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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That incrustation is 1. deposition of a crust (of calcite, etc.) upon an object by precipitation from water oversaturated with salts (calcium bicarbonate, etc.) [20]. 2. the deposition of mineral matter by water [16]. synonyms: (french.) incrustation; (german.) krustenbildung; (greek.) epiphlioma; (italian.) incrostazione; (russian.) obrazovanie natecnih kor; (spanish.) incrustcion; (turkish.) kabuk baglama, kabuklasma; (yugoslavian.) inkrustacija.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for bauxite (Keyword) returned 51 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 51
Effect of mining activity on thermal karst springs (Transdanubian Range, Hungary), 1984, Mller Pal, Sarvary Istvan

THE GENESIS OF ALLOCHTHONOUS KARST-TYPE BAUXITE DEPOSITS OF SOUTHERN EUROPE, 1989, Petrascheck W. E. ,

Bauxites, 1989, Bauxites

The oceanic karst: modem phosphate and bauxite ore deposits on the high carbonate islands (so-called 'uplifted atolls') of the Pacific Ocean, 1989, Bourrouilhle Jan F. G.

Paleokarst - a Systematic and Regional Review, 1989,

Description
Prepared by some of the world's leading experts in the field, this book is the first summarizing work on the origin, importance and exploitation of paleokarst. It offers an extensive regional survey, mainly concerning the Northern Hemisphere, as well as a thorough analysis of the problems of research into paleokarst phenomena, with particular emphasis on theoretical contributions and practical exploitation. By concentrating on phenomena which have appeared in the course of geological history, the book represents a substantial development in the general theory of paleokarst and demonstrates the advantages of a comprehensive approach to the problem. Considerable emphasis is put on the economic importance of paleokarst phenomena, from the point of view of exploiting significant deposits of mineral raw materials, as well as from a civil engineering and hydrological point of view. Since the publication deals with a boundary scientific discipline, it is intended for specialists from various branches of science: geologists, paleontologists, economic geologists, geographers, mining engineers and hydrogeologists.

Contents
List of Contributors. Foreword.

Part I. Introduction.
Introduction (P. Bosák et al.). Paleokarst as a problem (J. Głazek, P. Bosák, D.C. Ford). Terminology (P. Bosák, D.C. Ford, J. Głazek).

Part II. Regional Review.
Paleokarst of Belgium (Y. Quinif). Paleokarst of Britain (T.D. Ford). Paleokarst of Norway (S.-E. Lauritzen). Paleokarst of Poland (J. Głazek). Paleokarst of Czechoslovakia (P. Bosák, I. Horáček, V. Panoš). Paleokarst of Hungary (G. Bárdossy, L. Kordos). Hydrothermal paleokarst of Hungary (P. Müller). Paleokarst of Italy. Selected examples from Cambrian to Miocene (M. Boni, B. D'Argenio). Paleokarst-related ore deposits of the Maghreb, North Africa (Y. Fuchs, B. Touahri). Paleokarst of Yugoslavia (D. Gavrilović). Paleokarst of Bulgaria (I. Stanev, S. Trashliev). Paleokarst of Romania (M. Bleahu). Paleokarst of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (R.A. Tsykin). Paleokarst of China (Zhang Shouyue). Paleokarst of Canada (D.C. Ford). Paleokarst of the United States (M.V. Palmer, A.N. Palmer).

Part III. Mineral Deposits Connected With Karst.
An introduction to karst-related mineral deposits (P. Bosák). Pb-Zn ores (S. Dżułyński, M. Sass-Gustkiewicz). Bauxites (G. Bárdossy). Iron ore deposits in paleokarst (G. Bárdossy, Y. Fuchs, J. Głazek). Clays and sands in paleokarst (P. Bosák). The oceanic karst: modern bauxite and phosphate ore deposits on the high carbonate islands (so-called ``Uplifted Atolls'') of the Pacific Ocean (F.G. Bourrouilh-le Jan). Paleokarst-related uranium deposits (Y. Fuchs).

Part IV. Hydrogeology and Engineering Hazards in Paleokarst Areas.
Paleokarst as an important hydrogeological factor (J. Zötl). Hydrogeological problems of opencast and underground mining of mineral deposits encountered during their exploration, development and exploitation stages (P. Bosák). Hydrogeological problems of the Cracow-Silesia Zn-Pb ore deposits (Z. Wilk). Hydrogeological problems of Hungarian bauxite and coal deposits (T. Böcker, B. Vizy). Paleokarst in civil engineering (A. Eraso). Interaction between engineering and environment in the presence of paleokarst: some case histories (J. Głazek).

Part V. Paleokarst as a Scientific Subject.
Special characteristics of paleokarst studies (I. Horáček, P. Bosák). Tectonic conditions for karst origin and preservation (J. Głazek). Problems of the origin and fossilization of karst forms (P. Bosák). Biostratigraphic investigations in paleokarst (I. Horáček, L. Kordos).

Part VI. Conclusions. Part VII. References. Part VIII. Indexes.
Author Index. Geographical Index. Subject Index.

Bibliographic & ordering Information
Hardbound, ISBN: 0-444-98874-2, 726 pages, publication date: 1989
Imprint: ELSEVIER


KIMMERIDGIAN TITHONIAN EUSTACY AND ITS IMPRINTS ON CARBONATE ROCKS FROM THE DINARIC AND THE JURA CARBONATE PLATFORMS, 1991, Strohmenger C. , Deville Q. , Fookes E. ,
The Upper Jurassic stratigraphy and the facies development of the Dinaric carbonate platform of Slovenia (northwest Yugoslavia) are compared with the Jura carbonate platform of southern Jura (southeast France). The similar facies development between the two platforms during the Kimmeridgian and the Tithonian, as well as a pronounced discontinuity in the same stratigraphical position (controlled by dasycladacean algae and/or ammonites), made it reasonable to correlate the two regions. This discontinuity is marked by a bauxite horizon and a karst breccia in south Slovenia (inner platform), and by a black-pebble conglomerate (inner platform) and a reef breccia (outer platform) in the southern Jura. These features are interpreted as type 1 sequence boundaries related to a global fall of sea level. In southern Jura, biostratigraphical elements situate the sequence boundary between the Eudoxus and the <> ( = Elegans) zones, most probably at the end of the Beckeri ( = Autissiodorensis) zone. Integrating this discontinuity into the eustatic sea level curve proposed by the Exxon group (version 3.1) is difficult because the only suitable sequence boundaries, SB 139 and SB 142, are respectively too young (younger than the <> zone) or too old (older than the Eudoxus zone). We therefore suggest to introduce a new sequence boundary within the upper part of the Beckeri zone which would correspond to a <> sequence boundary SB 140. The investigations further show that Clypeina jurassica FAVRE and Campbelliella striata (CAROZZI) BERNIER most likely appear in the Beckeri zone in the realm of the Jura carbonate platform. The same dasycladacean algae assemblage defines a cenozone identified as <> in Slovenia. It therefore seems possible to correlate the stratigraphic limit between <> and <> of the Dinaric carbonate platform with the beginning of the Beckeri zone

CONTRIBUTION TO THE GEOCHEMISTRY OF THE RARE-EARTH ELEMENTS IN THE KARST-BAUXITE DEPOSITS OF YUGOSLAVIA AND GREECE, 1991, Maksimovic Z. , Panto G. ,
Distribution of the rare earth elements (REE, including La-Lu, Y) along vertical profiles is presented for four well-studied karst-bauxite deposits from Yugoslavia and Greece. For one deposit from Jamaica, La and Y contents are given. All deposits display a downward enrichment of the REE culminating at the base, where authigenic REE minerals have been formed. This REE pattern is characteristic for karst-bauxites formed in situ through the bauxitization of argillaceous material collected in karstic depressions. In this way, the highest enrichment of the REE in the sedimentary cycle has been achieved. Both light REE (LREE) and heavy REE (HREE) were 'mobile' during the bauxitization process and were concentrated at the alkaline barrier of the carbonate footwall. In four out of five studied deposits, the ratios SIGMA-LREE/SIGMA-HREE and La/Y in bauxites decrease downwards, showing an enrichment of the HREE relative to LREE. A further fractionation of the REE took place in the formation of authigenic REE minerals, which exhibit a very high enrichment of LREE relative to HREE. In spite of this, these minerals and bauxites in four studied deposits have a general similarity of the REE distribution patterns, which indicate a close genetic relationship

Evolution des karsts Ocaniens (Karsts, bauxite et phosphates), 1992, Bourrouilhlejan, Fr.
EVOLUTION OF THE PACIFIC OCEAN KARSTS - Karst phenomena constitute one of the main characteristics of the "high carbonate islands" of the Pacific Ocean. They are the key to the under-standing of the geological evolution, the stratigraphy, from Lower Miocene to Pleistocene and mid-Holocene, the diagenesis, mainly dolomitization and the current economic interest based on bauxite and phosphate. The eustatic variations have been numerous over the past 25 million years and can be added or substracted from the emersion and submersion movements of the plate supporting these carbonate platforms. Each island therefore has its own complex geological background with dolomitization, calcrete, bauxitic soils, fossil marine notches and karst surface either submerged or filled with phosphate, which can be mined for profit. Thanks to a thorough study of these platforms, it has been possible to establish an evolution of karst genesis in accordance with the evolution of the Pacific lithosphere and also to draw up a new model of phosphate genesis linked to phosphato-bauxitic soils and meromictic anoxic lakes.

Origin of Eocene-covered karst bauxites of the Transdanubian Central Range (Hungary); evidence for early Eocene volcanism, 1992, Dunkl I,

Tectonic and climatic control on paleokarst and bauxites, 1992, D'argenio B. , Mindszenty A.

GEODYNAMICS OF THE SARDINIAN BAUXITES - TYPOLOGY, GENESIS AND PALEOTECTONIC CONTROL, 1993, Combes Pj, Oggiano G, Temussi I,
During the middle Cretaceous the karst bauxites of NW Sardinia are controlled by a favourable climate, an aluminous mother rock (Berriasian marls) and a significant tectonic instability which allows a morphostructural paleosurface to be constituted on the intracontinental areas, away from the eustatic changes of sea level. In connection with the uplift rate, the aluminous material is distributed into three types of deposit. Their genetic depositional system and main features are incorporated in a geodynamic model applicable to prospecting

Paleoalpine karstification - The longest paleokarst period in the Western Carpathians (Slovakia), 1995, Cincura J, Kohler E,
The considerable areal extent and great thicknesses of Middle/Upper Triassic carbonate complexes influenced favourably the formation of karst during subaerial periods. The lower boundary of the Paleoalpine karst period is age-determined by the gradual emergence of the basement - during the Upper Cretaceous in the Central Western Carpathians and even earlier in the Inner Carpathians. The upper boundary can be dated by marine transgression The start of the transgression is not synchronous and it varies in a broad range from Upper Cretaceous to Upper Eocene and maybe even up to Oligocene/Miocene. The typical products of the period include typical karst bauxites filling karst cavities, ferri crusts, red clays, collapse and crackle breccias with speleothems, freshwater limestones or polymict conglomerates

A multivariate statistical and geostatistical study on the geochemistry of allochtonous karst bauxite deposits in Hungary, 1995, Rdossy George, Kov _cs,

Karst et mines en France et en Europe : gtes, grottes-mines et gotechnique, 1996, Nicod, J.
Many ores have been extracted in the karst areas since the proto-historic times. The ores have been trapped in the paleokarsts, according to various processes whose origin is still much debated. Certain metal-rich minerals have been excavated in caves or "mine-caves". Many polymetallic ores in paleokarstic deposits were in exploitation in SW Sardinia, Sierra of Carthagena, Montagne Noire, Peak District, and Upper Silesia... The mercury mines of Idrija (Slovenia) and the uranium deposits of Tyuya Muyun (Kirgizia) are of particular interest. Recent studies have clearly shown the historic importance of numerous pockets of pisolitic iron (Siderolithic, Bohnerz) in the European steel metallurgy, since the Celts and Romans and up to the middle of the 19th century. The siderite ores raise special problems. Most bauxite deposits were found in karstic pockets and paleo-poljes (mediterranean type of bauxites). The studies of the old mines give a better insight into paleokarsts. Both the ancient and modern mines have created artificial karsts, and raise many geotechnical and environmental problems.

Ce-anomalies in the textural components of upper Cretaceous karst bauxites from the Apulian carbonate platform (southern Italy), 1997, Mongelli G. ,
The chemical and mineralogical composition of Upper Cretaceous Apulian karat bauxites (southern Italy) and their textural components, i.e. ooids and matrix, has been studied. The bulk samples are composed of boehmite, hematite, anatase and kaolinite. The samples collected along a vertical profile show a downward enrichment for the elements Rb, Sr, Ba, Ni and Cr. A similar distribution is observed in deposits bauxitized in situ at the expense of matrix-like material collected in the karst zone. The ooids consist mainly of hematite with minor boehmite and anatase, whereas in the matrix boehmite prevails on hematite, kaolinite and anatase. In the void fillings in the matrix there is a Ca-fluorocarbonate having a Ce/Ce* of 5.8. The ooids, with the exception of Ce, are enriched in REE and show a higher (La/Yb)(ch) ratio relative to the matrix. The matrix exhibits a large positive Ce-anomaly whereas the ooids have negative Ce-anomaly. The Ce fractionation between the textural components can be explained assuming: (1) Ce oxidation and cerianite precipitation in the uppermost part of the deposits; (2) scavenging of REE from Ce-depleted percolating solutions by the iron oxide, inducing both REE-enrichment and Ce-negative anomalies in ooids; (3) remobilization of cerium as fluoride complex, as a consequence of more acidic conditions in the uppermost part of the deposit, and precipitation of Ce3 as fluorocarbonate mineral toward the carbonate bedrock barrier, at alkaline pH. Alternatively, the cerium remobilization, possibly as a carbonate-fluoride complex, could be due to an Eh decrease, favoured by a rise of the groundwater level. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V

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