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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That passage is 1. broadly, a passage is any negotiable part of cave system, though the usage is commonly restricted to those elements that tend towards the horizontal rather than vertical or sub-vertical sections. cave passages very in size and shape, with the latter relating to the mode of origin and providing evidence of the nature of cave development mechanisms. perhaps the largest passage in the world is deer cave, which is up to 170m wide and 120m high, in the mulu karst of sarawak [9]. 2. a comparatively small underground opening made along fractures, fissures, and bedding-plane partings by running water but through which it is possible to pass [20]. 3. in a cave, the opening between rooms or chambers [10]. synonyms: (french.) galerie; (german.) gallerie, stollen; (greek.) ypohios thiothos; (italian.) cunicolo, galleria; (russian.) hod; (spanish.) galeria; (turkish.) gecit; (yugoslavian.) galerija. see also chamber; room.?

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Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for isotop (Keyword) returned 593 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 593
Uranium Series Dating and Stable Isotope Studies of Speleothems: Part I - Theory and Techniques, 1978, Gascoyne M. , Schwarcz H. P. , Ford D. C.

The marine oxygen isotope record in Pleistocene coral, Barbados, West Indies, 1978, Fairbanks R. G. , Matthews R. K.

Late Pleistocene paleoclimates of North America as inferred from stable isotope studies of speleothems., 1978, Harmon R. S. , Thompson P. , Schwarcz H. P. , Ford D. C.

Analyse isotopique de concretions sous-glaciaires de l'inlandsis laur-entidien et teneur en oxygene 18 de la glace., 1979, Hillairemarcel C. , Soucy J. M. , Cailleux A.

Cave and Landscape Evolution At Isaacs Creek, New South Wales, 1979, Connolly M. , Francis G.

Isaacs Creek Caves are situated in the Hunter Valley of New South Wales and form a distinct unit within the Timor karst region. The larger caves such as Man, Helictite and Belfry all show evidence of early development under sluggish phreatic conditions. Nevertheless later phases of dynamic phreatic and vadose development occurred in Belfry and Helictite caves. In the case of Helictite Cave sluggish phreatic, dynamic phreatic and vadose action may have operated simultaneously in different parts of the same cave. After each cave was drained through further valley incision by Isaacs Creek, extensive clay fills derived from surface soil were deposited in it. There has been considerable re-excavation of the fills; in Main Cave younger clay loams have partially filled the resulting cavities and thus underlie the older clays. The earliest speleogenesis took place in Main Cave which pre-dates the valley of Isaacs Creek. This cave now lies in the summit of Caves Ridge about 100m above the modern valley floor. Helictite and Shaft Caves formed when the valley had been cut down to within 30m of its present level and some early phreatic development also took place in the Belfry Cave at this time. Later phases of dynamic phreatic and vadose development in Belfry Cave occurred when the valley floor lay about 12m above its present level and can be correlated with river terraces at this height. Evidence from cave morphology, isotopic basalt dates and surfaces geomorphology indicates that Main Cave formed in the Cretaceous and that Helictite Cave, Shaft Cave and the early development in Belfry Cave date from the Palaeogene. Although the dynamic phreatic and vadose action in Belfry Cave is more recent, it may still range back into the Miocene. This is a much more ancient and extended chronology than has hitherto been proposed for limestone caves and is in conflict with widely accepted ideas about cave longevity. Nevertheless evidence from Isaacs Creek and other parts of the Hunter Valley indicates that the caves and landforms are ancient features and thus notions of cave longevity developed in younger geological environments of the northern hemisphere do not apply in the present context.

Environmental isotopes in groundwater hydrology, 1980, Fontes J.

The isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in precipitation, 1980, Gat J. R.

Isotope geochemistry of carbonates in the weathering zone, 1980, Salomons W. , Mook W. G.

A possible mechanism for growth of calcite speleothems without participation of biogenic carbon dioxide, 1982, Dreybrodt W,
Using Plummer et al.'s [11] rate equations on the dissolution and deposition of CaCO3 in H2O---CO2 systems, we have calculated deposition rates of CaCO3 to stalagmites in caves which are covered by glaciers or bare karst. In this case no biogenic CO2 from vegetated soil is available and the deposition of CaCO3 involves only atmospheric CO2. The mechanism of deposition proceeds by a temperature effect. Cold melting waters of about 0[deg]C dissolve CaCO3 under open system conditions at the surface of the rock. When this solution saturated with respect to CaCO3, flows through the limestone rock its temperature increases by several degrees. Therefore, it becomes supersaturated, and CaCO3 is deposited under open system conditions in the warmer cave. Maximal growth rates of about 10-3 cm/year are possible. From the kinetics of the deposition of CaCO3 from the thin water films present at the surface of stalagmites we are able to estimate the isotopic composition of carbon in the CaCO3 deposited on the stalagmites to be approximately [delta]13C = %, which is close to some observed values.From our data we conclude that substantial growth of stalagmites is possible during glacial periods as well as in areas of bare karst, a question which was not resolved up to now

Isotopic composition of precipitation, cave drips and actively forming speleothems at three Tasmanian cave sites., 1982, Goede A. , Green D. C. , Harmon R. S.

Hydrogeological conditions in the Middle East, 1982, Burdon Dj,
The geology of Middle East is summarized under the subheadings: Precambrian basement, epicontinental sediments, geosynclinal and shelf deposits, Tertiary volcanics and Quaternary cover. The main tectonic episodes including epeirogenic movements, rifting and the Tertiary orogeny, are reviewed. The imposition of hydrometeorolocal and climatic conditions upon the regional geology provides the setting for the hydrogeological discussion. Five factors which influence infiltration to aquifers under conditions of low precipitation and high potential evaportranspiration are discussed. The predominance of fossil groundwater is the most striking hydrogeological phenomenon occurring on a regional scale in the Middle East. Its mode of formation during the pluvials is outlined and the isotopic evidence is reviewed. The main physical and chemical characteristics of fossil ground-waters are described. It is conservatively estimated that some 65 000 km3 of good- to medium-quality groundwater are stored in the great artesian basins of the Near East. These fossil ground-waters are a non-renewable natural resource. Current annual abstraction is, as yet, a small percentage of the total reserves but economic factors rather than the volume of reserves will determine the ultimate extent of their exploitation. The renewable groundwater resources of the Middle East tend, by comparison, to be of local rather than regional significance. Some originate outside the Middle East, coming in as surface flows in the Nile and Tigris-Euphrates and infiltrating into the sediments in and adjacent to the flood plains. Other renewable resources accumulate within the region where high precipitation and mountainous relief are associated. Such areas include the Djebel Akhdar of Cyrenacia, the Tertiary fold mountains from the Taurus through the Zagros to the Oman ranges, and the volcanic and basement highlands of Yemen, Asir and Ethiopa. Locally, in areas of lower precipitation, lenses of recent fresh groundwater float on regional more saline groundwater. In some areas subsurface flows towards and through wadi systems are also of importance

Stable isotope studies of water extracted from speleothems. McMaster Univ. PhD thesis, 1982, Yonge C. J.

Isotopic Composition of Precipitation, Cave Drips and Actively Forming Speleothems at Three Tasmanian Cave Sites, 1982, Goede A. , Green D. C. , Harmon R. S.

Monthly samples of precipitation and cave drips were collected from three Tasmanian cave sites along a north-south transect and their 18O/16O ratios determined. At one station D/H ratios were also measured and the relationship between delta 18O and delta D values investigated. The 18O/16O and D/H ratios of monthly precipitation show marked seasonality with values correlating strongly with mean monthly temperatures. The effect of temperature on 18O/16O ratios appears to increase as one goes southwards and is at least twice as strong at Hastings (.61 deg /oo SMOW/ deg C) as it is shown at Mole Creek (.28 deg /oo SMOW/ deg C). Irregularities in the seasonal pattern of 18O/16O change are particularly pronounced at Hastings and in the Florentine Valley and can be attributed to the amount effect. For delta 18O values > -5.5 deg /oo the combined data from the three Tasmanian stations show an amount effect of .026 deg /oo SMOW/mm. Cave drips show apparently random, non-seasonal variation in the 18O / 16O isotopic compostion but the weighted mean of the 18O/16O isotope composition of precipitation provides a good approximation to their mean 18O/16O isotopic composition. In contrast to their D/H ratios for a cave drip site in Little Trimmer Cave, Mole Creek, show a distict seasonal pattern. The 18O/16O and 13C/12C ratios have been determined for a number of actively forming speleothems. With respect to 18O/16O it is found that speleothems the three sites are being deposited under conditions approaching isotopic equilibrium. The 13C/12C ratios of these speleothems are highly variable but the generally less negative values found in Frankcombe Cave (Florentine Valley) compared with the other two sites may reflect the effects of recent clearfelling in the area.

Etudes rcentes sur le karst de Niaux-Lombrive-Sabart (Arige), 1983, Renault, Ph.
RECENT INVESTIGATIONS ABOUT THE NIAUx-LOMBRiVE-SABART KARST (Arige, France) - Several recent investigations concerne this important system (14km). The P. Sorriaux sedimentologi-cal thesis (1982) establishes that the ancient troughflows have inverted their direction during an evolution of at least 400,000 years (isotopic dating from calcite) under glacial conditions. The C. Andrieux, J. Brunet and Ph. Renault speleometeorological studies (1974-1983) concerning the thermic equilibrium pattern and the carbon dioxide distribution suggest an atmospheric model. The closing or opening of some the locks (sumps, doors) induces the changing of a barometric causality into a thermic one with the production of a general air flow.

Uranium-Series Ages of Speleothem from Northwest England: Correlation with Quaternary Climate, 1983, Gascoyne M, Schwarcz Hp, Ford Dc,
Over 180 $^{230}$Th/$^{234}$U ages have been obtained for 87 speleothems from caves in the Craven district of northwest England. Periods of abundant speleothem growth, 0-13, 90-135 and 170 to > 350 ka, are correlated with interglacial isotope stages 1, 5 and 7-9 respectively. Periods of zero growth, 14-35 and 140-165 ka, are correlated with glacial stages 2 and 6 respectively. A prominent break in growth of one speleothem, dated at about 260 ka, may be correlated with glacial stage 8. Lower-frequency growth from 35 to 90 ka is correlated with stages 3 and 4. The results may also be related to the British Quaternary sequence within the range of $^{14}$C determinations, as follows: 0-13 ka. Flandrian plus late Devensian deglaciation; 14-35 ka, late Devensian glaciation; 35-45 ka. Upton Warren interstadial. Low but finite speleothem abundance during the period 45-90 ka correlates with the early Devensian and is in good agreement with evidence indicating the non-glacial, but tundra-like, climate over this period. The Ipswichian interglacial is broadly related to the abundant growth period 90-135 ka, but is more closely defined by the interval 115-135 ka, from results of dating speleothems enclosing remains of Ipswichian fauna in one cave. By analogy with the zero speleothem abundance during the late Devensian glaciation, the period 140-165 ka may be tentatively correlated with the Wolstonian glaciation. Lack of direct stratigraphic relationships with, or absolute ages of, middle to early Pleistocene stages prevents further correlation of speleothem age data. From the frequency of abundance of speleothem basal ages for the period 0-13 ka, it appears that speleothem growth lags ice recession by up to 4 ka

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