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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That capillary stalagmite is hollow stalagmite formed by saturated karst water pushed up through capillaries and small cracks in a sinter crust covering permeable fluvial deposits on the floor of a cave; first reported from cuba, where such stalagmites are composed of aragonite [10].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for tracer tests (Keyword) returned 60 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 60
Hydrogeological characteristics of a karst mountainous catchment in the northwest of Vietnam, 2001, Tam V. T. , Vu T. M. N. , Batelaan O. ,
This paper presents a preliminary assessment of the hydrogeological characteristics of a karst mountainous catchment, the Suoi Muoi River catchment, in the northwest of Vietnam. The catchment is located at 600 -700 in a.s.l. and covers an area of 284 kin. Exposed limestone occupies 32% of the total catchment area. Various types of assessments have been carried out, including geological and hydrogeological. field surveys, cave surveys, dye-tracer tests, meteorological and surface water monitoring. Geological studies and cave surveys have identified the most important active cave/conduit systems within the catchment. Although these data are essential, they are insufficient to make a comprehensive appraisal of the hydrologic nature of the catchment under interest. An attempt was made to calculate a global water balance of the catchment, based on short-term (15 months) meteorological and streamflow records. The results show that, despite the existence of a number of substantial cavern conduit systems, the groundwater system of the catchment is governed by the fracture/fissure matrix. The cavern conduit systems only collect groundwater from the adjacent fracture matrix and/or connect topographically isolated surface watercourses. The groundwater storage of the cavern conduit systems appears to be regionally insignificant in comparison with the governed fracture matrix groundwater system

24 h Tracer Tests on Diurnal Parameter Variability in a Subglacial Karst Conduit: Small River Valley, Canada., 2001, Ross Jh. , Serefiddin F. , Hauns M. , Smart C. C.
Repeated dye tracer tests were undertaken for two complete diurnal discharge cycles at Small River Glacier, British Columbia. The injection site is a well developed glacier moulin. Monitoring was done at a karst spring in a cave entrance 1530 m down valley. The spring is the major outlet of glacial meltwater and also drains karstified glacier forefields. High flow velocities and low dispersivities indicate a very well developed conduit flow system. Discharge and velocity show strong diurnal cycles and are controlled by the amount of meltwater. The relationship of increasing velocity with discharge is approximately linear. Dispersivity values do not show any significant variation under diurnal discharge cycles. These results show the importance of diurnal variation in a transient groundwater system.

Microbiological decay of Naphthionate in water samples as a source of misinterpretation of tracer tests, 2001, Goldscheider N. , Hö, Tzl H. , Kottke K.

The UV fluorescent dye Naphthionate is often used for groundwater tracing due to its favourable properties. As it is invisible in the water, it was selected as a tracer for an experiment in the karstic catchment of the mineral springs of Stuttgart (Germany) where any risk of colouring had to be avoided. Irregular breakthrough curves indicated the decay of Naphthionate. It was possible to demonstrate that the decay does not occur in the aquifer but in the sampling bottles. Laboratory experiments proved that the decay is due to microbiological activity and favoured by room temperature while the light has no significant influence.


Efficient hydrologic tracer-test design for tracer-mass estimation and sample-collection frequency, 2. Experimental results, 2002, Field Ms,
Effective tracer-test design requires that the likely results be predicted in advance of test initiation to ensure tracer-test success. EHTD-predicted breakthrough curves (BTCs) for various hydrological conditions were compared with measured BTCs obtained from actual tracer tests. The hydrological conditions for the tracer tests ranged from flowing streams to porous-media systems. Tracer tests evaluated included flowing streams tracer tests conducted in small and large surface-water streams, a karst solution conduit, and a glacial-meltwater stream and porous-media systems conducted as natural-gradient, forced-gradient, injection-withdrawal, and recirculation tracer tests. Comparisons between the actual tracer tests and the predicted results showed that tracer breakthrough, hydraulic characteristics, and sample-collection frequency may be forecasted sufficiently well in most instances as to facilitate good tracer-test design. Comparisons were generally improved by including tracer decay and/or retardation in the simulations. Inclusion of tracer decay in the simulations also tended to require an increase in set average tracer concentration to facilitate matching peak concentrations in the measured BTCs, however. Both nonreactive tracer and reactive tracer predictions produced recommended sample-collection frequencies that would adequately define the actual BTCs, but estimated tracer-mass estimates were less precise

Mine water tracing, 2002, Wolkersdorfer Christian,
This paper describes how tracer tests can be used in flooded underground mines to evaluate the hydrodynamic conditions or reliability of dams. Mine water tracer tests are conducted in order to evaluate the flow paths of seepage water, connections from the surface to the mine, and to support remediation plans for abandoned and flooded underground mines. There are only a few descriptions of successful tracer tests in the literature, and experience with mine water tracing is limited. Potential tracers are restricted due to the complicated chemical composition or low pH mine waters. A new injection and sampling method ( LydiA'-technique) overcomes some of the problems in mine water tracing. A successful tracer test from the Harz Mountains in Germany with Lycopodium clavatum, microspheres and sodium chloride is described, and the results of 29 mine water tracer tests indicate mean flow velocities of between 0.3 and 1.7 m min-1

Combined tracer tests in the karst aquifer of the artesian mineral springs of Stuttgart, Germany, 2003, Goldscheider , H_tzl , K_ss , Ufrecht ,

Recent results of the dye tracer tests of the Chocholowskie Vaucluse Spring karst system (Western Tatra Mts.), 2004, Barczyk G,
The region of the Bobrowiec Massif, crucial in underground flows within the Chocholowski Stream catchment area, was not studied in details until the 50ies. The Chocholowskie Vaucluse Spring is recharged mainly by karst systems, including that of the Szczelina Chocholowska - Jaskinia Rybia caves. The remaining 20% of water in the system comes from surface waters of the Chocholowski Stream. First successful dye tests were conducted on this system in 1971/1972. The paper presents data and interpretation of the recent dye-tracer experiments for the Chocholowskie Vaucluse Spring recharge area. The results of these tests prove that the connection between the Szczelina Chocholowska - Rybia caves karst system and the Chocholowskie Vaucluse Spring is of a karst-fissure character. This hydraulic connection is a typical example of a sub-channel circulation, where flow through a karst-fissure system takes place beneath the bottom of an existing river channel. Comparing the time of dye flow through the system with water stages indicates that the system of fissures linking the sinkhole zone with the vaucluse spring is at least three fold. The inverse relation between watermark stands reflecting the degree of watering in the massif and the time, at which dye penetrates the system, is also distinctly visible

Forecasting Versus Predicting Solute Transport in Solution Conduits for Estimating Drinking-Water Risks, 2004, Field, Malcolm S.

Contaminant releases in karstic terranes can cause rapid and devastating affects on drinking-water supplies. Because future contaminant releases are likely it is necessary that local water managers develop release scenarios so as to be prepared prior to an actual contaminant release occurring. Release scenarios may be forecasted using appropriate historical data or they may be predicted using selected measured parameters. Forecasting contaminant releases to drinking-water supplies in karstic terranes is best accomplished by conducting numerous tracer tests from each potential source location to each exposure point so that acceptable solute-transport parameters for each solution conduit may be estimated from analyses of the breakthrough curves. Compositing the numerous breakthrough curves and fitting a quintic spline allows development of a single representative breakthrough curve that may then be used to forecast the effects of a release. Predicting contaminant releases is accomplished by combining basic measured field parameters for selected solution conduits in functional relationships for application in solute-transport models. The resulting breakthrough curve and solute-transport parameters can be used to predict the effects of a release. The forecasting and prediction methodologies were tested using a hypothetical release into a solution conduit developed in a karstic aquifer. Both methods were shown to produce reasonably acceptable results. The prediction methodology produced better time-of-travel results and better mass recovery and exposure concentration results than did the forecasting methodology.


The Aubonne karst aquifer (Swiss Jura), 2005, Leutscher M. , Perrin J. ,
A synthesis of the hydrogeological investigations carried out in an important karst region of the Jura Mountains led to the recognition of a major hydrological system: the Aubonne-Toleure-Malagne system. The continuous monitoring of hydraulic parameters at the main outlets established a mean discharge of the system of more than 6 m(3)/s. A delimitation of the Aubonne catchment area is proposed in accordance with the water balance and the geology. Tracer tests outline the presence of a complex karst network which is closely related to the structural context. A schematic organisation of this network is proposed and a major divergence towards the nearby Montant system is set in evidence. Geological observations provide also evidences for a precise delineation of the catchment area: six major functional elements for the recharge of the aquifer are distinguished and transversal drainages towards the Aubonne spring system are outlined along major strike-slip faults. Combining hydrological information available on the Aubonne karst aquifer provides the indispensable background data for the management and the protection of this water resource

Assessing the Vulnerability of a Municipal Well Field to Contamination in a Karst Aquifer, 2005, Renken R. A. , Cunningham K. J. , Zygnerski M. R. , Wacker M. A. , Shapiro A. M. , Harvey R. W. , Metge D. W. , Osborn C. L. , Ryan J. N. ,
Proposed expansion of extractive lime-rock mines near the Miami-Dade County Northwest well field and Everglades wetland areas has garnered intense scrutiny by government, public, environmental stakeholders, and the media because of concern that mining will increase the risk of pathogen contamination. Rock mines are excavated to the same depth as the well field's primary producing zone. The underlying karst Biscayne aquifer is a triple-porosity system characterized by (1) a matrix of interparticle porosity and separate vug porosity; (2) touching-vug porosity that forms preferred, stratiform passageways; and, less commonly, (3) conduit porosity formed by thin solution pipes, bedding-plane vugs, and cavernous vugs. Existing ground-water flow and particle tracking models do not provide adequate information regarding the ability of the aquifer to limit the advective movement of pathogens and other contaminants. Chemical transport and colloidal mobility properties have been delineated using conservative and microsphere-surrogate tracers for Cryptosporidium parvum. Forced-gradient tests were executed by introducing conservative tracers into injection wells located 100 m (328 ft) from a municipal-supply well. Apparent mean advective velocity between the wells is one to two orders of magnitude greater than previously measured. Touching-vug, stratiform flow zones are efficient pathways for tracer movement at the well field. The effective porosity for a continuum model between the point of injection and tracer recovery ranges from 2 to 4 percent and is an order of magnitude smaller than previously assumed. Existing well-field protection zones were established using porosity estimates based on specific yield. The effective, or kinematic, porosity of a Biscayne aquifer continuum model is lower than the total porosity, because high velocities occur along preferential flow paths that result in faster times of travel than can be represented with the ground-water flow equation. Tracer tests indicate that the relative ease of contaminant movement to municipal supply wells is much greater than previously considered

Hydrogeological research as a basis for the preparation of the plan of monitoring groundwater contamination: A case study of the Stara vas landfill near Postojna (SW Slovenia), 2005, Petrič, Metka, Š, Ebela Stanka

For the present 9 landfills on karst are still active in Slovenia, among them also the Stara vas landfill near Postojna. As strong fissuration of the rock base and very good permeability is typical for karst areas, the waste waters from the landfills particularly endanger the groundwater. The capacity of natural filtration in karst is very low and the dimension of possible negative impact is very high. The actual legislation regulates the performance of operational monitoring, a part of which is also the measurement of parameters of contamination of groundwater by hazardous substances, if they are in the area of influence of the landfill. Preparation of the monitoring plan is based on adequate hydrogeological researches. Besides basic geological and hydrogeological data also the results of tracer tests were used in the case study of the Stara vas landfill. Additionally, the detailed tectonic-lithological mapping in the scale 1:5000 was performed in the narrow area of the landfill. Based on defined characteristics of underground water flow and in accordance with the regulations 3 monitoring points inside (Malenščica and Vipava springs, Fužina cave) and one point outside the area of influence of the landfill (Matijeva jama cave) were selected. The monitoring plan for the observation of water quality and capacity was suggested.


Tracer tests, hydrochemical and microbiological investigations as a basis for groundwater protection in a remote tropical mountainous karst area, Vietnam, 2006, Vu Thi Minh Nguyet, Nico Goldscheider,

Evaluating the effectiveness of a fixed wellhead delineation: Regional case study, 2006, Hodgson J. Y. S. , Stoll J. R. , Stoll R. C. ,
The 1996 Safe Drinking Water Act amendments mandated that every state must determine the hydrogeologic origin of each public drinking water system and assess the degree to which each system may be adversely affected by potential sources of contamination. Wisconsin delineated and assessed one specific class of systems, transient noncommunity drinking water wells, with the least stringent standards of all governed system types. This study evaluates the effectiveness of Wisconsin's arbitrarily fixed radius approach used in determining susceptibility to potential contamination from 1,872 transient noncommunity ground water wells. Nearly 28 percent of the wells with contaminated water did not have any recorded potential sources of contamination within the delineation radii. Additionally, regression models derived from potential contaminant inventories within the delineation radii could not accurately predict actual incidences of water contamination. Differences between observed and expected frequencies of contamination further suggest that some transient noncommunity systems should probably be delineated with larger and more sophisticated methods that would account for varying geology and contaminant susceptibility. The majority of contamination cases without recorded potential sources of contamination within the delineation radii were in a karst area. Subsequently, the arbitrarily fixed radius delineation method should not be used in areas with karst aquifers

Modeling complex flow in a karst aquifer, 2006, Quinn John J. , Tomasko David, Kuiper James A. ,
Carbonate aquifers typically have complex groundwater flow patterns that result from depositional heterogeneities and post-lithification fracturing and karstification. Various sources of information may be used to build a conceptual understanding of flow in the system, including drilling data, well tests, geophysical surveys, tracer tests, and spring gaging. These data were assembled to model flow numerically in Germany's Malm Formation, at a site where water disappears from the beds of ephemeral stream valleys, flows through conduit systems, and discharges to springs along surface water features. Modeling was performed by using a finite-difference approach, with drain networks, representing the conduit component of flow, laced throughout the porous medium along paths inferred on the basis of site data. This approach represents an improvement over other karst models that attempt to represent a conduit by a single, specialized model node at the spring location or by assigning a computationally problematic extremely high permeability to a zone. By handling the conduit portion of this mixed-flow system with drains, a realistic, interpretive flow model was created for this intricate aquifer

Impacts of Juniper Vegetation and Karst Geology on Subsurface Flow Processes in the Edwards Plateau, Texas, 2006, Dasgupta S, Mohanty Bp, Kohne Jm,
Impacts of Ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei J. Buchholz) and karst geology on the regional water cycle in the Edwards plateau region of Texas are complex and not well understood. The objective of our study was to gain a comprehensive understanding of the subsurface flow processes occurring at a juniper woodland site on the Edwards Plateau near Honey Creek State Natural Area. A 2.3-m-deep, 7-m-long trench was excavated at the downslope end of a 7 by 14 m experimental plot, and time domain reflectometry (TDR) probes were installed at various locations within the trench face to measure volumetric water contents. A multi-port telescopic boom type rainfall simulator was used to provide artificial rainfall on the plot. Six rainfall simulations and two dye-tracer tests were conducted on the plot during a 7-mo period. Subsurface flow was visually inspected at various locations on the trench face during artificial rainfall experiments and water content was monitored near slow and fast flow regions using TDR probes. The total volume of subsurface flow was also recorded after each rainfall simulation event. Results demonstrated that subsurface flow occurred in a bimodal manner, consisting of preferential/macropore flow around juniper root channels and planar fractures in the limestone, and pseudo-matrix flow through the soil matrix (water flowing primarily through the intermediate layers and lenses of soil between the rock layers). Preferential/macropore flow at the trench face depended on imposed boundary conditions and was independent of antecedent moisture content in the soil matrix. Pseudo-matrix flow response time decreased with high rainfall. During large rainfall events (>200 mm), water exchange was observed between the fractures and soil matrix. No apparent water exchange occurred between fractures and the soil matrix during small rainfall events. The dye studies indicated that fractures and juniper root channels are primary pathways for preferential/macropore flow occurring within the plot

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