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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That cavitation is 1. the collapse of bubbles in a fluid, caused by static pressure being less than the fluid vapor pressure. 2. a phenomena of cavity formation, or formation and collapse, especially in regard to pumps, when the absolute pressure within the water reaches vapor pressure causing the formation of vapor pockets [6].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for size (Keyword) returned 491 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 491
The natural populations of Stenasellus virei Dollfus (trgoglobic Crustacea Asellota)., 1973, Magniez Guy
Many cavernicolous and phreatic localities are known for the species Stenasellus virei. Some of these, which harbor a rather abundant population have been studied for several years. The endemic populations from permanent waters of some fossil karstic systems seem to have an abnormal composition. They include especially large individuals (juvenile stages being rare). They differ from the phreatic populations, which exhibit a normal distribution in size groups with a normal percentage of juveniles. These differences in the structure of populations may result from physical differences between the habitat in free waters of caves and in phreatic water, and from differences between the associations of species that these two types of hypogean habitat may support.

Results of Survey levelling at Bungonia Caves, New South Wales, 1973, Anderson, Edward G.

During 1971, members of the University of N.S.W. Speleological Society (UNSWSS) were working on a project to determine water table levels, as represented by sumps, in some of the Bungonia Caves. It was soon realised that the accuracy of heights determined from the available surface surveys, usually "forestry compass" traverses, was insufficient. The author was asked to provide more accurate surface levels and, consequently, two trips were organised on 24-25 July and 31 July 1971 with the aim of establishing a differential levelling net in the plateau area. Personnel on the first trip comprised E.G. Anderson and A.J. Watson (Senior Photogrammetrist, N.S.W. Lands Department), surveyors, and A.J. Pavey and M. Caplehorn, UNSWSS, assistants. On the second trip, M. Caplehorn was replaced by A. Culberg, UNSWSS.


Size and growth of the eyes of the troglobitic Salamander Typhlotriton spelaeus., 1974, Besharse Joseph C. , Brandon Ronald A.
The eyes of larval T. spelaeus grow by negative allometry, but in allometric coefftcients they are not greatly different from E. lucifuga. The major differences in eye size, both absolute and relative to body size, between T~ spelaeus and E. lucifuga are established prior Io the larval growth period. The eyes of T. spelaeus cease to grow at metamorphosis and are reduced in size thereafter. In addition, there is increased individual variability and bilateral asymmetry of eye size in adult T spelaeus compared to both adulI E lucifuga and larval T. spelaeus. This variability, expressed as relative dispersion about mean eye size, is significantly greater than in E luci.fuga, and appears to result from three factors: 1) postmetamorphic cessation of eye growth, 2) wide variation in body size and eye size al metamorphosis, and 3) postmetamorphic shape changes and reduction of eye size.

Observations on Stenasellus virei in its natural biotopes (Crustacea Isopoda Asellota of Subterranean Waters)., 1974, Magniez Guy
Thanks to intensive exploration and to new methods for capturing aquatic underground fauna. 117 localities are now known for Stenasellus virei. The description of some typical biotopes suggests that the species lives as well in karstic waters as in phreatic ones, inside the different environment of the hydrogeological classification of subterranean waters. St. virei buchneri and St. v. hussoni are almost cavernicolous. St. v. angelieri is distributed in the underground waters of Catalonia. St. v. boui is located in the underflow of Salat river basin. St. v. virei is widely distributed in the alluvial water-level of Garonne and Ebro rivers basins. The dispersion of St. virei into the alluvial environment explains the process of colonization of continental underground waters. It explains also the existence of an apparently insulated population into the sink-hole of Padirac. The actual distribution of the five subspecies is explained by important restrictions of the area in quaternary glacial ages, followed by local (in the water-level of the tributaries of Garonne river) spreading during postglacial time. The postglacial reconquest of the Salat river underflow by this species seems to have been responsible for the latest subspeciation (St. v. boui). The endemic populations of fossil karstic systems seem to have an abnormal composition. They include unusually large adults, juvenile stages being rare. They differ from the phreatic populations, which exhibit a normal distribution is size groups, with a formal percentage of juveniles. These differences between karstic and interstitial populations may result from the fact that in caves, Sr. virei is often insulated from its original phreatic biocoenosis: an intraspecific competition between size classes has taken the place of normal heterospecific struggle for existence.

Interaction between competition and predation in cave stream communities., 1975, Culver David C.
Predation by salamander larvae (Gyrinophilus porphyriticus) reduces the density of one of its prey (the isopod Asellus recurvatus) but increases the density of the other (the amphipod Crangonyx antennatus in a Virginia cave stream. This happens because predation on the isopod reduces its competitive effect on the amphipod. Both prey populations tend to occur more frequently in refugia when predators are present. In another cave where there are no prey refugia, the predator reduces the density of both species. It appears that it is easier for a predator to invade a community than to reach a stable equilibrium with the prey, if the prey have refugia, persistence of the prey system and the predator/prey system is constrained more by low population sizes than by the instability of the interaction coefficients.

Observations on the biology of Stenasellus virei (Crustacea Isopoda Asellota of subterranean waters), 1975, Magniez Guy
St. virei has been bred in the laboratory for many years (1960-1974). Most of the St.v.hussoni were captured in karstic waters, near the Moulis subterranean laboratory. Some St.v.virei from the Padirac sink-hole; St.v.buchneri from Cantabrian caves; St.v.boui and St.v.virei from phreatic waters; and St.buili and St.breuili have also been bred. Since Stenasellids are unable to swim, very low aquariums are used, with a bed of cave clay, some calcareous stones, dead wood and dead elm tree leaves. Little depth of water is necessary. Stenasellus was originally carnivorous, being able to capture and devour living prey, such as Chironomid larvae, but the populations of cave waters have developed a different diet: silt, guano, plant remains..., because they have been often insulated from their original phreatic biocenosis. Nevertheless, the existence of cannibalism among them points out that the predatory behaviour has not completely disappeared. Adult St.virei can be fed with Cerophyl. Some observations on the burrowing activity and on the reactions to light, temperature and salt water have been made. All postmarsupial molts of Stenasellus occur in two steps (isopodian molts). The intramolt is extremely long (from 83 h 30 mi for the first molt of the free young), to 8-12 days, for the adult male and female, 14 days for female reproductive molts and 16-21 days for the molts of aged or senile individuals). The intermolts last from 2 1/2 months (first intermolt of the free young), to 9-12 months (non-reproductive ones of the adult) and 12-18 months (average: 15-16), for reproductive 9 intermolts. The normal lifespan of karstic subspecies of St.virei and related species must be estimated as 12 years (males) and 15 years (females). All these values are 10-20 times longer than these of an epigean Asellid of the same size (Asellus aquaticus). The reproductive cycle has been studied. The adult female is larger than the male. There is no precopulatory pairing ("nuptial ride"d 6-7 years or more, fur the female. In the juvenile male, the morphogenesis of I and Il pleopods takes place normally on intermolts 4-9 and lasts 3 years or more. On intermolt 10, it seems that the male is able to mate.

A new species of Parajapygidae from the Caribbean shores of Cuba collected by Pr. L. Botosaneanu during the second cuban-romanian biospeleological expedition to Cuba 1973., 1975, Pages Jean.
P. (P.) botosaneanui n.sp. has been collected in the interstitial habitat of the Caribbean shores on the eastern coast of Cuba. This note is divided into 6 parts: 1) the description by L. Botusaneanu of the stations where this species has been collected and data on the possibility for the specimens of this taxa to swim and to creep between the grains of sand; 2) the description and the affinities of the n. sp., which is closely related to bonetianus Silv. from Mexico; 3) the study of the male genitalia made possible the definition of 4 instars (male 1 to male 4) which seem common to all the Parajapyx; 4) the study of the 9 genitalia, which possess always the same number of phanera, whatever the size may be, does not permit the identification of instars; 5) the study of the armature of the internal margin of the cerci shows for the first time among the Parajapygidae a striking dimorphismus both between the sexless and sexed instars and between male and female, these latter retaining, when "adult", an ornamentation identical to that of juvenil males: 6) the study of evolution and progressive complication of the chetotaxy from the sexless instars to the elder ones.

Remarks about the psammic Asellid Proasellus walteri (Chappuis, 1948) (Crustacea, Isopoda, Asellota)., 1976, Henry Jean Paul
P. walteri, an eyeless species of tiny size and thin body, shows numerous original characters. By its general morphology, it is one form of Asellid best adapted to the phreatic waters where it exists in large settlements. It is also able to live in the psammic biotope in a manner similar to Microparasellids. The females lay only 6 to 10 normal sized eggs. There is no indication of oostegits outside the breeding period. In some populations, the small number of eggs, correlated with the small size, seems to be compensated by a sex-ratio favorable so the females.

The ecology of Metazoa in a settling basin of the Berlin Water Works and its importance in the process of purification of percolated surface water., 1976, Ritterbusch Barbara
Based upon the hypothesis that the Metazoa (nematoda and rotifera) in the interstitial stratum of a slow sand filter are of importance in the process of purification of surface water, a filter was built to check the substrate characteristics of different grain sizes compared with the natural soil. It was found that the granulometric composition of sands as found in the settling basins did have the best comparative screening properties. This was demonstrated by chemical analyses of NH4, NO2, NO3, PO4, KMnO4-consumption and O2-saturation. Only the NO3-graph is shown here. The importance of Metazoa in the process of filtering water was studied by inoculating metazoic microorganisms into the most efficient filter. Chemical analyses of the water did not reveal a significant change of water quality over that from a non-inoculated filter. Because of this result the Metazoa do not appear to act as an important component in the water purification by sand filtration.

On the Bathynella from Romania: B. (B.) boteai Serban, B. (B.) vaducrisensis n. sp., B. (B.) plesai Serban et B. (B.) motrensis Serban (Bathynellacea, Bathynellidae). Part II., 1976, Serban Eugne
In the second part of the note a discussion is given dealing with the importance of different characters in the systematics of the genus Bathynella Vejdovsky and with species individualisation in the sub-genus Bathynella (Bathynella) Vejdovsky. We emphasize the differentiation of some elements of the VIIIth male pereiopodes, these appendages never having the same morphology in different species. Taking into account the structure of the apical end of the pennian anterior plates, we suggest to group separately boteai with vaducrisensis and plesai with ruffoi. The main conclusions of the recent studies on the European Bathynella are also given.

Geomorphology of the North Karst, South Nahanni River Region, Northwest Territories, Canada, PhD Thesis, 1976, Brook, George Albert,

First investigated on the ground in June 1972, the Nahanni karst of northern Canada is the most complex karst terrain yet reported from high latitudes. It is centered at 61°28' N, longitude 124°05' W and lies within the zone of discontinuous permafrost. Mean annual temperature is 24°F and mean total precipitation 22.3 inches. Principal karst forms are fracture-located karst streets and irregularly-shaped closed depression called karst platea which may be up to 600 feet in depth. Platea often contain karst towers which are residuals of wall recession. Vertical-walled pond dolines up to 120 feet deep are common in bare karst areas while subjacent karst collapse, subsidence and suffosion depressions occur on marginal shale- and drift-mantled surfaces. Three small poljes have been identified, two produced entirely by solution, the other a structural form. These are periodically inundated. There are several peripheral fluvial canyons up to 3,000 feet deep that are blocked by glacial drift and which presently drain underground. Similarity in the hydrogeological properties of Nahanni Formation limestones at a variety of scales has led to the development of morphologically-identical karst forms which range in size from inches up to hundreds of feet. Furthermore, many of these landforms are part of a developmental sequence that at one scale links vertical-walled dolines, karst streets, platea and poljes; and at another links solution pits, grikes and joint hollows on limestone pavements. The evidence suggests that poljes form by the coalescence of dolines and uvalas just as Cvijic suggested in 1918. In attempting to explain the almost "tropical" nature of the sub-arctic Nahanni karst landform assemblage, a number of facts are of importance.
(a) The Nahanni Formation limestones have been highly warped and intensively fractures during the past one million years. Open fractures have encouraged karstification by allowing easy movement of water underground. Warping has provided the relief necessary for the development of solutional forms with a distinct vertical component.
(b) The karst can not be considered relict because it was glaciated during the Pleistocene. In addition the hydrological activity in it today is comparable with that in many humid tropical karst areas.
(c) Solutional denudation rates governed by aspects of surficial and bedrock geology may in some localized areas be equivalent to rates in humid tropical carbonate regions.
(d) At present rates, the most highly developed forms could have been produced within the last 200,000 years and because there is evidence to indicate that the karst may not have been glaciated for up to 250,000 years, such a period has been available for solutional development.
Because the Nahanni region has not been glaciated for an extremely long period, it may be one of only a few high-latitude carbonate terrains that have had time to develop fully. Its very existence questions the validity of the concept that the intensity and direction of karst development is climate-controlled. In the Nahanni at least, the structural and lithological properties of the host limestone appear to have been of greater importance. The labyrinth karst type present in regions of humid-tropical to sub-arctic climate, is an outstanding example of a structurally-controlled karst landscape. It may well be that the same controls also influence the distributions of other karst types.


Stenasellus escolai n. sp., Crustacea Isopoda Asellota from the subterranean waters of Southern Spain., 1977, Magniez Guy
This new species was captured in the phreatic waters of Guadalquivir valley, where it lives together with another, very small-sized Stenasellid: St. bragai Magniez, previously described. It belongs to the phyletic line of St. breuili Racovitza, which colonizes the subterranean waters of the Iberic peninsula.

Diffuse flow and conduit flow in limestone terrain in the Mendip Hills, Somerset (Great Britain), 1977, Atkinson T. C.
The hydrogeology of the karstic Carboniferous Limestone is described. Water tracing has established recharge areas for fifteen major springs and water budgets confirm the size of the areas found. Groundwater flow occurs in two modes: turbulent conduit flow and diffuse Darcian flow in fine fractures. Recharge is 50% quickflow via caves and closed depressions and 50% slower percolation. Active storage in the diffuse component (S = 0.92%) is 30 times greater than in phreatic conduits. Diffuse hydraulic conductivity is 0.89 m day−1 and an average of 60?80% of groundwater is transmitted by conduits in this maturely karsted and steeply dipping aquifer.

The Tegumental Glands of a Troglobitic Crustacean., 1978, Crouau Yves, Juberthiejupeau Lysiane
Tegumental glands, located in the antennae of Antromysis juberthiei are present in males and females; in the antennulae each of them consists of 3 cells: a secretory cell of large size, an intermediary cell and a canal cell probably secretory in nature. The canal cell possesses an extracellular cavity with deep infoldings and microvilli between which the canal crinkles along. The intermediary cell is heavily provided with microfilaments. The secretory granules have an organized content.

Eco-ethological and parasitological data on the cavernicolous Chiroptera in Shaba (Zaire)., 1978, De Faveaux Michel Anciaux
After a brief analysis of the elements of the cavernicolous microclimate in Shaba, the author emphasizes the possibility of relations between ecology and parasitism. He then reviews the 9 species of Chiroptera that live in the subterranean field in Shaba, pointing out their environmental habitat. behaviour and parasites.

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