Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That oceanic water is sea water with a total salt content of about 34,500 ppm [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

What is Karstbase?

Search KARSTBASE:

keyword
author

Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for feeding (Keyword) returned 70 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 70
Feeding behaviour of the Salamander Gyrinophilus porphyriticus in caves., 1973, Culver David C.
The feeding responses of salamander larvae (Gyrinophilus porphyriticus) from caves in the Powell Valley in Virginia were investigated in the laboratory. The larvae locate prey by mechanoreception and capture the prey by a rapid sucking action, much like cave-limited salamanders do. Feeding success is greater with the isopod Asellus recurvatus (about 90 per cent) than with the amphipod Crangonyx antennatus (about 50 per cent), and this largely accounts for the higher frequency of A. recurvatus taken in choice experiments. G. porphyriticus readily ingested the unfamiliar isopod Lirceus usdagalun, but it took four weeks before it was digested as well. Small larvae tend to take small prey and large larvae take both large and small prey. Occasionally, larvae lunged at prey, which was usually unsuccessful. This behaviour seems to be a holdover from an evolutionary history in epigean environments where vision could be used to locate prey.

Feeding efficiency in the cave Salamander Haideotriton wallacei., 1973, Peck Stewart B.
Selection for efficiency in food capture may be a dominant influence in the evolutionary biology of predaceous cave animals. A sample of 8 Haideotriton wallacei from a natural population contained 21 feeding boluses in their digestive tracts. Fourteen of these boluses contained food, demonstrating success in at least 67% of the feeding attempts.

Feeding efficiency in the cave Salamander Haideotriton wallacei., 1973, Peck Stewart B.
Selection for efficiency in food capture may be a dominant influence in the evolutionary biology of predaceous cave animals. A sample of 8 Haideotriton wallacei from a natural population contained 21 feeding boluses in their digestive tracts. Fourteen of these boluses contained food, demonstrating success in at least 67% of the feeding attempts.

Feeding behaviour of the Salamander Gyrinophilus porphyriticus in caves., 1973, Culver David C.
The feeding responses of salamander larvae (Gyrinophilus porphyriticus) from caves in the Powell Valley in Virginia were investigated in the laboratory. The larvae locate prey by mechanoreception and capture the prey by a rapid sucking action, much like cave-limited salamanders do. Feeding success is greater with the isopod Asellus recurvatus (about 90 per cent) than with the amphipod Crangonyx antennatus (about 50 per cent), and this largely accounts for the higher frequency of A. recurvatus taken in choice experiments. G. porphyriticus readily ingested the unfamiliar isopod Lirceus usdagalun, but it took four weeks before it was digested as well. Small larvae tend to take small prey and large larvae take both large and small prey. Occasionally, larvae lunged at prey, which was usually unsuccessful. This behaviour seems to be a holdover from an evolutionary history in epigean environments where vision could be used to locate prey.

Free amino acids, cave beetle, Darlingtonea kentuckensis, Coleoptera, Carabidae, troglobite., 1974, Sperka R. J.
Free amino acids of Darlingtonea kentuckensis were investigated by two-dimensional, thin-layer chromatography on Silica Gel G. Thirteen amino acids which could be identifed (alanine, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, isoleucine and/or leucine, lysine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine and valine) and seven unidentified ninhydrin-positive spots were found. Beta-Alanine, alpha-amino-butyric acid, arginine, aspartic acid, cystine, hydroxyproline and methionine were not detected. No difference was observed in the free amino acids with respect to sex of beetle, time after feeding and method of sample preparation.

The ecology of a predaceous troglobitic beetle, Neaphaenops tellkampfii (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Trechinae). II Adult seasonality, feeding and recruitment., 1975, Kane Thomas C. , Norton Russell M. , Poulson Thomas L.
In deep cave areas with loose substrate and sufficient moisture, the life history of Neaphaenops tellkampfii (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Trechinae) is synchronized with the seasonal pattern of its primary food sources, the eggs and first instar nymphs of the cave cricket Hadenoecus subterraneus (Orthoptera Gryllacridoidea, Rhaphidophoridae). Neaphaenops reproduction coincides with an order of magnitude increase in Hadenoecus egg input in the spring. Our 46 observations of predation by Neaphaenops suggest some switching to other cave animals as cricket egg and first instar nymph densities decrease during the summer. Neaphaenops life history in areas of Hadenoecus egg input is as follows: (1) female Neaphaenops reach maximum fecundity at the time of the maximum density of frst instar Hadenoecus nymphs; (2) early instar Neaphaenops larvae appear in late summer and fall; (3) last instar Neaphaenops larvae appear in early spring and pupation occurs shortly thereafter; (4) lightly coloured teneral adults emerge two to three months later, a time consistent with laboratory estimates of the length of the pupal stage. Seasonal changes in sex ratio due to differential mortality appear to be consistent with this seasonal pattern. A comparison of Neaphaenops with two other species of carabid cricket egg predators suggests the importance of seasonal food abundance in determining life history seasonality. Darlingtonea kentuckensis has a food resource pattern which appears identical to that of Neaphaenops, and the life history seasonality is also parallel. Rhadine subterranea, however, seems to have a much more equitable food input throughout the year, and appears to have an aseasonal life history.

Adult Batrachuperus in a cave in Iran. A new species?, 1978, Clerguegazeau M. , Farcy J. P.
During a speleological exploration of a cave in Iran, a species of Urodele Hynobiidae was found. This Batrachian is either a new species of the genus Batrachuperus or an adult form of the species Batrachuperus persieus previously only described in its larval and juvenile forms. Certain observable differences suggest that it can be considered a new species. Observations on its feeding habits indicate that the presence of this periodic trogloxene in the cave is not "accidental", but that it remains there for a long period during its life cycle.

Aperus sur l'hydrologie karstique des Alpes occidentales, 1984, Maire R. , Nicod J.
SURVEY ON KARSTIC HYDROLOGY OF WESTERN ALPS, KARSTIC SYSTEMS AND SPRINGS REGIMES - In this paper, we have tried to bring out a typology karstic hydrological systems, according to the degree of karst organisation and the feeding conditions. Afterward, the hydrological efficiency of these systems and the springs regime are specified, taking in account the available data. At last, it is interesting to compare hydrological and hydrochemical cycles in the different types of karsts.

Le karst du Sud et de l'Ouest du Moncayo (Cordillre ibrique, Espagne), 1986, Sanz Perez, E.
THE SOUTHERN AND WESTERN KARST OF SIERRA DEL MONCAYO (CORDILLERA IBERICA, SORIA, SPAIN) - The present work is a summary of our doctoral thesis about the karst on the southern and eastern slopes of the Moncayo (SANZ PEREZ, 1984). An interesting example of subterranean capture from the atlantic watershed to the mediterranean is shown, qualitatively and quantitatively demonstrated through diverse hydrogeological techniques of study. In the first part of the article, diverse karstic forms are described, including the Araviana Polje (37 km2). The hydrogeological characteristics and dynamic of the karst give a detailed hydraulic balance from which it is deduced that 70% of the water feeding the Vozmediano stream, the outlet of the aquifer, of 1.1 m3/s, and situated in the Ebro valley, comes from the Duero basin.

Genetic analysis of evolutionary processes, 1987, Wilkens Horst
Epigean and cave populations of A. fasciatus (Characidae, Pisces) differ in a series of morphological physiological, and ethological features. The interfertility of these populations made possible a genetic analysis of organs characteristic of interspecific divergence. The study of the regressive organs "eye" and "melanophore system" on the one hand and that of the constructively improved "gustatory equipment and feeding behaviour" on the other yielded identical principles of genetic manifestation: (1) All features have a polygenic basis with an at least di- to hexahybrid inheritance. (2) All polygenes have the same amount of expressivity. (3) After recombination of a minimum number of genes, discontinuous distributions (threshold effects) develop. (4) All features are independently inherited. (5) The genes responsible for a feature are unspecific. In the case of the eye this means that no "lens-" or "retinagenes" are analyzed; due to developmentally physiological interdependence within complex structures, only so-called "eye-genes" have as yet been described. Because of the developmentally physiological interdependence of complex organs, the process of reduction proceeds as a diminution in size, that of constructive evolution as enlargement. In both cases different allometric correlations of the single structures can be found. The convergent reduction of eyes in cave animals is caused by the loss of stabilizing selection which normally keeps the eye in its appropriate adapted form. It is not directional selection pressure, like f. ex. energy economy, but mutation pressure that causes eye reduction. By this, random mutations, which are mostly of deleterious character, are accumulated. The principles of regressive evolution are not restricted to the development of cave species. The absence of stabilizing selection regularly occurs during transitional evolutionary phases. These are f. ex. initial stages of speciation which may be observed when biotopes with little or no interspecific competition are colonized by an invader. Genotypic and phenotypic variability now arise and equilibria become punctuated, because stabilizing selection for a specific ecological niche which has once been acquired by the invading species is no longer acting. Examples include the evolution of species flocks in geologically young lakes or oceanic islands. Rapidly increasing variability now secondarily provides the material for directional selection which radiates such species into vacant niches. Genetic threshold effects as described above may accelerate this process. Variability will finally become lower again under the influence of inter- and intraspecific competition. A new equilibrium is attained.

Cave dams of the Guanyan System, Guangxi, China, 1987, Smart P. L. , Waltham A. C. ,
With well over 1 million km2 of carbonate rocks exposed at the surface, and a history of exploitation spanning in excess of 2000 years, the Chinese probably have more experience than any other people in developing the water resources of carbonate aquifers. Interestingly, many of the smaller scale projects are carried out by local farmers and co-operatives, with little recourse to the advice of professional engineers and hydrologists, although even in large regional schemes, much local expertise and labour is involved (see for example Hegtkcar 1976). While recently some of the Chinese work on karst hydrology has become available in the west (Song 1981; Song et al 1983; Yuan 1981, ) much of the practical experience resulting from these local and small scale developments remains unpublished even in China. We were therefore very fortunate to be able to examine the engineering works associated with the Guanyan cave system, just south of Guilin, Guangxi Province, SE China, during a recent joint venture with the Institute of Karst Research, Ministry of Geology, Guilin. The Guanyan (Crown Cave) system is developed in a sequence of relatively pure, predominantly finegrained limestones and dolomites over 2600 m thick, and ranging from Devonian to Carboniferous in age (Yuan 1980). These are folded into thrust faulted, NW-SE-trending folds, but dips are generally less than 30{degrees}. The underlying impermeable shales, siltstones and sandstones form a mountainous terrain rising to 1400 m above sea-level east of the limestone, and provide the headwaters for streams feeding into the caves (Fig. ... This 250-word extract was created in the absence of an abstract

Metabolic efficiency and regulation of body weight: a comparison between life in hypogean and epigean ecosystems, 1991, Biswas Jayant
In the present study metabolic efficiency in the epigean and hypogean populations of Nemacheilus evezardi (Day) was examined. Different experiments were conducted, in both populations, by keeping them either in restricted oxygen or restricted feeding conditions, including starvation. Results clearly show that the rate of oxygen consumption for the hypogean population was significantly less as compared to its epigean counterpart. Further, results also suggest that the hypogean population has a tremendous capacity to maintain its metabolic activity and regulate its body weight under severe conditions characterized by an absence or a limited supply of food.

Observations on the biology of Spelaeiacris tabulae Perlnguey (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophorldae), from the Wynberg cave (Capetown, South Africa), 1991, Carchini Gianmaria, Di Russo Claudio, Rampini Mauro.
Data on the age structure, fecundity, egg morphology and feeding habits of the Spelaeiacris tabulae population from Wynberg cave are reported and compared with other Rhaphidophoridae species. S. tabulae shows a certain degree of adaptation to cave life, as usual in the other temperate species of Rhaphidophoridae.

WATER-BUDGET, FUNCTIONING AND PROTECTION OF THE FONTAINE-DE-VAUCLUSE KARST SYSTEM (SOUTHEASTERN FRANCE), 1992, Blavoux B, Mudry J, Puig Jm,
The karst aquifer of the well-known Fontaine de Vaucluse has been recently studied, results have been got about delimitation of the system and its working. Geological data (lithology and structure) have allowed to delimit an 1115 Km2 intake area including Ventoux-Lure north facing range (1,909-1,826 m) and the Plateau which is prolonging it southwards (Fig. 1 and 2). The average altitude of the whole area, obtained by balancing elevation belt surfaces, is about 870 m. This elevation squares with results of tracing tests (Fig. 3), environmental physical, chemical and isotopic tracings, that allow to value a 850 m average altitude for the intake area (Fig. 4). The moisture balance has been computed from an altitude belts climatic model, using local rain an temperature gradients (Fig. 5 and Table II), because the weather network is not representative. So, rainfalls rise of about 55 mm per 100 m elevation and temperature decreases of about 0.5-degrees-C per 100 m. The consequence of these two antagonist phenomena is the quasi constant value of actual evapotranspiration on each altitude belt. With the Fig. 7 organigram, curves of effective rainfalls and infiltration coefficient versus elevation can be plotted (Fig. 6). This computation shows that 3/4 of the total and the whole of dry season effective rainfalls are provided by the part of the intake area situated above the average altitude: on the lowest belt, effective rainfalls are only 120 mm per year and increase to 1380 mm on the upper section (Fig. 8 and Table 1). The weighted effective rainfalls are about 570 mm per year for the whole intake area. Hydrodynamical and physico-chemical studies show, despite its large size, the weak inertia of the system, so proves its good karstification, that confirms for the whole system the pin-point speleological observations. The discharge of the spring, which average value is 21 m3.s-1 (only 18 for the last ten years), can exceed 100 m3.s-1 and the minimum has never been lower than 3.7 m3.s-1 (Fig. 9). When it rains on the intake area, the increase of the discharge is very sudden in a rainy period : one to four days. This short delay is due to seepage through epikarst and unsaturated zone. During dry periods, the spring reaction is deadened, due to storage in the unsaturated zone. The silica content distribution was plotted during several hydrokinematical phases (Fig. 10). It shows: an almost unimodal distribution for the 8 km2 fissured limestone aquifer of Groseau; a multimodal one for the 1115 km2 karst aquifer of Fontaine de Vaucluse. This proves that karstification is more important than size in the response of the system. Weak summer rainfalls do not influence the discharge, nevertheless they influence chemistry of the spring water, and so interrupts the water depletion phasis. Then, the decrease of discharge can continue after the end of the chemical depletion phasis, water which is overflowing after summer rainfalls (in a dry period) is influenced hy the chemistry of seepage water : on the graph of a principal components analysis, done on chemical variables. an hysteresis phenomenon can be seen (Fig. 11). A discriminant analysis (Fig. 12) confirms that these autumn waters, with high ratio seepage tracers, are not reserve waters from the saturated zone. The ratio of reserve water in the total discharge, is preponderant: 3/4 and 2/3 respectively of the yearly runoff volumes for 1981 and 1982 (Fig. 13), but an important part of these reserves can be stored in the unsaturated zone. This storage capacity can be valued by different means: transposing to Vaucluse (1115 km2) the volume measured on another karst system in the Pyrenees (13 km2); it gives about 100 million m2; using setting parameters of Bezes model (1976) on the same aquifer: it gives 113 million m3; using depletion curves, that show, for instance during the 1989 summer and autumn dry period, a 80 million m3 volume. In all cases, we get a value of about one hundred million m3 for the storage capacity of the unsaturated zone. With a 20 m range of fluctuation for the water table and with a 10(-2) specific yield, on a 500 to 1,000 km2 saturated zone, the zone of fluctuation can release about 10 to 20 million m3. Then, the volume of water stored in the whole saturated zone, with a 300 m minimum thickness (depth of the waterlogged pit of the Fontaine), a 500 km2 minimum surface and a 10(-3) specific yield, is about 150 million m3, including 27 million m3 stored in the channels. So, the unsaturated zone represents a significant part of the whole storage capacity and most of the yearly renewable reserves. Paradoxically, the biggest french spring is not tapped at all; as its intake area is neither a regional nor a national park, no general protection covers it : because of its good karstification, the vulnerability of the system is important. Good quality of water is attributable to the low population and human activities density on the intake area (4 inh.km-2). A great part of the intake area is uncultivated (large forest and ''garrigues'' areas). Due to the lack of surface water and scantness of soils, agriculture is not intensive (lavender, thyme, sage and bulk wheat fields. meadowlands). On the mountainous zone, roads are salted in winter and snowmelt water can reach a significantly high chloride ratio than in a natural climatic functioning (for instance 25 mg.l-1 in Font d'Angiou where the ratio would have been 3 mg.l-1). As tourism is developing both on the mountain and on the plateau, the management of the highest intake area must be carefully held: its part is preponderant in the feeding of the system

Comparative performances of non-visual food search in the hypogean cyprinid Phreatichthys andruzzii and in the epigean relative Barbus filamentosus, 1993, Berti Roberto, Masciarelli Luca
The anophthalmic hypogean cyprinid Phreatichthys andruzzii Vinciguerra shows a more efficient food searching behaviour than blinded specimens of the epigean species Barbus filamentosus Cuvier and Valenciennes. This difference seems to be related to a tendency to swim near the bottom of the aquarium and the behavioural stereotypes in food localization and intake. Both in P andruzzii and in the blinded B. filamentosus food search is guided by chemical stimulation. Other data indicate that mechanical stimulation could play an important role in the feeding behaviour of the hypogean form. The behavioural analogies in food localization between P andruzzii and the cave forms of the characid Astyanax fasciatus Cuvier are briefly discussed.

Results 16 to 30 of 70
You probably didn't submit anything to search for