Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That lacustrine formation is a sedimentary formation of lacustrine origin.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

What is Karstbase?

Search KARSTBASE:

keyword
author

Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for connections (Keyword) returned 56 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 56
Karst Water Research in Slovenia, 2000, Kranjc, Andrej

About 43% of the territory of Slovenia is karst and more than 50% of its inhabitants are supplied with water from karst. Karst in Slovenia is divided into Dinaric, Alpine and transitional karst. Each of these types bears its own hydrological properties. Already in the antique literature underground water connections are mentioned. Water tracing in the Slovene Karst is among the first modern tracing research. Karst water research may be divided into several periods: (1) aimed at determining underground water connections between swallow-holes and springs (the first half of the 20th century), (2) to achieve combined water tracing tests (since 1970), (3) to define karst watersheds, (4) to study water percolation through the epikarst and the vadose zone (since 1980). In particular, the researches of karst water quality must be emphasised, as well as the study of karst hydrology as a phenomenon in itself. At the end a logical question appears: what are the future perspectives of karst water studies in Slovenia? Water tracing of not yet fully ascertained connections or repeating the water tracing tests under different hydrological conditions; a detailed determination of watersheds and water flow with the help of tracers directly injected underground; to develop water tracing techniques and methods; to study in the field percolation water behaviour; modelling; to theoretically determine physical laws. Special attention must also be paid to education.


Tracages dans le systeme Muruk-Berenice, montagnes Nakanai [Water tracing in the Muruk-Berenice system, Nakanai Mountains, New Britain, Papua New Guinea], 2001, Audra Phand. , Hoblea Fabien
The results of three dye tracings in the Muruk area led to approximate delimitation of the Berenice catchment and identification of some internal connectionsIt seems that the plateau above Arcturus cave feeds the Voie Lactee main drain, but unfortunately the forest destruction by a previous hurricane prevented us from identifying the boundary between the Berenice and Mayang catchmentsThe transit speeds of the dye were extremely fast as all the streams are mountain torrents rather than slow phreatic flows

McCauley sinks: a compound breccia pipe in evaporite karst, Holbrook Basin, Arizona, U.S.A., 2001, Neal J. T. , Johnson K. S.
The McCauley Sinks, in the Holbrook basin of northeastern Arizona, are comprised of some 50 individual sinkholes within a 3-km-wide depression. The sinks are grouped in a semi-concentric pattern of three nested rings. The outer ring is an apparent tension zone containing ring fractures. The two inner rings are semicircular chains of large sinkholes, ranging up to 100 m across and 50 m deep. Several sub-basins within the larger depression show local down warping and possible incipient sinkholes. Permian Kaibab Formation limestone is the principal surface lithology; the limestone here is less than 15 m thick and is near its easternmost limit. Although surface rillenkarren are present, and the sinks are seen in the Kaibab limestone outcrops, the Kaibab is mainly a passive rock unit that has collapsed into solution cavities developed in underlying salt beds. Beneath the Kaibab is Coconino Sandstone, which overlies the Permian Schnebly Hill Formation, the unit containing the evaporite rocks principally halite in the Corduroy Member. Evaporite karst in this part of the Holbrook basin is quite different from the eastern part, probably because of the westward disappearance of the Holbrook anticline, a structure that has major joint systems that help channel water down to the salt beds farther to the east. Also, the McCauley Sinks are near the western limits of the evaporites. The structure at McCauley Sinks suggests a compound breccia pipe, with multiple sinks contributing to the inward-dipping major depression. The Richards Lake depression, 5 km southeast of McCauley Sinks, is similar in form and size but contains only a single, central sinkhole. An apparent difference in hydrogeology at McCauley Sinks is their proximity to the adjacent, deeply incised, Chevelon Canyon drainage, but the hydrologic connections are unknown.

McCauley Sinks: a compound breccia pipe in evaporite karst, Holbrook basin, Arizona, USA, 2002, Neal J. T. , Johnson K. S. ,
The McCauley Sinks, in the Holbrook basin of northeastern Arizona, are comprised of some 50 individual sinkholes within a 3-km wide depression. The sinks are grouped in a semi-concentric pattern of three nested rings. The outer ring is an apparent tension zone containing ring fractures. The two inner rings are semi-circular chains of large sinkholes, ranging up to 100 in across and 50 in deep. Several sub-basins within the larger depression show local downwarping and possible incipient sinkholes. Permian Kaibab Formation limestone is the principal surface lithology; the limestone here is less than 15 in thick and is near its easternmost limit. Although surface rillenkarren are present, and the sinks are seen in the Kaibab limestone outcrops, the Kaibab is mainly a passive rock unit that has collapsed into solution cavities developed in underlying salt beds. Beneath the Kaibab is Coconino Sandstone, which overlies the Permian Schnebly Hill Formation, the unit containing the evaporite rocks-principally halite in the Corduroy Member. Evaporite karst in this part of the Holbrook basin is quite different from the eastern part, probably because of the westward disappearance of the Holbrook anticline, a structure that has major joint systems that help channel water down to the salt beds farther to the east. Also, the McCauley Sinks are near the western limits of the evaporites. The structure at McCauley Sinks suggests a compound breccia pipe, with multiple sinks contributing to the inward-dipping major depression. The Richards Lake depression, 5 kin southeast of McCauley Sinks, is similar in form and size but contains only a single, central sinkhole. An apparent difference in hydrogeology at McCauley Sinks is their proximity to the adjacent, deeply incised, Chevelon Canyon drainage, but the hydrologic connections are unknown. The 3-km-wide McCauley Sinks karst depression, along with five other nearby depressions, provide substantial hydrologic catchment. Because of widespread piping into karst features and jointed bedrock at shallow depth, runoff water does not pond easily at the surface. There appears to be a greater recharge efficiency here than in alluvial areas; thus concern exists for groundwater users downgradient from the karst area. Accordingly, sinkholes and open fissures should not be used for waste disposal

Mine water tracing, 2002, Wolkersdorfer Christian,
This paper describes how tracer tests can be used in flooded underground mines to evaluate the hydrodynamic conditions or reliability of dams. Mine water tracer tests are conducted in order to evaluate the flow paths of seepage water, connections from the surface to the mine, and to support remediation plans for abandoned and flooded underground mines. There are only a few descriptions of successful tracer tests in the literature, and experience with mine water tracing is limited. Potential tracers are restricted due to the complicated chemical composition or low pH mine waters. A new injection and sampling method ( LydiA'-technique) overcomes some of the problems in mine water tracing. A successful tracer test from the Harz Mountains in Germany with Lycopodium clavatum, microspheres and sodium chloride is described, and the results of 29 mine water tracer tests indicate mean flow velocities of between 0.3 and 1.7 m min-1

Hydraulic calculations of postglacial connections between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, 2003, Myers Paul G. , Wielki Chris, Goldstein Shoshana B. , Rohling Eelco J. ,
A series of simple hydraulic calculations has been performed to examine some of the questions associated with the reconnection of the Black Sea to the Mediterranean through the Turkish Strait System during the Holocene. Ryan et al.'s catastrophic flood scenario, whereby the erosive power of the marine in-fluxes, initiated after eustatic sea level reached the sill depth, opened up the Bosphorus, allowing saline water to pour into the Black Sea and filling it on a short time scale, is examined. The calculations show that although it might be possible to fill the palaeo-Black Sea within the order of a decade, a 1-2 year filling time scale is not physically possible. A hydraulic model is also used to examine the more traditional connection hypothesis of (near-)continuous freshwater outflow from the Black Sea, with a slowly increasing saline inflow from the Mediterranean beginning around 8-9 kyr BP. The model considers two forms for the structure of the Bosphorus: a shallow sill as seen today and a deep sill associated with no sediments filling the 100 m gorge above the bedrock in the strait. Sensitivity experiments with the hydraulic model show what possible strait geometric configurations may lead to the Black Sea reaching its present-day salinity of 18 psu. Salinity transients within the Black Sea are shown as a function of time, providing for values that can be validated against estimates from cores. To consider a deep, non-sediment-filled Bosphorus (100 m deep), the entry of Mediterranean water into the Sea of Marmara after 12.0 kyr BP is examined. A rapid entry of marine water into the Sea of Marmara is only consistent with small freshwater fluxes flowing through the Turkish Strait System, smaller than those of the present day by a factor of at least 4. Such a small freshwater flux would lead to the salinification of the Black Sea being complete by an early date of 10.2-9.6 kyr BP. Thus the possibility of a deep Bosphorus sill should be discounted

Apports des mthodes hydrologiques dans la comprhension des coulements en pays calcaire : exemple des bas plateaux jurassiques du haut bassin de la Marne (France), 2004, Lejeune Olivier, Devos Alain
Hydrological methods for the study of river flows in limestone areas: the Marne basin in the Jurassic low plateaux (NE France) - We investigated the geographical heterogeneity of river flows in limestone areas in the upper Marne valley (interfluves of Marne-Aube and Marne-Meuse) by using the low water profiles, the modelling of discharges and the study of physicochemical parameters. We studied five basin-slopes belonging to the Marne-basin (4500 km2) and the measures were realised between 2001 and 2003 at the time of low water periods. We used an instrument (perche intgration type Pire) in order to measure the stream flows of river water. We also measured temperature and electrical conductivity in order to identify the origin of the water. The measures allowed us to identify low water profiles of the river and we also can map the discharge in low water periods. The methods show the water flow inside a basin-slope and also hydrogeological connections to the adjacent basin-slopes. Thus, they revealed that the divergence or the concentration of discharges depends on the limits of the aquifers sections related to their morphological structure and on the differential incision of the valleys. We obtained a hydrogeological pattern of interfluves and we can distinguish between areas of water lost and areas with an increasing of water volume. We confirmed this process of water transfers, called the active stream piracy, which is often approved by hydrogeologic tracers. This active stream piracy revealed by these methods in warm or interglacial period, prepare future stream piracy of surface, collectively recognised in the beginning of cold phase.

Surface cover infiltration index: a suggested method to assess infiltration capacity for intrinsic vulnerability in karstic areas in absence of quantitative data, 2004, Ekmekci Mehmet, Tezcan Levent
Karst is a hydrogeological environment of importance not only for its water resources potential but also for its scenic and economic potential, thereby increasing the intensity of human impact. The uniqueness of karst in this regard stems from its high sensitivity and vulnerability to imposed pressures and its distinctive response to these pressures. Therefore, a clear definition and formulation of the concept of intrinsic vulnerability is essential for the design of vulnerability and/or management criteria of the karstic system as a resource. In this regard, the recharge rate, the amount of water passing through the unsaturated zone into the aquifer, is among the principal attributes of the intrinsic vulnerability. Where data and measurements are available for even large areas, recharge can be evaluated quantitatively on the basis of field measurements and the water balance equation. However, particularly for countries suffering from lack of essential data for a quantitative evaluation of the net recharge rate, the recharge can be estimated using some derived parameters such as the so called Surface Cover Infiltration Index proposed in this paper. The DRASTIC method which is modified by using SCI, soil thickness and precipitation, allows the unique hydrological behavior of karst to be considered by redistributing of the intrinsic vulnerability values on the basis of hydrologic connections between neighboring cells. Following a detailed description of the SCI index and the modification of DRASTIC method for karst aquifers, a case study carried out to demonstrate this method is presented in this paper whose objective is to discuss and thus elaborate the suggested methodology. The Olimpos National Park area was selected because the great variation in lithology, landuse and topography. It was found that the relative vulnerability may vary particularly in the neighborhood of the highly vulnerable cells covered by carbonate rocks. The methodology was applied using ARC-GIS software. All spatial features used in computations were classified by the appropriate functions built into the software.

Black Sea-Marmara Sea Quaternary connections: new data from the Bosphorus, Istanbul, Turkey, 2004, Kerey I. Erdal, Meric Engin, Tunoglu Cemal, Kelling Gilbert, Brenner Robert L. , Dogan A. Umran,
Previous studies concluded that the Bosphorus Strait was formed during the Quaternary by fluvial incision of a valley between the Black Sea, to the north, and the Marmara Sea in the south. Hitherto, however, few details of the evolution of this connection have been elucidated from the sediments deposited within the Bosphorus itself. We report here details of sedimentological and palaeontological evidence relating to this history, obtained from five boreholes drilled into the unconsolidated sediment fill in the north-central sector of the Bosphorus, together with nearby geophysical profiles. The Quaternary fill of this part of the Bosphorus comprises two major facies associations. Yellow arkosic sands dominate the lower Facies Association A: these are assigned a Middle to Late Pleistocene age and the contained faunas have a lagoonal to lacustrine character and a Black Sea provenance (Paratethyan affinities). The abruptly succeeding units of Facies Association B comprise fining and coarsening upwards units of coarse to fine shelly and clayey sands that alternate with shell-bearing green clays. These sediments were formed in a range of marine and coastal settings and biostratigraphic evidence and absolute dating demonstrate the Mid-Late Holocene age of this upper unit. Initially brackish faunal assemblages in this upper unit show an upward increase in marine and Mediterranean affinities. Integrating these new data with previously published observations from coeval deposits in the southern Bosphorus and Izmit Bay (NE Marmara Sea) we conclude that during the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene a topographic barrier existed in the south-central sector of the Bosphorus, on both sides of which estuarine and lagoonal sediments accumulated, with distinctive Black Sea and Mediterranean faunas. During a significant rise in sea level, between 7000 and 5300 years ago, this barrier was finally submerged, permitting interchange of marine waters between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea and creating the present oceanographic situation. This evolution conflicts with the cataclysmic role of the Bosphorus in the early Holocene as postulated in the `Catastrophic Flood' hypothesis of Ryan et al. [Mar. Geol. 138 (1997) 119-126; Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 31 (2003) 525-554]. It also contrasts with the history recorded from the Gulf of Izmit, where intermittent connection between these two bodies of water throughout much of the Quaternary is evident

Physico-chemical properties of waters in the Malenščica recharge area (Slovenia), 2004, Kogovš, Ek Janja

Basic physico-chemical properties of waters within the area of Malenščica are given, and so are the connections that they indicate. Dolomitic water of the Cerkniščica mostly flows into the Rak in Rakov Škocjan valley, while Kotliči springs show the connection with Svinjska jama (cave) and Mala Karlovica. When water levels are low the Rak river at its swallowhole mostly comprises waters from Kotliči, with Ca/Mg about 3, 5 and the lowest value 2,2 when the water levels are the lowest, when only the Cerkniščica sinks into Svinjska jama; this later reflects also in the water of the Malenščica. When water levels are high, the mixture of Rak and Kotliči flows into the swallowhole, and Ca/Mg is about 4. The influx of waters from Pivka Valley is designated by higher ratio of Ca/Mg and higher values of pollution indicators, when the infiltration water from poorly conductive part of Javorniki is designated by Ca/Mg values about 5. Due to the complexity of the system there are still some unanswered questions left which can only be answered by carrying out additional researches.


Ice and Alpine Caves in Slovenia in older literature (17th to 19th century), 2004, Kranjc, Andrej

The first printed literature mentioning caves in a nowadays Slovenia dates to the 16th century already (description of Cerkniško lake, research of underground water connections) but description of alpine and ice caves does not appear before the 17th century. The most important and the best known is Valvasor's work "Die Ehre des Herzogthums Crain" (1689). In the Alps he describes 3 caves, but none of them is a real cave. Exception is a spring of Savica which proved 250 years later to be really a spring cave. He described also some ice caves and ice formations in them. B. Hacquet visited some of the same caves a century later and in his work "Oryctographia carniolica …" (1778 - 1789) explained the formation of ice more realistically. In the middle of the 19th century appears a real speleological literature, as Schmidl's work "Die Grotten und Höhlen von Adelsberg …" (1854) is regarded as the first "modern speleological work". At the end of the 19th century the Gratzy's list of caves in Carniola (great part of the today's Slovenia) includes 7 caves from the Alps and 30 ice caves. The last are practically all out of the high mountains, where the ice caves are a normal feature. The 19th century literature including alpine and ice caves is very diversified, there are "classical" speleological works on ice caves as Fugger's "Eishöhlen und Windröhren" or Schwalbe's "Über Eishöhlen", and local literature or reports talking about extracting of ice for example.


Significance and dynamics of drip water responding to rainfall in four caves of Guizhou, China, 2005, Zhou Y. C. , Wang S. J. , Xie X. N. , Luo W. J. , Li T. Y. ,
In rainy season, NaCl is adopted to trace sources of cave drip water, time scales of drip water responding to precipitation, and processes of water dynamics in four caves of Pearl watershed in Guizhou, China (Liang-feng cave in Libo, Qixing cave in Duyun, Jiangjun cave in Anshun and Xiniu cave in Zhenning). Because of the variety of karst cave surroundings, interconnections of water transporting ways, water dynamics processes etc., time scales of drip-water in four caves responding to rainfall is 0-40 d. According to the characteristics of water transport in cave roof, pathways of water movement, types of water head etc., drip water of four caves can be divided into five hydrodynamics types. The differences of time scales, and ways of water-soil and water-rock interaction during water transporting in cave roof make it difficult to correctly measure speleothem record and trace material sources. In addition, there exist great differences in water dynamic conditions among the four caves. So the interpretation of the paleoenvironment records of speleothem must be supported by the understanding of hydrodynamics conditions of different drip sites. Based on the data got from drip sites in four caves, drip conductivity accords with precipitation, which indicates that element contents in speleothem formed by drip water record the change of karst paleoenvironment. But results of multi-points study are needed to guarantee the correctness of interpretation

Study of cavernous underground conduits in Nam La (Northwest Vietnam) by an integrative approach, 2005, Tam V. T. , De Smedt F. , Batelaan O. , Hung L. Q. , Dassargues A. ,
This paper presents the result of an investigation of underground conduits, which connect the swallow holes and the resurgence of a blind river in the tropical, highly karstified limestone Nam La catchment in the NW of Vietnam. The Nam La River disappears underground in several swallow holes near the outlet of the catchment. In the rainy season this results in flooding upstream of the sinkholes. A hypothesis is that the Nam La River resurges at a large cavern spring 4.5 km east of the catchment outlet. A multi-thematic study of the possible connections between the swallow holes and the resurgence was carried out to investigate the geological structure, tectonics, cave structure analysis and discharge time series. The existence of the underground conduits was also tested and proven by tracer experiments. On the basis of a lineament analysis the location of the underground conduits were predicted. A remote sensing derived lineament-length density map was used to track routes from the swallow holes to the resurgence, having the shortest length but highest lineament density. This resulted in a plan-view prediction of underground conduits that matches with the cave and fault development. The functioning of the conduits was further explained by analysing flooding records of a nearby doline, which turns out to act as a temporary storage reservoir mitigating flooding of the catchment outlet area

Two experimental modelings of karst rock relief in plaster: subcutaneous 'rock teeth' and 'rock peaks' exposed to rain, 2005, Slabe T. ,
The experimental modeling of rock features in plaster - in this case those that comprise a rock relief of subcutaneous teeth and peaks exposed to rain - helps reveal the manner of their formation, the development of individual rock features in nature, and their connections in rock relief. It also helps us distinguish the proportion and significance of the legacy of various factors that participated in the formation of rock relief and indirectly therefore the various periods of its development

Error and Technique in Fluorescent dye Tracing, 2005, Smart Chris

The appropriate approach to dye tracing in karst areas depends upon the objective and context of the trace. Dye tracing in karst areas is undertaken to address geographical, hydrogeological and contaminant problems at particular spatial and temporal resolution in the context of prior knowledge, available resources, social and legal expectations and environmental constraints. The value of a trace is improved if the objective can be formalized into a rational hypothesis and where the signal is demonstrably distinct from error. This requires sampling and analysis as much to define error as to detect the signal. The tolerable error depends on the dye trace objective and context, and scales with the sophistication of both, becoming increasingly critical and challenging as higher level interpretations are made. The appropriate technique for a particular trace therefore depends not only on the problem and context, but also upon the necessity of defining and correcting errors. Simpler problems such as establishment of underground connections can often be usefully tackled with simple techniques. Variable background fluorescence is a particularly difficult systematic error in dye tracing that can be reduced by supplementary sampling and control. This approach is illustrated for fluorescence spectra and in situ filter fluorometry. To extract a signal from spectra a statistical correction has been developed allowing compositional and concentration corrections to highlight anomalous samples. Supplementary sampling is required to provide the background statistics necessary for such an approach. The strong spectral coherence of background allows concurrent green fluorescence measurements to define variable background fluorescence during a red dye trace. The relationship between red and green fluorescence in un-dyed samples can be used to model background behavior in the presence of the red dye.


Results 16 to 30 of 56
You probably didn't submit anything to search for