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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That dead end is see cul-de-sac.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for microclimate (Keyword) returned 50 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 50
Field assessment of the microclimatology of tropical flank margin caves, 2000, Gamble Dw, Dogwiler Jt, Mylroie J,
Temperature observations were collected inside 2 caves in the Bahamas and 1 cave in Puerto Rico to characterize the microclimatology of tropical flank margin cave systems. Three aspects of these tropical cave temperatures agree with temperate cave microclimate theory. Specifically, external atmospheric disturbances can affect temperatures inside tropical flank margin cave systems, tropical flank margin caves are warmer than the exterior temperatures during winter, and water can impact temperatures deep into a tropical flank margin cave system. The temperature observations collected also indicate potential differences between the microclimatology of tropical and temperate cave systems. In particular, the temperate 3-zone cave microclimate model may not be applicable to tropical flank margin caves, diurnal fluctuations were not apparent in tropical flank margin cave systems, and the existence of a temperature inversion in a down-sloping cave may not be applicable to all tropical flank margin caves. The potential differences in temperate and these tropical cave systems can be linked to the physical dimensions of the tropical flank margin cave systems and the unique hydrology of small carbonate islands. Specifically, tropical flank margin caves have a width greater than length while temperate fluvio-karst caves have a length greater than width and tidal water can exist in the pits and depressions of tropical flank margin caves as opposed to flowing streams in temperate cave systems

The role of condensation in karst hydrogeology and speleogenesis, 2000, Dublyansky V. N. , Dublyansky Y. V.
Condensation in karst occurs over a wide range of natural settings, at latitudes from 25 to 70o and altitudes from sea level to 2600 m. In summer (April through September), condensation introduces a significant amount of water into the karst massifs (from 0.1 % to as much as 20 % of the total dry-season runoff). Contrary to common belief, in winter evaporation does not withdraw appreciable amounts of water from the massifs. Evaporating at depth, the water condenses near the surface within the epikarstic zone or on the snow cover and flows back. Condensation can sustain springs during prolonged dry periods (such as summer and winter) when there is no recharge by liquid precipitation. Condensation can play a significant role in speleogenesis, and many forms of cave macro-, meso-, and micromorphologies are attributable to condensation corrosion. It can be particularly efficient in the latter stages of hydrothermal cave development (during partial dewatering) when the temperature and the humidity gradients are highest. Coupled with evaporation, air convection, and aerosol mass transfer, condensation can play a crucial role in the formation of a number of speleothems, as well as create peculiar patterns of cave microclimate.

Ochtina Aragonite Cave (Western Carpathians, Slovakia): Morphology, mineralogy of the fill and genesis, 2002, Bosak P, Bella P, Cilek V, Ford Dc, Hercman H, Kadlec J, Osborne A, Pruner P,
Ochtina Aragonite Cave is a 300 m long cryptokarstic cavity with simple linear sections linked to a geometrically irregular spongework labyrinth. The metalimestones, partly metasomatically altered to ankerite and siderite, occur as isolated lenses in insoluble rocks. Oxygen-enriched meteoric water seeping along the faults caused siderite/ankerite weathering and transformation to ochres that were later removed by mechanical erosion. Corrosion was enhanced by sulphide weathering of gangue minerals and by carbon dioxide released from decomposition of siderite/ankerite. The initial phreatic speleogens, older than 780 ka, were created by dissolution in density-derived convectional cellular circulation conditions of very slow flow. Thermohaline convection cells operating in the flooded cave might also have influenced its morphology. Later vadose corrosional events have altered the original form to a large extent. Water levels have fluctuated many times during its history as the cave filled during wet periods and then slowly drained. Mn-rich loams with Ni-bearing asbolane and bimessite were formed by microbial precipitation in the ponds remaining after the floods. Allophane was produced in the acidic environment of sulphide weathering. La-Nd-phosphate and REE enriched Mn-oxide precipitated on geochemical barriers in the asbolane layers. Ochres containing about 50 wt.% of water influence the cave microclimate and the precipitation of secondary aragonite. An oldest aragonite generation is preserved as corroded relics in ceiling niches truncated by corrosional bevels. Thermal ionisation mass spectrometry and alpha counting U series dating has yielded ages of about 500-450 and 138-121 ka, indicating that there have been several episodes of deposition, occurring during Quaternary warm periods (Elsterian 1/2, Eemian). Spiral and acicular forms representing a second generation began to be deposited in Late Glacial (14 ka - Allerod) times. The youngest aragonite, frostwork, continues to be deposited today. Both of the, younger generations have similar isotopic compositions, indicating that they originated in conditions very similar, or identical, to those found at present in the cave

E?aniay iaua?a: Iiuo eiiieaeniue ea?noieiae?aneeo enneaaiaaiee, 2002, Dublyansky V. N. , Vakhrushev B. A. , Amelichev G. N. , Shutov Yu. I.
The book summarizes results of more than 40 years of studies of Krasnaya (Red) Cave, the longest cave in Crimea with underground river. In Russian

MEDICAL SURVEY OF THE STAFF WORKING IN THE ŠKOCJAN CAVES, SLOVENIA , 2002, Debevec Gerjevič, Vanja

The cave microclimate is distinguished by many parameters that could underlie some physiological changes in human body when exposed for an extended period of time. Beside temperature, air-flow, the absence of sunlight and humidity, which vary according to the location and structure of the underground space, radon radiation is present as well. Park Škocjanske jame, Slovenia, has been performing a regular and continuous monitoring of radon and its daughter products for about five years now. All measurements are done by the Institute for Occupational Safety, Ljubljana. The accurate evidence of time spent in the cave is kept for every member of the staff. This enables us to combine the data with radon concentration and determine the maximum dose of radiation that one has received during one year working period. According to national regulation and law, stated by National Health Inspector and Ministry of Health, a regular medical survey has been established. Detailed medical exams are performed each year or less frequently in order to prevent health problems. Blood tests enable us to observe radiation impact. In the following work a short overview of microclimates impacts will be presented as health and risk factors.


MICROCLIMATIC RESEARCH IN THE SLOVAKIAN SHOW CAVES, 2002, Zelinka, Jan

The paper deals with the activities of the Cave Protection Department of the Slovak Caves Administration in the field of speleoclimatic monitoring in the Slovakian show caves since 1996. The monitoring is concentrated on detail survey of basic climatic parameters processes (temperature, relative air humidity, dew point, air velocity, atmospheric pressure etc.) in by now studied show caves during minimally one year. The essence of obtained knowledge is to enhance cave protection in the practice of show caves, better understand the geoecosystems; determine visitors' influence, the period of regeneration and evaluation of possible negative influences. The results of the monitoring are used for determining the carrying capacity of individual caves, limits for visitors, guiding the manageiant and other necessary measures. Presented caves were surveyed by priorities like: World Heritage site, ice caves, natural air mass communication with surface climate, potential threats - all in relation to cave utilization and operation. Technical eqqipment, as well as research methodology are described in detail in the paper.


Soil types and eolian dust in high-mountainous karst of the Northern Calcareous Alps (Zugspitzplatt, Wetterstein Mountains, Germany), 2003, Kufmann C. ,
This, study deals with the soil formation on pure limestone in the high-mountainous karst of Wetterstein Mountains (Northern Calcareous Alps). The study area in detail covers the alpine (2000 to 2350 in) and the subnivale zone (2350 to 2600 in) of Zugspitzplatt, a tertiary paleosurface situated next to the highest summit of Germany (Zugspitze 2963 in). The formation of autochthonous soils is determined by the following parameters: uniform geology and geochemistry of Triassic limestone (CaCO3 MgCO3 greater than or equal to 98%), variable substrata (solid rock, debris, local moraine), hypsometric pattern of vegetation modified by microclimate and aspect, variety of micro-environments in karst relief. In the subnivale zone, only leptosols (lithic, skeletic) and regosols (calcaric, humic) occur, whereas in the alpine zone different stages of folic histosols and rendzic leptosols prevail due to the diversity of vegetation. The purity of limestone prevents a distinct contribution of residues to soil formation. Instead of expected A-B-C profiles, the residues are mixed with organic matter of folic horizons (O-OB-C). Only in karst depressions or on local moraines small Bt horizons (2 to 5 cm) occur. They mark a developed stage of folic histosol (O-OB-Bt-C) representing the climax of autochthonous mineral soil genesis in the study area. Special features are brown deposits (mean thickness 30 cm) covering large parts of the alpine zone. On the basis of mineralogical (X-ray diffraction, heavy minerals) and pedological data (grain size, soil chemistry), eolian origin is indicated. The resulting soils are classified as loess loam-like cambisols (Ah-Bw-2(Bt)-2C) and are related to late glacial loess deposition (Egesen-Stade of Younger Dryas). The abundance of mica and silt in the surface layers and the grain size distribution of snow dust samples prove that dust influx by southerly winds is still continuing. The major sources for both late glacial and present-day dust are magmatic and metamorphic rock formations of the Central Alps. Additionally, local dust transport from adjacent outcrops of Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous sediments is evident. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Condensation as a microclimate process: measurement, numerical simulation and prediction in the Glowworm Cave, 2003, De Freitas C. R. , Schmekal A.

Ochtin Aragonite Cave (Slovakia): morphology, mineralogy and genesis, 2005, Bosk P. , Bella P. , Cilek V. , Ford D. C. , Hercman H. , Kadlec J. , Osborne A. , Pruner P. ,

Ochtiná Aragonite Cave is a 300 m long cryptokarstic cavity with simple linear sections linked to a geometrically irregular spongework labyrinth. The limestones, partly metasomatically altered to ankerite and siderite, occur as lenses in insoluble rocks. Oxygen-enriched meteoric water seeping along the faults caused siderite/ankerite weathering and transformation to ochres that were later removed by mechanical erosion. Corrosion was enhanced by sulphide weathering of gangue minerals and by carbon dioxide released from decomposition of siderite/ankerite. The initial phreatic speleogens, older than 780 ka, were created by dissolution in density-derived convectional cellular circulation conditions of very slow flow. Thermohaline convection cells operating in the flooded cave might also have influenced its morphology. Later vadose corrosional events have altered the original form to a large extent. Water levels have fluctuated many times during its history as the cave filled during wet periods and then slowly drained.
Mn-rich loams with Ni-bearing asbolane and birnessite were formed by microbial precipitation in the ponds remaining after the floods. Allophane was produced in the acidic environment of sulphide weathering. La-Nd-phosphate and REE enriched Mn-oxide precipitated on geochemical barriers in the asbolane layers. Ochres containing about 50 wt.% of water influence the cave microclimate and the precipitation of secondary aragonite. An oldest aragonite generation is preserved as corroded relics in ceiling niches truncated by corrosional bevels. TIMS and alpha counting U series dating has yielded ages of about 500-450 and 138-121 ka, indicating that there have been several episodes of deposition, occurring during Quaternary warm periods (Elsterian 1/2, Eemian). Spiral and acicular forms representing a second generation began to be deposited in Late Glacial (14 ka – Alleröd) times. The youngest aragonite, frostwork, continues to be deposited today. Both of the younger generations have similar isotopic compositions, indicating that they originated in conditions very similar, or identical, to those found at present in the cave.


Prediction of condensation in caves, 2005, Defreitas C. R. , Schmekal A.

Condensation is an important process in karst environments, especially in caves where carbon dioxide enriched air can lead to high rates of condensation corrosion. The problem is there has been very little research reported in the literature dealing with condensation as a microclimate process. This study addresses the problem and reports on a method for measuring and predicting condensation rates in a limestone cave. Electronic sensors for measuring condensation and evaporation of the condensate as part of a single continuous process of water vapour flux are tested and used to collect 12 months of data. The study site is the Glowworm tourist cave in New Zealand. Condensation is a function of the vapour gradient between rock surfaces in the cave and cave air. The size of the gradient is largely determined by air exchange with the outside. The results show that the numerical model to predict condensation works well. Given that rock-surface temperature in the cave does not vary much, condensation is essentially a function of cave air temperature and the processes that affect it, mainly, air exchange with outside. The results show that condensation can be controlled by controlling ventilation of the cave.


Microclimatic characterization of caves and analysis of the antropic impact for touristic use. PhD thesis , 2005, Ferná, Ndezcorté, S A.

The conservation and protection of caves requires suitable management tools that are based on a detailed knowledge of the environmental parameters of karst areas. The main tool for karst management is the definition and delimitation of protected areas and, in the case of tourist caves, an estimation of the visitor carrying capacity. This doctoral thesis deals with the most important methodologies related to the monitoring of cave microclimates, and focuses on show caves. The use of a great quantity of environmental data derived from different caves in southern Spain has required the use of several statistical techniques to meet the objective of simplifying and revaluating this environmental information. It is expected that the main focus of interest of this research thesis to managers of these geo-heritage sites lies in the possibility of incorporating the results of cave environmental monitoring into an integrated model of management, which also contemplates socio-economic aspects. The analysis of microclimates in each of the caves under study is dealt with in different ways depending on the type of data recorded within each one of them. Caves such as the 'Cueva del Agua' and 'Cueva de las Ventanas' are typified by the spatiotemporal behavior of the main microclimatic variables, such as the temperature and carbon dioxide content of the air. This information about the 'zero state' of the cave is complemented by an analysis of the infiltration processes and a study of the air-mass exchange phenomena. In the Sorbas karst, the design and installation of an intelligent environmental control system inside one of the potential tourist caves (System Covadura) allowed an extensive time series database to be assembled, which together with information about the spatial microclimate, comprises the base knowledge of the initial state of the cave before any tourist activities are authorized. The Giant Geode of Pulpí (Almería, Spain) represents an exceptional case with characteristics that are distinct from show caves as defined in the strictest sense of the term. The uniqueness of this site in terms of its fragility and dimension, together with the imminent need to adopt measures for its protection, resulted in the execution of an exhaustive microclimatic study in order to evaluate the possibility of opening the geode to tourists.


Microclimatic characterization of caves and analysis of the antropic impact for touristic use, PhD Thesis , 2005, Ferná, Ndezcorté, S A

The conservation and protection of caves requires suitable management tools that are based on a detailed knowledge of the environmental parameters of karst areas. The main tool for karst management is the definition and delimitation of protected areas and, in the case of tourist caves, an estimation of the visitor carrying capacity. This doctoral thesis deals with the most important methodologies related to the monitoring of cave microclimates, and focuses on show caves. The use of a great quantity of environmental data derived from different caves in southern Spain has required the use of several statistical techniques to meet the objective of simplifying and revaluating this environmental information. It is expected that the main focus of interest of this research thesis to managers of these geo-heritage sites lies in the possibility of incorporating the results of cave environmental monitoring into an integrated model of management, which also contemplates socio-economic aspects. The analysis of microclimates in each of the caves under study is dealt with in different ways depending on the type of data recorded within each one of them. Caves such as the 'Cueva del Agua' and 'Cueva de las Ventanas' are typified by the spatiotemporal behavior of the main microclimatic variables, such as the temperature and carbon dioxide content of the air. This information about the 'zero state' of the cave is complemented by an analysis of the infiltration processes and a study of the air-mass exchange phenomena. In the Sorbas karst, the design and installation of an intelligent environmental control system inside one of the potential tourist caves (System Covadura) allowed an extensive time series database to be assembled, which together with information about the spatial microclimate, comprises the base knowledge of the initial state of the cave before any tourist activities are authorized. The Giant Geode of Pulpí (Almería, Spain) represents an exceptional case with characteristics that are distinct from show caves as defined in the strictest sense of the term. The uniqueness of this site in terms of its fragility and dimension, together with the imminent need to adopt measures for its protection, resulted in the execution of an exhaustive microclimatic study in order to evaluate the possibility of opening the geode to tourists.


Spatiotemporal analysis of air conditions as a tool for the environmental management of a show cave (Cueva del Agua, Spain), 2006, Fernandezcortes A, Calaforra Jm, Sanchezmartos F,
We recorded the air temperature and carbon dioxide concentration within the Cueva del Agua, a cave in Spain, under natural conditions prior to the cave being opened to tourists. Geostatistical tools are useful techniques for characterizing microclimate parameters with the aim of adopting measures to ensure the conservation and sound environmental management of tourist caves. We modelled the spatial distribution of these microclimatic parameters over an annual cycle using iterative residual kriging, revealing the stratification of air related to the cave's topography. Replenishment of the cave air is activated by convective circulation that accompanies the development of inversions in the thermal gradient of the air. Comparison of the spatial distribution of each microclimatic parameter over time enables us to characterize the exchange of air between the cave interior and the outside, as well as identify potential areas that could be opened to tourists and determine suitable visiting schedules

Long-term changes in the cave atmosphere air temperature as a result of periodic heliophysical processes, 2006, Stoeva Penka, Stoev Alexey, Kiskinova Nadya,
Climatic trends connected with short- and long-period variations of the solar activity occur as a reaction even in such conservative media as the air volumes of karst caves. The yearly mean air temperatures in the zone of constant temperatures of four show caves in Bulgaria were studied for a period of 36 years (1968-2003). The examination was made by everyday noon measurements in Ledenika, Saeva dupka, Snezhanka and Uhlovitsa cave. The caves are situated at different altitudes and geographic latitude. Seasonal fluctuations of the yearly mean air temperature in the ZCT of the explored caves have been identified by Fourier analysis. The same analysis has been applied for the Sunspot number and Apmax indices, which are representatives of the solar and geomagnetic activity, for the same period of data available. Autocorrelograms have been used for examination of the seasonal patterns of the air temperatures in the ZCT in every cave and in Sunspot number and Apmax indices. Cross-spectrum analysis has been applied for retrieving the correlations between air ZCT temperatures in the caves and solar and geomagnetic activity. It has been found that the correlation between ZCT temperature time series and sunspot number is better than that between the cave air temperature and Apmax indices. It has been found that is rather connected with the first peak in geomagnetic activity, which is associated with transient solar activity, i.e., coronal mass ejections (CMEs) than with the second one, which is higher and connected with the recurrent high speed streams from coronal holes (Webb, D.F., 2002. CMEs and the solar cycle variation in their geoeffectiveness. In: Wilson, A. (Ed.), Proceedings of the SOHO 11 Symposium on From Solar Min to Max: Half a Solar Cycle with SOHO, 11-15 March 2002, Davos, Switzerland. ESA Publications Division, Noordwijk, 2002, ISBN 92-9092-818-2, pp. 409-419). This work can contribute to studying the mechanisms of atmospheric circulation changes and calibration of long-period climatic data read from cave speleothems and deposits

Long-term changes in the cave atmosphere air temperature as a result of periodic heliophysical processes, 2006, Stoeva P. , . Stoev A. , Kiskinovab N. .

Climatic trends connected with short- and long-period variations of the solar activity occur as a reaction even in such conservative media as the air volumes of karst caves. The yearly mean air temperatures in the zone of constant temperatures of four show caves in Bulgaria were studied for a period of 36 years (1968–2003). The examination was made by everyday noon measurements in Ledenika, Saeva dupka, Snezhanka and Uhlovitsa cave. The caves are situated at different altitudes and geographic latitude. Seasonal fluctuations of the yearly mean air temperature in the ZCT of the explored caves have been identified by Fourier analysis. The same analysis has been applied for the Sunspot number and Apmax indices, which are representatives of the solar and geomagnetic activity, for the same period of data available. Autocorrelograms have been used for examination of the seasonal patterns of the air temperatures in the ZCT in every cave and in Sunspot number and Apmax indices. Cross-spectrum analysis has been applied for retrieving the correlations between air ZCT temperatures in the caves and solar and geomagnetic activity. It has been found that the correlation between ZCT temperature time series and sunspot number is better than that between the cave air temperature and Apmax indices. It has been found that View the MathML source is rather connected with the first peak in geomagnetic activity, which is associated with transient solar activity, i.e., coronal mass ejections (CMEs) than with the second one, which is higher and connected with the recurrent high speed streams from coronal holes (Webb, D.F., 2002. CMEs and the solar cycle variation in their geoeffectiveness. In: Wilson, A. (Ed.), Proceedings of the SOHO 11 Symposium on From Solar Min to Max: Half a Solar Cycle with SOHO, 11–15 March 2002, Davos, Switzerland. ESA Publications Division, Noordwijk, 2002, ISBN 92-9092-818-2, pp. 409–419). This work can contribute to studying the mechanisms of atmospheric circulation changes and calibration of long-period climatic data read from cave speleothems and deposits.


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