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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That chemical carbonate rock is carbonate rock form by the precipitation of mineral matter in situ by chemical or biological processes.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for tropical karst (Keyword) returned 59 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 59
In Cave Oxidation of Organic Carbon and the Occurrence of Rainwater Inflow Cave Systems in the Seasonally Arid Lowland Tropics, 1987, Williamson, Kerry A.

Recent studies have shown that in cave oxidation of organic carbon can play a significant role in cave initiation and development. The production and flux of organic carbon in different seasonally arid and tropical karsts and in perpetually humid tropical karst is described, with particular consideration of the role of large particle size organic carbon. The model developed is used to explain the extent of rainwater inflow cave development and the apparent scarcity of such forms in the perpetually humid tropics plus arrested development in the seasonally arid sub-tropics.


Groundwater chemistry and cation budgets of tropical karst outcrops, Peninsular Malaysia, I. Calcium and magnesium, 1989, Crowther J,
The discharge and chemical properties of 217 autogenic groundwaters were monitored over a 1-yr period in the tower karsts of central Selangor and the Kinta Valley, and in the Setul Boundary Range. Because of differences in soil PCO2, calcium concentrations are significantly higher in the Boundary Range (mean, 82.5 mg l-1) than in the tower karst terrain (44.6 mg l-1). Local differences in both source area PCO2 and amounts of secondary deposition underground cause marked intersite variability, particularly in the tower karst. Dilution occurs during flood peaks in certain conduit and cave stream waters. Generally, however, calcium correlates positively with discharge, since the amount of secondary deposition per unit volume of water decreases at higher flows. Magnesium concentrations and Mg:Ca Mg ratios of groundwaters are strongly influenced by bedrock composition, though bedrock heterogeneity and the kinetics and equilibria of carbonate dissolution reactions preclude extremely low or high Mg:Ca Mg values. Net chemical denudation rates range from 56.6 to 70.9 m3km2yr-1.The results are considered in relation to cation fluxes in surface runoff, soil throughflow and nutrient cycling. Preliminary calcium and magnesium budgets show that (1) dissolutional activity is largely confined to the near-surface zone; and (2) the annual uptake of calcium and magnesium by tropical limestone forests is similar in magnitude to the net solute output in groundwaters

Prsentation des rgions karstiques du Vietnam, 1991, Khang, Pham
Tropical karst of Vietnam - The main karstic region of Vietnam cover a total surface of 50,000 km2 and are to be found almost exclusively in North Vietnam, that is to say in 1/5 of the territory. They are situated in the distinct zone conditioned by the Tertiary and Quaternary phases. The largest zones are situated in the Northern and Eastern parts of the country. The least karstified zone is the West and southwest of Hanoi. The flooded coastal region (Isle of Catba, Along Bay) belongs to the boarder of the subsidence zone of the Red River delta. Although the damp tropical monsoon climate has varied very little from the Neogene until today, the karstic landscapes and degrees of evolution differ in each area and can range from cone, pyramid, tower to pinnacle karsts.

Rospo Mare (Adriatique), un palokarst ptrolier du domaine mditerranen, 1993, Dubois P. , Sorriaux P. , Soudet H. J.
The oil paleokarst of Rospo Mare (Adriatic Sea) The oil field of Rospo Mare is located in the Adriatic Sea, 20 km of the Italian coast. The reservoir lies at the depth of 1300m and consists of a paleokarst of Oligocene to Miocene age, which developed within Cretaceous limestones, now covered with 1200m of mio-pliocene sequences. The oil column is about 140m high. The karstic nature of the reservoir was identified through vertical, cored drill holes which allowed the analysis of the various solutional features and the sedimentary infilling (speleothems, terra rossa, marine clays), as well as their vertical distribution. Erosion morphology at the top of the karst is highly irregular, including paleovalleys as well as many pit-shaped sinkholes. Observations concerning the upper part of the reservoir were compared to a paleokarst of the same age, outcropping widely onshore, in nearby quarries. Detailed knowledge of that morphology through geophysics helped to optimise the development of the field through horizontal drilling. The paleokarst of Rospo Mare is an integral part of the pre-miocene paleokarst assemblages of the periphery of the Mediterranean, which were formed in tropical conditions.

RESOURCE USE IN THE TROPICAL KARSTLANDS OF CENTRAL BELIZE, 1993, Day M,
Rural tropical ecosystems are subject to many traditional land uses that employ the indigenous karst resources: rock, water, soil, vegetation, and wildlife. Individual resource pressures often arc subtle, but their combined impact can precipitate instability in the tropical karst environment, potentially resulting in disruption of food, water, and fuel supplies. The karst of central Belize was used intensively for some six centuries by Maya farmers. but between the 10th and 19th centuries AD most of it reverted to secondary forest. Commercial logging dominated the 19th and early 20th centuries, followed by the expansion of subsistence and commercial agriculture after 1945. In the 1980s resource use has accelerated as population and other pressures increase. Much karst remains forested, but there is increasing clearance for agricultural uses, particularly for citrus cultivation and small-scale mixed agriculture. Soil depletion has begun to occur, water resources are increasingly taxed, and some wildlife is threatened by habitat destruction and increased hunting. Lime production for the citrus industry has promoted quarrying, water extraction, and fuelwood use. Environmental stresses currently do not exceed the threshold of instability, but the rapidly developing rural economy warrants careful monitoring of resource pressures

STRESS ON TROPICAL KARST CULTIVATED WITH WET RICE - BOHOL, PHILIPPINES, 1993, Urich P. B. ,
Wet rice cultivation represents one of the most intensive uses of tropical karst. Under wet field conditions karstlands can be highly resilient, but nevertheless vulnerable to change. The karst environment in this study has been cultivated for at least five centuries. However, the post-World War II era has fostered a host of pressures that have altered the local ecology. Resulting stress in the irrigation systems and society threaten the maintenance of this viable karst-based agricultural economy

Abstract: The Gregory Karst and Caves, Northern Territory IN: Proceedings of the Wombeyan Karst Workshop November 19-22, 1993 , 1993, Dunkley, John R.

Located in the Gregory National Park between Katherine and Kununurra, this area has been investigated by speleologists since 1990 and this is a preliminary report drawing attention to a significant new tropical karst.


Point de vue sur lvolution rcente de la splologie ; consquences sur lexploration et la recherche scientifique, 1994, Maire, R.
POINT OF VIEW ON THE RECENT EVOLUTION OF SPELEOLOGY, CONSEQUENCES ON EXPLORATION AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH.

La plate-forme du Yucatn (Mexique), 1995, Heraudpia, M. A.
The Platform of the Yucatan peninsula, south of Mexico, is constituted by a tertiary carbonated series (Eocene to Pliocene). The karst landforms are a "Kuppenkarst" whose positive reliefs are more conspicuous in the centre because of greater altitude (0 to 400 m). Most caves are developed under the base level. The cenote corres-ponds to drowned pits which can be 100 m deep or more. The flooded caves, like Nohoch Nah Chich (40km long), are the longest in the world. The history of karstification began during the Tertiary, between the end of Eocene to Pliocene in relation with uplift. The crypto-dissolution occurs under an alte-ritic cover which comes from a former silicated detritic cover (south peninsula crystalline massif). Speleogenesis depends on the halocline i.e. mixing corrosion zone (salt water/fresh water) and the fluctuations of the sea level.

A morphological analysis of Tibetan limestone pinnacles: Are they remnants of tropical karst towers and cones?, 1996, Zhang D. A. ,
Limestone pinnacles on mountain slopes in Tibet were measured for morphological analysis and the results were compared with those from tropical towers and cones on karst mountain slopes of Shuicheng, southwest China. In the form analyses, the symmetric products (P) of Tibetan pinnacles present large differences between individual pinnacles. The plan forms, represented by long/short axes ratios (R(L/S)), are mostly irregular and scattered and the diameter/height ratios (R(dfh)) reveal that the Tibetan I features could belong to any three cone or tower karat types, according to Balaze's classification of karst towers. The direction of pinnacle development seems to be primarily related to slope aspect and to geological structure. The morphological structure and orientation analyses show that pinnacle development is largely controlled by lithological and stratigraphic conditions. The closed water catchment structure, which is a basic feature in karat areas, has not been found in the limestone pinnacle areas of Tibet. The results of the form and structure analyses for the Tibetan pinnacles differ from those for tropical and subtropical karst areas. Further analysis indicates that Tibetan limestone pinnacles were formed by strong physical weathering under periglacial conditions. Four kinds of morphogenesis of the pinnacles are suggested

Sensitivity of karst process to environmental change along the Pep II transect, 1997, Yuan D. X. ,
It has been known since as early as the last century that karst formation is a geologic process related to chemical reaction, but not until the last couple of decades were karst processes viewed as being sensitive to environmental change. The direction and intensity of karst processes are controlled by environmental factors such as temperature, climate, hydrology, vegetation, geology, and the openness of the system to the atmosphere. Accordingly, karst features, as a product of the carbon cycle, differ in space and time. This is clearly evident from the world karst correlation project, IGCP 299. There is a sharp contrast between karst types on both sides of the Qingling Mountain range of central China. Semi-arid karst is located to the north, and humid subtropical karst to the south. Karst features are capable of recording high resolution paleoclimatic change. AMS C-14, isotope and geochemical studies of thin laminae from a giant stalagmite located near Guilin, in southern China, have clearly identified rapid climate changes during the past 40 ka. In karst areas with active neotectonism, huge deposits of calcareous travertine record the amount of deeply sourced CO2 emitted into the atmosphere and can aid studies on modem tectonism because of the association of calcareous travertine with active faults.

Base-level Changes Inferred from Cave Paleoflow Analysis in the Lagoa Santa Karst, Brazil, 1998, Auler, A. S.
The interpretation of flow marks in relict cave passages in two drainage basins in the tropical karst of Lagoa Santa, East Central Brazil was used to characterize past flow routes. Comparison with present groundwater flow deduced from dye tracing was performed in order to assess the evolutionary history of the karst drainage basins. Samambaia Basin's dry caves show that paleoflow in this basin was directed towards other local base levels, suggesting that some fluviokarst features in the basin were generated in a later stage. Paleoflow analysis in the Palmeiras-Mocambo Basin shows that flow direction has not changed significantly since the genesis of today's dry caves. Relict caves can provide useful clues on the paleohydrology of karst areas.

Specificity of the tropical karst. [in French], 1998, Salomon, Jeannol

Evaluating hillslope stability in tropical karst , 1998, Gillieson, David

Residential development in the tower karst of the Kinta valley, Malaya is proceeding at a rapid pace, and many developments have been subject to damage and loss of life from landslides and rockfalls. Study was conducted at Gunung Tempurung- Gajah, a 600-metre high limestone tower. The evaluation of hillslope stability was made by geomorphological mapping including the parameters: type of slope, activity of landslides and rock stability. Over geological timescales, periodic landslides and rockfalls are a normal and expectable part of the geomorphological processes in the tower karst of the Kinta valley. The expected frequency of landslides today is difficult to determine but recourse can be made to data on the frequency of high-intensity rainfall, and examination of revegetation on landslip debris. From these data, it seems probable that minor landslides can be triggered every 2-3 years in the area, with major phases of landslide activity occurring every 20 years.


Land use in the tropical karst; the case of Peruau, Januria and Jaiba; SE Brazil, 1999, De Abreu Joao Francisco, Ferreira Pinto Sergio Dos Anjos, Kohler Heinz Charles
The karstic regions of the municipalities of Peruau, Januria and Jaiba present a variety of soil uses which are a function of the organization of the karstic relief. This relief system forms a rift, which received fluvial sediments deposition from the So Francisco River. The horst of the Peruau plateau is developed on limestone rocks of Late Proterozoic age with a high concentration of calcium carbonate. The South American Surface was formed on this and is today occupied by cattle ranching. In the graben, due to easy irrigation from underground karst waters and because of the nearby drainage system of the So Francisco River, a mechanized and specialized farming system has developed. The change in the management of cattle breeding and in traditional farming methods has had a substantial impact on the economic structure of the community and also on the karst itself.

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