product of regional and local climate patterns that control rainfall. Oxygen isotopes can be used to estimate the amount and timing of recharge on these islands because seasonal fluctuations of rainwater oxygen isotopic compositions are related to the amount of rainfall. This study shows that estimates of average annual recharge to the limestone aquifer on Barbados vary widely, displaying a more direct relationship to the distribution of rainfall throughout each year than to total annual rainfall. Recharge estimates are higher during years when rainfall is concentrated in the peak wet season months than during years when rainfall is more evenly distributed throughout the year. The El Nino-Southern Oscillation appears to be partially responsible for these rainfall and recharge fluctuations. Knowledge of interannual variation of recharge and processes responsible is important because recharge variation must be considered when setting groundwater management policies related to groundwater availability

A frequency domain approach to groundwater recharge estimation in karst, 2004, Jukic D. , Icjukic V. ,
This paper presents an alternative method for determining the values of parameters of a groundwater recharge model. The phreatic zone of a karst aquifer is considered as the linear and time-invariant filter that transforms the input signal of groundwater recharge rates into the output signal of spring discharges. Similarities between transfer functions of total rainfall rates and transfer functions of groundwater recharge rates are the basis for developing the parametric periodogram depending on parameters of a groundwater recharge model. The values of parameters are estimated by minimizing the differences between the parametric periodogram and a periodogram of spring discharges. The approximate Whittle log likelihood function is the criterion for determining the optimal values of the parameters. By using this frequency domain approach, groundwater-balance calculations are avoided so the method can be applied on unexplored karst aquifers when groundwater-balance cannot be achieved without extensive geologic and hydrogeologic investigations. The results of the applications on two springs located in the Dinaric karst area in Croatia are discussed. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Lithuanian karst region rivers' water ecology: hydrochemical and hydrobiological evaluation, 2004, Tumas R. ,
The Lithuanian karst region covers about 1000 km(3) in the northern part of the country. This is the most vulnerable area from a pollution point of view. The structure of the total dissolved solids (TDS) shows that the flow of rivers in the karst region is from hydraulically interconnected aquifers. For the last decade (1991-2000) TDS has varied considerably, from 529 to 732 mg/l. The predominant sources of nitrogen and phosphorus within the headwaters of the monitored rivers were diffuse and agricultural in nature. Downstream from the towns nitrogen and especially phosphorus showed both diffuse and point source signals. Contributions of point sources to the stream pollution by nutrients prevail. The time series of monthly dissolved oxygen (O-2) in the main karst region river - the Musa - shows the existence of multiplicative seasonality. The trend cycle (1991-1999) shows low levels of dissolved oxygen in 1991-1993, with a similar fluctuation in 1994, 1995 and 1996 (due to point pollution from the town of Siauliai) and a gradually improving situation since 1997. The general multiplicative trend of dissolved oxygen in the lower reaches of the Musa river (near the border with Latvia) is decreasing (within the accuracy limits). The abundance and species of zoo benthos are suitable criteria (biotic index - 131) for evaluation of a river's biological water quality. Zoo benthos demonstrates tolerances that vary among species, the oxygen regime and the pollution with nitrogen. The best living conditions for invertebrates are in the riverhead of the karst region rivers - 131 = 5.62-6.74 (1991-1999), where pollution with nutrients is caused mostly by agricultural activity. Rare and asynchronous data of biological water quality shows up tendencies that invertebrates prefer less contaminated reaches of rivers

Karst groundwater: a challenge for new resources, 2005, Bakalowicz M,
Karst aquifers have complex and original characteristics which make them very different from other aquifers: high heterogeneity created and organised by groundwater flow; large voids, high flow velocities up to several hundreds of m/h, high flow rate springs up to some tens of in 3/S. Different conceptual models, known from the literature, attempt to take into account all these particularities. The study methods used in classical hydrogeology-bore hole, pumping test and distributed models-are generally invalid and unsuccessful in karst aquifers, because the results cannot be extended to the whole aquifer nor to some parts, as is done in non-karst aquifers. Presently, karst hydrogeologists use a specific investigation methodology (described here), which is comparable to that used in surface hydrology. important points remain unsolved. Some of them are related to fundamental aspects such as the void structure only a conduit network, or a conduit network plus a porous matrix -, the functioning - threshold effects and nonlinearities -, the modeling of the functioning - double or triple porosity, or viscous flow in conduits - and of karst genesis. Some other points deal with practical aspects, such as the assessment of aquifer storage capacity or vulnerability, or the prediction of the location of highly productive zones

Water quality improvement program effectiveness for carbonate aquifers in grazed land watersheds, 2005, Boyer Dg,
Water quality indicators of two agriculturally impacted karst areas in southeastern West Virginia were studied to determine the water quality effects of grazing agriculture and water quality trends following initiation of water quality improvement programs. Both areas are tributaries of the Greenbrier River and received funding for best management practices under the President's Initiative for Water Quality and then under the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP). After 11 years of study there was little evidence to suggest that water quality improved in one area. Three and a half years of study in the other area showed little evidence of consistent water quality improvement under EQIP. Lack of consistent water quality improvement at the catchment scale does not imply that the voluntary programs were failures. Increased livestock numbers as a result of successful changes in forage management practices may have overridden water quality improvements achieved through best management practices. Practices that target well defined contributing areas significantly impacting aquifer water quality might be one way to improve water quality at catchment scales in karst basins. For example, a significant decrease in fecal coliform concentrations was observed in subterranean drainage from one targeted sinkhole after dairy cattle were permanently excluded from the sinkhole

A review of the potential and actual sources of pollution to groundwater in selected karst areas in Slovenia, 2005, Kovacic G. , Ravbar N. ,
Slovenian karst areas extend over 43% of the country; limestones and dolomites of the Mesozoic era prevail. In Slovenia karst groundwater contributes up to 50% of the total drinking water supply. The quality of water is very high, despite the fact that it is extremely vulnerable to pollution. The present article is a study and a review of the potential and actual sources of pollution to the groundwater in the selected karst aquifers (the Kras, Velika planina and Sneznik plateaus), which differ in their natural characteristics. Unlike the other selected plateaus, the Kras plateau is inhabited. There are several settlements in the area and the industrial, agricultural and traffic activities carried out that represent a serious threat to the quality of karst groundwater. The Velika planina and Sneznik plateaus do not have permanent residents, however there are some serious hazards to the quality of the karst springs arising from sports, tourist, construction and farming activities, as well as from the traffic related to them. Despite relatively favourable conditions for protection, many important karst aquifers and springs are improperly protected in Slovenia. The reason is the lack of knowledge about sustainable water management in karst regions and the confusion in drinking water protection policy

Mapping of hazards to karst groundwater on the Velika planina plateau, 2005, Kovač, Ič, Gregor, Ravbar Nataš, A

The present paper presents the hazard mapping of groundwater on the Velika planina alpine karst plateau. There are no permanent residents on the plateau. Nevertheless, some serious hazards to the quality of the respective karst springs are arising from sports, tourist and farming activities. Some pollution has been already recorded in springs, showing the shortcomings of drinking water management also in uninhabited alpine karst areas, which are ordinarily very favourable for water protection.


Seawater intrusion in complex geological environments, 2005, Abarca Cameo, Elena

Modelling seawater intrusion (SWI) has evolved from a tool for understanding to a water management need. Yet, it remains a challenge. Difficulties arise from the assessment of dispersion coefficients and the complexity of natural systems that results in complicated aquifer geometries and heterogeneity in the hydraulic parameters. Addressing such difficulties is the objective of this thesis. Specifically, factors that may affect the flow and transport in coastal aquifers and produce heterogeneous salinity distributions are studied.

First, a new paradigm for seawater intrusion is proposed since the current paradigm (the Henry problem) fails to properly reproduce observed SWI wedges. Mixing is represented by means of a velocity dependent dispersion tensor in the new proposed problem. Thereby, we denote it as "dispersive Henry problem". SWI is characterized in terms of the wedge penetration, width of the mixing zone and influx of seawater. We find that the width of the mixing zone depends basically on dispersion, with longitudinal and transverse dispersion controlling different parts of the mixing zone but displaying similar overall effects. The wedge penetration is mainly controlled by the horizontal permeability and by the geometric mean of the dispersivities. Transverse dispersivity and the geometric mean of the hydraulic conductivity are the leading parameters controlling the amount of salt that enters the aquifer.

Second, the effect of heterogeneity was studied by incorporating heterogeneity in the hydraulic permeability into the modified Henry problem. Results show that heterogeneity causes the toe to recede while increases both the width and slope of the mixing zone. The shape of the interface and the saltwater flux depends on the distribution of the permeability in each realization. However, the toe penetration and the width of the mixing zone do not show large fluctuations. Both variables are satisfactorily reproduced, in cases of moderate heterogeneity, by homogeneous media with equivalent permeability and either local or effective dispersivities.

Third, the effect of aquifer geometry in horizontally large confined aquifers was analyzed. Lateral slope turned out to be a critical factor. Lateral slopes in the seaside boundary of more than 3% cause the development of horizontal convection cells. The deepest zones act as preferential zones for seawater to enter the aquifer and preferential discharging zones are developed in the upwards lateral margins. A dimensionless number, Nby, has been defined to estimate the relative importance of this effect.

All these factors can be determinant to explain the evolution of salinity in aquifers such as the Main aquifer of the Llobregat delta. Finally, a management model of this aquifer is developed to optimally design corrective measures to restore the water quality of the aquifer. The application of two different optimization methodologies, a linear and a non-linear optimization method, allowed (1) to quantify the hydraulic efficiency of two potential corrective measures: two recharge ponds and a seawater intrusion barrier; (2) to determine the water necessary to be injected in each of these measures to restore the water quality of the aquifer while minimizing changes in the pumping regime and (3) to assess the sustainable pumping regime (with and without the implementation of additional measures) once the water quality has been restored. Shadow prices obtained from linear programming become a valuable tool to quantify the hydraulic efficiency of potential corrective measures to restore water quality in the aquifer


KARST WATER MANAGEMENT IN SLOVENIA IN THE FRAME OF VULNERABILITY MAPPING, 2006, Ravbar Nataa, Kova?i? Gregor
Slovene karst sources are of great national importance for drinking water supply. Since karst aquifer systems are very susceptible to contamination, these sources require appropriate and careful managing. Unfortunately, in the acts of Slovene legislation, the special characteristics of water flow within karst regions are not very seriously taken into consideration in determining the criteria for karst water sources protection. In contrast, in some other countries, the concept of groundwater vulnerability mapping has been successfully used for protection zoning and land use planning in karst. Regarding the differences between particular karst aquifer systems, data availability and economic resources, different methods of karst water vulnerability assessment and mapping have already been developed. Already these methods have been many times tested and implemented in different test sites worldwide. However, experience in application using different methodologies for vulnerability mapping of karst aquifers is very modest in Slovenia. The present paper deals with potential methodological problems that might arise while applying the most commonly used methods for karst water vulnerability assessment to Slovene karst regions.

Karst groundwater management by defining protection zones based on regional geological structures and groundwater flow fields, 2006, Hao Yonghong, Yeh Tian Chyi, Hu Caihong, Wang Yanrong, Li Xia,

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