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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That ammeter is a meter used to measure the flow of water in a stream channel. synonym: current meter [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for cone (Keyword) returned 78 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 78
Geomorphological aspects of gypsum karst areas with special emphasis on exposed karst., 1996, Sauro Ugo
Medium- to large-size forms in gypsum karst are described, including dolines, blind valleys, ploje-like depressions, collapses and positive and/or residual forms such as outliers, cone-like hills, dome-like hills, mesa-like tabular blocks and plateaux and breccia pipe hills. The similarities and/or difference between gypsum and carbonate forms are discussed.

A morphological analysis of Tibetan limestone pinnacles: Are they remnants of tropical karst towers and cones?, 1996, Zhang D. A. ,
Limestone pinnacles on mountain slopes in Tibet were measured for morphological analysis and the results were compared with those from tropical towers and cones on karst mountain slopes of Shuicheng, southwest China. In the form analyses, the symmetric products (P) of Tibetan pinnacles present large differences between individual pinnacles. The plan forms, represented by long/short axes ratios (R(L/S)), are mostly irregular and scattered and the diameter/height ratios (R(dfh)) reveal that the Tibetan I features could belong to any three cone or tower karat types, according to Balaze's classification of karst towers. The direction of pinnacle development seems to be primarily related to slope aspect and to geological structure. The morphological structure and orientation analyses show that pinnacle development is largely controlled by lithological and stratigraphic conditions. The closed water catchment structure, which is a basic feature in karat areas, has not been found in the limestone pinnacle areas of Tibet. The results of the form and structure analyses for the Tibetan pinnacles differ from those for tropical and subtropical karst areas. Further analysis indicates that Tibetan limestone pinnacles were formed by strong physical weathering under periglacial conditions. Four kinds of morphogenesis of the pinnacles are suggested

A New Troglobitic Crayfish of the Genus Orconectes, Subgenus Orconectes (Decapoda: Cambaridae), Endemic to Shelta Cave, Huntsville, Alabama, 1997, Cooper, J. E. , Cooper, M. R.
Orconectes (Orconectes) sheltae is a new species of troglobitic crayfish endemic to Shelta Cave, Huntsville, Alabama, where it is the smallest and rarest member of a subterranean crayfish triad that includes O. (O.) a. australis and Cambarus (A.) jonesi. The new species may be distinguished from all other members of the subgenus by a combination of: (1) the absence of first pleopods in the female, (2) a broad median trough in the annulus, (3) the narrow, elongate chela of the cheliped, with its very long palm and subvertical orientation, (4) the length, conformation, and orientation of the terminal elements of the form I male gonopod (first pleopod), and (5) the lack of prominent spines on the mesial margin of the carpus. The mature oocytes of O. sheltae are large and few (8-12), and the young at recruitment may be larger than those of O. a. australis and C. jonesi

The carbonated palaeosurface of the ''Arbailles'' massif (Pyrennes-Atlantiques): An example of Neogene hydrographic network dried up by uplift and karstification, 1997, Vanara N. , Maire R. , Lacroix J. ,
The ''Arbailles'' massif constitutes a folded area of Jurassic and lower Cretaceous limestones, which belongs to the north-Pyrenean zone. The top karst surface was dug by a palaeofluviatile system from the Albian marlous limestone cover and dried up by uplift (infiltration). This hydrographic network recorded the main events of uplift by staged valley levels (950, 850, 730 and 380 m). Some old endokarstic infillings can be seen on the residual cone karst showing the erosion of a thick limestone layer. The alterite pockets contain elements of former cuirasses which originated in former hydromorphic depressions. These polygenic deposits contain two kinds of mineral families coming from alterations of both Albian marlous limestones and Triassic Mendibelza conglomerates. During the Upper Oligocene and Miocene (after the Middle Lutetian orogenesis), the ''Arbailles'' massif was a chemical weathering surface in a wet and tropical climate in relation upstream with Mendibelza conglomerates and downstream with Cenomanian flyschs. The Plio-Quaternary uplift, of 1000 m, caused the alterite and cuirasse erosion, the drying up of the fluviatile system (Lower Pleistocene), the genesis of a cone karst and the formation of underground systems

La ligne de Wallace a-t-elle t franchie par les artistes des temps prhistoriques ? Deux nouvelles grottes ornes Borno (Kalimantan), 1998, Chazine Jeanmichel, Fage Luchenri
Before 1992, the Indonesian part of Borneo (Kalimantan) had not been the subject of archeological research. Five speleological and archeological research missions discovered numerous sites, first in the center island (Mller Range, in some isolated parts) and secondly in the huge karst region of Mangkalihat peninsula (NE of Kalimantan) where the first painted caves in Borneo were found in 1994. During the last expedition in september 98, we discovered two other painted caves: the most beautiful and richest ever found in Borneo, with numerous negative hand stencils and painted figures in a good state of preservation. These discoveries have been made in a very difficult area (pinacle and cone karst in the rainforest) by a small team - one caver and one archeologist. The systematic exploration of Borneo caves is essential to answer the question of the role played by the Island in the prehistoric migrations between Asia and Australia

Blue Lagon, Afrique du Sud, une grotte remplissage palokarstique permien et concrtions daragonite, 1998, Martini J. E. J. , Moen H. F. G.
The authors de scribe a 7 km long phreatic maze they discovered and explored during the last decade of the 2Oth century in South Africa, developed in the late Archean dolostone in the Malmani Subgroup. This cave is of interest mainly for two aspects. Firstly the cave intersects paleokarst channels filled with bleached kaolinic residuals of Permian age. This paleokarst is most likely to have developed relatively shortly after the Gondwana glaciation in a cool, humid climate. Secondly the cave is remarkable by the abundance of aragonite speleothems. Particularly interesting are subaquatic aragonite formations: rafts, cones, volcanoes, sea urchins and pool floor crust. Aragonite rafts are always associated with more or less calcite, which seems to have formed first and was apparently essential in the initial formation of this speleothem. In the pool floor crust, a cyclical calcite-aragonite deposition seems to correspond to alternation of humid and dry periods, calcite representing wet years. The amplitude of this cycle is possibly in the order of a few decades. Phosphate minerals which developed on cave soil, rock and carbonate speleothems in contact with bat guano, have been identified, in particular the rare mineral collinsite

'Hades''; A remarkable cave on Oldoinyo Lengai in the East African Rift Valley., 1998, Davies Gordon J.
Oldoinyo Lengai is the world's only active carbonatite volcano, situated in northern Tanzania within the Eastern Rift Valley, al 2.751 degrees S, 35.902 degrees E. It forms an isolated symmetrical cone at the southern end of Lake Natron, with a summit elevation of 2,890 m (9,480 ft). Periodic eruptions of ash and lava have been recorded since about 1880, and with increasing precision during this century since 1904. In 1990 a routine expedition to monitor activity levels at the summit led to the discovery of a remarkable cave located in the crater floor, filled with numerous long delicate pale yellow stalactites and stalagmites of unknown composition. Within 100 m there was considerable volcanic activity taking place, and black lava was spraying from a small cone at a height of some 10 m above the crater floor. Due to the regular emission of lava at the summit of Lengai it is unlikely that the cave could have survived intact for more than a few months at most. High internal temperatures and lack of safe access precluded any attempt at entry and sampling of the very unusual and attractive formations within the cave, but a good photographic record was obtained.

South China Karst 1999, Preliminary research in Yunnan, 1999, Kogovš, Ek Janja, Kranjc Andrej, Slabe Tadej, Š, Ebela Stanka

From 1995 researchers from Karst Research Institute ZRC SAZU are working on slovene-chinese karstological projects. In 1998 their studies were published in the book "South China Karst". Also in the year 1999 researches took place in Yunnan, that's in central Lunan shilin (stone forest) as well as in less touristically known shilins. Beside this they have been recognising characteristics of cone and tower karst in the regions of Babao and Puzhehei.


Extraordinary Features of Lechuguilla Cave, Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico, 2000, Davis, D. G.
Many unusual features are displayed in Lechuguilla Cave, Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico, U.S.A. Early speleogenic features related to a sulfuric acid origin of the cave include acid lake basins and subterranean karren fields. Speleogenetic deposits, also products of sulfuric acid origin, include gypsum glaciers and sulfur masses. Features related to convective atmospheric phenomena in the cave include corrosion residues, rimmed vents, and horizontal corrosion/deposition lines. Speleothems of nonstandard origin include rusticles, pool fingers, subaqueous helictites, common-ion-effect stalactites, chandeliers, long gypsum hair, hydromagnesite fronds, folia, and raft cones. Other unusual features discussed are silticles and splash rings.

Climate-change impacts in a regional karst aquifer, Texas, USA, 2000, Loaiciga H. A. , Maidment D. R. , Valdes J. B. ,
Climate-change scenarios were created from scaling factors derived from several general circulation models to assess the likely impacts of aquifer pumping on the water resources of the Edwards Balcones Fault Zone (BFZ) aquifer, Texas, one of the largest aquifer systems in the United States. Historical climatic time series in periods of extreme water shortage (1947-1959), near-average recharge (1978-1989), and above-average recharge (1975-1990) were scaled to 2 x CO2 conditions to create aquifer recharge scenarios in a wanner climate. Several pumping scenarios were combined with 2 x CO2 climate scenarios to assess the sensitivity of water resources impacts to human-induced stresses on the Edwards BFZ aquifer. The 2 x CO2 climate change scenarios were linked to surface hydrology and used to drive aquifer dynamics with alternative numerical simulation models calibrated to the Edwards BFZ aquifer, Aquifer simulations indicate that, given the predicted growth and water demand in the Edwards BFZ aquifer region, the aquifer's ground water resources appear threatened under 2 x CO2 climate scenarios. Our simulations indicate that 2 x CO2 climatic conditions could exacerbate negative impacts and water shortages in the Edwards BFZ aquifer even if pumping does not increase above its present average level. The historical evidence and the results of this article indicate that without proper consideration to variations in aquifer recharge and sound pumping strategies, the water resources of the Edwards BFZ aquifer could be severely impacted under a warmer climate. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Leg Attenuation and Seasonal Femur Length: Mass Relationships in Cavernicolous Crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllidae and Rhaphidophoridae), 2002, Studier, E. H. , Lavoie, K. H. , Howarth, F. G.
We report here some factors that affect the relationship between hind femur length (HFL) to crop-empty live weight (CELW) and propose a quantitative, non-lethal measurement ratio that has potential as an index of extent of adaptation to a cavernicolous existence in crickets. Curvilinear relationships exist between HFL and CELW for camel crickets (Ceuthophilus stygius) and cave crickets (Hadenoecus subterraneus). The relationships differ significantly between the species and also by gender within both species and, in cave crickets, by season as well. In C. stygius, females of small HFL are slightly lighter, and those of large HFL slightly heavier than males. In H. subterraneus, females have progressively greater CELW than males as HFL increases. In adult H. subterraneus of identical HFLs, CELW is greatest in fall and least in spring, i.e., individuals are most robust in the Fall in these long-lived crickets, probably due to seasonal constraints on surface feeding. An attenuation index of CELW/HFL? yields a ratio that ranks the extent of adaptation to cave life in these two and eight other species of variously adapted cavernicolous and epigean crickets. Lower values of the attenuation index indicate greater adaptation to cavernicolous existence. The three gryllid species from Hawaii Island are closely related and include the blind, obligate cave cricket, Caconemobius varius, and two surface species, the lava flow cricket, Caconemobius fori, and the marine littoral cricket, Caconemobius sandwichensis. The latter two species are nocturnal scavengers on barren rock habitats. The lower CELW/HFL? ratio in lava flow crickets suggest they use caves more frequently for daytime roosts than does the marine littoral species.

Stability charts for predicting sinkholes in weakly cemented sand over karst limestone, 2002, Goodings D. J. , Abdulla W. A. ,
Forty-nine physical models of sinkhole development were constructed and tested using a geotechnical centrifuge to replicate full scale sinkhole development in the small models. The soil profile studied was weakly cemented sand, overlying cavities in karst limestone with uncemented sand over the cemented sand layer in half the models. In configurations with no uncemented soil overburden, the parameters critical to predicting failure were: the unit weight of the cemented sand,,; the thickness of the cemented sand overlying the karst cavity, H-c; the true cohesion of the weakly cemented sand, c; and the diameter of the underlying karst cavity, D. Brittle collapse of the cemented soil into the underlying cavity took one of two forms depending on geometry: when H-c/D was less than or equal to 0.25, the plug of soil that fell into the cavity penetrated through the full thickness of the cemented layer leaving an open hole. When H-c/D was greater than or equal to 0.31, the plug of soil that fell into the cavity did not penetrate through the full thickness of the cemented layer, but left behind a stable arch. A dimensionless stability chart was developed based on model results relating (gamma(c)H(c)/c) and (H-c/D) at failure; that chart can be used to predict the onset of failure extrapolating to configurations and soil cementation strengths not specifically tested in this research. A study was also made of the influence of uncemented sand overburden on hastening sinkhole development for configurations with ratios of H-c/D less than or equal to 0.25; the thickness of the uncemented overburden was varied. At the brink of sinkhole development, there was significant arching within the uncemented sand, and the influence of the overburden on hastening sinkhole failure was much less than the full geostatic overburden. The maximum uncemented overburden pressure bearing down on the breakthrough plug never exceeded the weight of a cone of sand of diameter D', and height 1.25D', where D' equals the diameter of the top of that inclined plug. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V All rights reserved

Hypogenic caves in Provence (France). Specific features and sediments, 2002, Audra Philippe, Bigot Jeanyves, Mocochain Ludovic

Two dry caves from French Provence (Adaouste and Champignons caves) were until now considered as "normal" caves having evolved under meteoric water flow conditions. A new approach gives evidence of a hypogenic origin from deep water uprising under artesian conditions. Specific morphologies and sediments associated with this hydrology are discussed.


Un karst sous la glace de l'Antarctide?, 2003, Bini A. , Forieri A. , Remy F. , Tabacco I. E. , Zirizzotti A. , Zuccoli L.
ARE THERE KARSTIC LANDFORMSUNDER ANTARCTICICECAP? - A new bedrock map of the Dome C area based on all radar data collected during Italian Antarctic Expeditions in 1995, 1997, 1999 and 2001 is presented. The map can clearly distinguish the Dome C plateau, along with some valleys and ridges develop. The plateau develops at three different altimetric levels and its morphology is characterised by hills and closed depressions. There are no visible features, which can be ascribed to glacial erosion or deposition. The major valley is 15 km wide and 500 m deep; its axis is parallel to that of other valleys and ridges in the plateau. The valley bottom is not flat, but contains a saddle in its centre. The morphology of the major valley could be considered as a relict one, which was not modified by the overlying ice cap. Two big ridges, characterised by hills, saddles and depressions, he near the boundaries of the area. The hill and depression landscape may be the result of two different processes the weathering of granitic rocks, with the development of a Demi-oranges and inselberg landscape, or the karstification of limestones, and development of a cone karst. The karstic hypothesis should be the more suitable, but it is impossible to exclude the granitic rock weathering. Both proposed genetic hypotheses calling for a warm- humid climate and a long period of stability in a continental environment. Consequently, the ice cap did not largely modify the landscape.

Structural framework of the Edwards Aquifer recharge zone in south-central Texas, 2004, Ferrill Da, Sims Dw, Waiting Dj, Morris Ap, Franklin Nm, Schultz Al,
The Edwards Aquifer, the major source of water for many communities in central Texas, is threatened by population growth and development over its recharge zone. The location of the recharge and confined zones and the flow paths of the aquifer are controlled by the structure of and deformation processes within the Balcones fault system, a major system of predominantly down-to-the-southeast normal faults. We investigate the geologic structure of the Edwards Aquifer to assess the large-scale aquifer architecture, analyze fault offset and stratigraphic juxtaposition relationships, evaluate fault-zone deformation and dissolution and fault-system architecture, and investigate fault-block deformation and scaling of small-scale (intrablock) normal faults. Characterization of fault displacement shows a pattern of aquifer thinning that is likely to influence fault-block communication and flow paths. Flow-path constriction may be exacerbated by increased fault-segment connectivity associated with large fault displacements. Also, increased fault-zone deformation associated with larger-displacement faults is likely to further influence hydrologic properties. Overall, faulting is expected to produce strong permeability anisotropy such that maximum permeability is subhorizontal and parallel to fault-bedding intersections. At all scales, aquifer permeability is either unchanged or enhanced parallel to faults and in many cases decreased perpendicular to faults

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