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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Paleokarst - a Systematic and Regional Review, 1989,

Prepared by some of the world's leading experts in the field, this book is the first summarizing work on the origin, importance and exploitation of paleokarst. It offers an extensive regional survey, mainly concerning the Northern Hemisphere, as well as a thorough analysis of the problems of research into paleokarst phenomena, with particular emphasis on theoretical contributions and practical exploitation. By concentrating on phenomena which have appeared in the course of geological history, the book represents a substantial development in the general theory of paleokarst and demonstrates the advantages of a comprehensive approach to the problem. Considerable emphasis is put on the economic importance of paleokarst phenomena, from the point of view of exploiting significant deposits of mineral raw materials, as well as from a civil engineering and hydrological point of view. Since the publication deals with a boundary scientific discipline, it is intended for specialists from various branches of science: geologists, paleontologists, economic geologists, geographers, mining engineers and hydrogeologists.

List of Contributors. Foreword.

Part I. Introduction.
Introduction (P. Bosák et al.). Paleokarst as a problem (J. Głazek, P. Bosák, D.C. Ford). Terminology (P. Bosák, D.C. Ford, J. Głazek).

Part II. Regional Review.
Paleokarst of Belgium (Y. Quinif). Paleokarst of Britain (T.D. Ford). Paleokarst of Norway (S.-E. Lauritzen). Paleokarst of Poland (J. Głazek). Paleokarst of Czechoslovakia (P. Bosák, I. Horáček, V. Panoš). Paleokarst of Hungary (G. Bárdossy, L. Kordos). Hydrothermal paleokarst of Hungary (P. Müller). Paleokarst of Italy. Selected examples from Cambrian to Miocene (M. Boni, B. D'Argenio). Paleokarst-related ore deposits of the Maghreb, North Africa (Y. Fuchs, B. Touahri). Paleokarst of Yugoslavia (D. Gavrilović). Paleokarst of Bulgaria (I. Stanev, S. Trashliev). Paleokarst of Romania (M. Bleahu). Paleokarst of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (R.A. Tsykin). Paleokarst of China (Zhang Shouyue). Paleokarst of Canada (D.C. Ford). Paleokarst of the United States (M.V. Palmer, A.N. Palmer).

Part III. Mineral Deposits Connected With Karst.
An introduction to karst-related mineral deposits (P. Bosák). Pb-Zn ores (S. Dżułyński, M. Sass-Gustkiewicz). Bauxites (G. Bárdossy). Iron ore deposits in paleokarst (G. Bárdossy, Y. Fuchs, J. Głazek). Clays and sands in paleokarst (P. Bosák). The oceanic karst: modern bauxite and phosphate ore deposits on the high carbonate islands (so-called ``Uplifted Atolls'') of the Pacific Ocean (F.G. Bourrouilh-le Jan). Paleokarst-related uranium deposits (Y. Fuchs).

Part IV. Hydrogeology and Engineering Hazards in Paleokarst Areas.
Paleokarst as an important hydrogeological factor (J. Zötl). Hydrogeological problems of opencast and underground mining of mineral deposits encountered during their exploration, development and exploitation stages (P. Bosák). Hydrogeological problems of the Cracow-Silesia Zn-Pb ore deposits (Z. Wilk). Hydrogeological problems of Hungarian bauxite and coal deposits (T. Böcker, B. Vizy). Paleokarst in civil engineering (A. Eraso). Interaction between engineering and environment in the presence of paleokarst: some case histories (J. Głazek).

Part V. Paleokarst as a Scientific Subject.
Special characteristics of paleokarst studies (I. Horáček, P. Bosák). Tectonic conditions for karst origin and preservation (J. Głazek). Problems of the origin and fossilization of karst forms (P. Bosák). Biostratigraphic investigations in paleokarst (I. Horáček, L. Kordos).

Part VI. Conclusions. Part VII. References. Part VIII. Indexes.
Author Index. Geographical Index. Subject Index.

Bibliographic & ordering Information
Hardbound, ISBN: 0-444-98874-2, 726 pages, publication date: 1989

Population size of Pyrenean troglobiont coleopters (Speonomus species) in a cave in Belgium, 1991, Brouwir Christine, Tercafs Raymond
The population size of three troglobitic species of Speonomus (Coleoptera Bathysciinae) from the Pyrenees, intentionally introduced in 1969-1970 into the "Grotte de Ramioul" cave (Province of Lige, Belgium) has been studied using the mark-recapture technique. It has been shown that the three cave levels possess large Speonomus populations (upper network: 12,718; middle network: 13,902; lower network: 18,249 individuals) and that the superficial underground environment is also colonized, including the schist area. The most abundant species is Speonomus longicornis (relative frequency between 0.73 to 0.89). The two other species are present in the relative frequency between 0.04 and 0.23 for S. diecki, and between 0.03 and 0.11 for S. stygius. The overall Speonomus population size in the cave is estimated at 44,000 individuals.

Within the Franco-Belgian segment of the Hercynian orogen, two thick Dinantian anhydritic formations are known, respectively in the Saint-Ghislain (765 m) and Epinoy 1 (904 m) wells. Nevertheless, occurrences of widespread extended breccias and of numerous pseudomorphs of gypsum/anhydrite in stratigraphically equivalent carbonate deposits (boreholes and outcrops), suggest a larger extent of the evaporitic conditions (fig. 1, 2). The present distribution of evaporites is controlled by palaeogeographical differentiation and post-depositional parameters such as tectonics and dissolution. These latter have dissected the deposits formerly present in all the structural units. By using depositional, diagenetic and deformational characters of these formations, the article provides a model for the reconstruction of a dislocated evaporitic basin. This segment of the Hercynian chain is schematically composed of two main units (fig. 1, 3) : (1) the autochthonous or parautochthonous deposits of the Namur synclinorium, (2) the Dinant nappe thrusted northward over the synclinorium of Namur. The major thrust surface is underlined by a complex fault bundle (faille du Midi) seismically recognized over more than 100 km. A complex system of thrust slices occurs at the Hercynian front. Except for local Cretaceous deposits, most of the studied area has been submitted to a long period of denudation since the Permian. Sedimentary, faunistic and geochemical data argue for a marine origin of the brines which have generated the evaporites interbedded with marine limestones. Sedimentary structures. - The thick evaporitic formations are composed of calcium-sulfates without any clear evidence of the former presence of more soluble salts (with the exception of a possible carbonate-sulfate breccia in the upper part of the Saint-Ghislain formation). As in all the deeply buried evaporitic formations, the anhydrite is the main sulfate component which displays all the usual facies : pseudomorphs after gypsum (fig. 4A, B), nodular and mosaic (fig. 4C), laminated. The gypsum was probably an important component during the depositional phase despite the predominant nodular pattern of the anhydrite. Early diagenetic nodular anhydrite may have grown during temporary emersion of the carbonates (sabkha environments), but this mechanism cannot explain the formation of the whole anhydrite. So, most of the anhydrite structures result from burial-controlled gypsum --> anhydrite conversion and from mechanical deformations. Moreover, a complex set of diagenetic processes leads to various authigenic minerals (celestite, fluorite, albite, native sulfur, quartz and fibrous silica) and to multistaged carbonate <> sulfate replacements (calcite and dolomite after sulfate, replacive anhydrite as idiomorphic poeciloblasts, veinlets, domino-like or stairstep monocrystals...). These mineral transformations observed ill boreholes and in outcrops have diversely been controlled during the complex evolution of the series as : depositional and diagenetic pore-fluid composition, pressure and temperature changes with burial, bacterial and thermochemical sulfate reduction, deep circulations favored by mechanical brecciation, mechanical stresses, role of groundwater during exhumation of the series. Deformational structures. - A great variety of deformational structures as rotational elongation, stretching, lamination, isoclinal microfolding, augen-like and mylonitic structures are generated by compressive tectonic stresses (fig. 4D to J). The similarities between tectonic-generated structures and sedimentary (lamination) or diagenetic (pseudo-nodules) features could lead lo misinterpretations. The calcareous interbeds have undergone brittle deformation the style and the importance of which depend of their relative thickness. Stretching, boudins, microfolds and augen structures F, H. I) affect the thin layers while thicker beds may be broken as large fractured blocks dragged within flown anhydrite leading to a mylonitic-like structure (fig, 4G). In such an inhomogeneous formation made of interlayered ductile (anhydrite) and brittle (carbonate) beds, the style and the intensity of the deformation vary with respect to the relative thickness of each of these components. Such deformational features of anhydrite may have an ubiquitous significance and can result either from compressive constraints or geostatic movements (halokinesis). Nevertheless, some data evidence a relation with regional tangential stresses: (1) increase of the deformation toward the bottom of the Saint-Ghislain Formation which is marked by a deep karst suggesting the presence of a mechanical discontinuity used as a drain for dissolving solutions (fig. 3, 4); (2) structural setting (reversed series, internal slidings) of the Epinoy 1 formation under the Midi thrust. However, tectonic stresses also induce flowing deformations which have contributed to cause their present discontinuity. It can be assumed that the evaporites played an active role for the buckling of the regional structure as detachment or gliding layers and more specifically for the genesis of duplex structures. Breccia genesis. - Great breccia horizons are widely distributed in outcrops as well as in the subsurface throughout the greater part of the Dinant and Namur units (fig. 2). The wide distribution of pseudomorphosed sulfates in outcrops and the stratigraphical correlation between breccia and Saint-Ghislain evaporitic masses (fig. 2) suggest that some breccia (although not all) have been originated from collapse after evaporites solution. Although some breccia may result from synsedimentary dissolution, studied occurrences show that most of dissolution processes started after the Hercynian deformation and, in some cases, were active until recently : elements made of lithified and fractured limestones (Llandelies quarries) (fig. 5A), preservation of pseudomorphs of late replacive anhydrite (Yves-Gomezee) (fig. 5B, C), deep karst associated with breccia (Douvrain, Saint Ghislain, Ghlin boreholes) (fig. 3, 4, 5D)). Locally, the final brecciation may have been favored by a mechanical fragmentation which controlled water circulations (fig. 5E). As postulated by De Magnee et al. [19861, the dissolution started mostly after the Permian denudation and continued until now in relation with deep circulations and surface weathering (fig. 6). So, the above-mentioned occurrences of the breccia are logically explained by collapse after dissolution of calcium-sulfates interbeds of significant thickness (the presence of salt is not yet demonstrated), but other Visean breccia may have a different origin (fig. 5F). So, these data prove the extension of thick evaporitic beds in all the structural units including the Dinant nappe, before dissolution and deformation. Implications. - Distribution of Visean evaporites in northern France and Belgium is inherited from a complicated paleogeographic, tectonic and post-tectonic history which has strongly modified their former facies, thicknesses and limits (fig. IA, 6). Diversified environments of deposition controlled by both a palaeogeographical differentiation and water level fluctuations led to the deposition of subaqueous (gypsum) or interstitial (gypsum, anhydrite) crystallization. Nevertheless, most of the anhydrite structures can be interpreted as resulting from burial conversion of gypsum to anhydrite rather than a generalized early diagenesis in sabkha-like conditions. Deformation of anhydrite caused by Hercynian tangential stresses and subsequent flow mechanisms, have completed the destruction of depositional and diagenetic features. The tectonic deformations allow us to consider the role of the evaporites in the Hercynian deformations. The evaporites supplied detachment and gliding planes as suggested for the base of the Saint-Ghislain Formation and demonstrated by the structural setting of Epinoy 1 evaporites in reverse position and in a multi-system of thrust-slices below the Midi overthrust (fig. 7). So, although the area in which evaporation and precipitation took place cannot be exactly delineated in geographic extent, all the data evidence that the isolated thick anhydritic deposits represent relics of more widespread evaporites extending more or less throughout the different structural units of this Hercynian segment (fig. 1B). Their present discontinuity results from the combination of a depositional differentiation, mechanical deformations and/or dissolution

The observation of several forms in the Precambrian formations, in Tertiary and Quaternary deposits brings us to propose a model of topographic evolution mainly generated by a pseudo-karst. This latter is developed in sedimentary deposits and in the lithomargin, in relation with fracturation of the basement

Le puits de Flenu : la plus grande structure endokarstique du monde (1200 m) et la problmatique des puits du Houiller (Belgique), 1994, Quinif, Y.
In the Hainaut province, in Belgium, great vertical and cylindrical structures pass through the productive Westphalian. They are several coal-miners. They contain rocks from the lower Cretaceous cover, for example die Wealdian formations (clays, lignites and sands). Those pits result from deep karst in the dinantian limestones under the Namuro--Westphalian.

Les recoupements karstiques de mandres encaisss, 1997, Nicod, Jean
Three types of cut-off can be observed: 1) by natural bridge or short tunnel: Pont d'Arc type self-piracy (Ardeche, France) ; 2) by caves system or hydrogeological network, Lesse type (Ardenne, Belgium) ; 3) subaerial in karstic environment, the case of Vis in Navacelles (Herault, France). The main processes are debated: anteriority or/and coexistence of the underground drainage, impact of neotectonics, of the load and the screes and of the water chemistry changes.

Edouard-Alfred Martel et les cavernes de la Belgique., 1997, Andr Daniel
An exhaustive report on the activity of Martel in Belgium is here given. In particular some relevant passages of Martel's letters and papers are also included.

L'halloysite karstique; comparaison des gisements types de Wallonie (Belgique) et du Perigord (France), 1997, Perruchot A. , Dupuis C. , Brouard E. , Nicaise D. , Ertus R. ,
Two cryptokarstic (covered karsts) halloysitic deposits were compared: the Entre Sambre et Meuse in Belgium and the Perigord in France. Both belong to a continental margin subject to marine transgression and regression cycles which enhance the karstic activity. This geodynamic context appears to be very favourable to the formation of halloysite. The similarity of the geodynamic context of both sites leads to a genetic convergence linked to specific properties of the cryptokarstic system, especially, the ability to collect the percolating waters and to juxtapose the conditions of precipitation, accumulation and maturation of the halloysite silico-aluminous gel precursors. However, each site also displays pronounced specificities relevant to: the nature of the host rock of the halloysite (a partly silicified limestone in the first, a smectite-kaolinite argilite in the second); the aluminium source (allochthonous in the first, relatively autochthonous in the second); and the halloysite content of the deposits (of approximately 100% in the first, and 40% maximum in the second)

Comparison of annual luminescent and visible laminae in stalagmites, 1997, Genty D, Baker A, Barnes W,
Polished sections of stalagmites from France and Belgium were examined using UV excitation and natural light in order to examine their annual growth laminae. The most prominent luminescence occurs in the dark compact laminae; this would signify that both types form at the end of Autumn or the beginning of Winter when soil organic matter is flushed into the cave. Under UV excitation, and at a weaker magnification, white porous calcite fabric is found to be much more luminescent than the dark compact one. These results could be due either to optical effects associated with porosity or to the higher luminescence of dark compact laminae

Comparaison entre les lamines luminescentes et les lamines visibles annuelles de stalagmites, 1997, Genty D, Baker A, Barnes W,
ResumeLes sections polies de plusieurs stalagmites provenant de France et de Belgique ont ete observees apres une excitation en lumiere ultraviolette (LTV) et en lumiere naturelle pour etudier les lamines annuelles luminescentes et visibles. La luminescence la plus forte se trouve dans les lamines sombres et compactes, ce qui signifierait que ces deux types de lamines se formeraient a la fin de l'automne et au debut de l'hiver, lorsqu'il y a une brusque augmentation du debit et un apport important de matiere organique. Sous excitation laser UV, la calcite blanche et poreuse est beaucoup plus luminescente que la calcite sombre et compacte. Cette luminescence est soit, liee a la porosite, soit a la presence de lamines sombres et compactes plus luminescentes.AbstractPolished sections of stalagmites from France and Belgium were examined using UV excitation and natural light in order to examine their annual growth laminae. The most prominent luminescence occurs in the dark compact laminae, this would signify that both types form at the end of Autumn or the beginning of Winter when soil organic matter is flushed into the cave. Under UV excitation, and at a weaker magnification, white porous calcite fabric is found to be much more luminescent than the dark compact one. These results could be due either to optical effects associated with porosity or to the higher luminescence of dark compact laminae

Spheroidal dolomites in a Visean karst system - Bacterial induced origin?, 1997, Nielsen P. , Swennen R. , Dickson J. A. D. , Fallick A. E. , Keppens E. ,
Spheroidal dolomite crystals occur in the karstified top of a Dinantian dolomite sequence in eastern Belgium. The spheroidal dolomite crystals are best developed at the base of the karst system. The dolomite crystals are characterized by a spherulitic or dumb-bell inclusion pattern, and are overgrown by dolomite cements with a rhombohedral outline. They are considered to be bacterially related precipitates based on, (1) textural similarities with documented bacteriogenic precipitates, (2) the presence of 'bacterial' microspheres and framboidal pyrite embedded within the dolomite, and (3) their general geological setting. The geochemical characteristics of the dolomites and associated minerals support a bacterial origin. The ubiquity of framboidal pyrite, depleted in S-34 (delta(34)S = - 22.4 to - 25.5 parts per thousand CDT), testifies to a period of bacterial sulphate reduction. The isotopic composition of the spheroidal dolomites (delta(13)C = - 2.4 to - 3.2 parts per thousand PDB and delta(18)O = - 3.8 to - 3.4 parts per thousand PDB) suggest a contribution from oxidized organic carbon produced during bacterial sulphate reduction. Sulphate reduction may also result in a concomitant O-18 depletion if the system is nearly closed. It is however, evident from the sulphur isotopic composition of associated framboidal pyrite that the system was fairly open. The O-18 depletion of the spheroidal dolomite crystals (delta(18)O = - 3.8 to - 3.4 parts per thousand PDB) and their occurrence adjacent to, and within karst cavities suggests a mixing zone origin, with a significant proportion of freshwater in it. The rhombohedral cement-overgrowths have calculated delta(18)O values in the range of 0 to 5.3 parts per thousand PDB, which reflect precipitation from normal to slightly evaporated contemporaneous seawater

Meeting Review: ''International Symposium on Karst and Tectonics'' [Han sur Lesse, Belgium, 1998], 1998, Faulkner T.

Nouveau regard sur la splogense : le pseudo-karst du Tournaisis (Hainaut, Belgique), 1998, Vergari, Anne
In the paleokarstic features of the carboniferous limestones (Synclinorium of Namur Hainaut, Belgium) new endokarstic forms have been discovered and named "pseudo-endokarsts". From a morphological point of view, the pseudo-endokarst looks like a gallery. But, in fact, it results from an in-situ alteration: the "ghost rocks". The study of the sedimentary cross-section in the "pic--glace cave" described in this article offers new understanding of endokarst genesis. Dynamic flows are not any more the only way to initiate karstification.

Drip flow variations under a stalactite of the Pere Noel cave (Belgium). Evidence of seasonal variations and air pressure constraints., 1998, Genty D. , Deflandre G.

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