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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That transit time; travel time is the travel time of a sonic impulse through a given length of rock [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for karst geomorphology (Keyword) returned 89 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 89
The karst geomorphology of Man-itoulin Island, Ontario. McMaster Univ. MSc thesis, 1994, Enyedygoldner S. R.

GEOLOGY AND KARST GEOMORPHOLOGY OF SAN-SALVADOR ISLAND, BAHAMAS, 1995, Mylroie J. E. , Carew J. L. ,
The exposed carbonates of the Bahamas consist of late Quaternary limestones that were deposited during glacio-eustatic highstands of sea level. Each highstand event produced transgressive-phase, stillstand-phase, and regressive-phase units. Because of slow platform subsidence, Pleistocene carbonates deposited on highstands prior to the last interglacial (oxygen isotope substage 5e, circa 125,000 years ago) are represented solely by eolianites. The Owl's Hole Formation comprises these eolianites, which are generally fossiliferous pelsparites. The deposits of the last interglacial form the Grotto Beach Formation, and contain a complete sequence of subtidal intertidal and eolian carbonates. These deposits are predominantly oolitic. Holocene deposits are represented by the Rice Bay Formation, which consists of intertidal and eolian pelsparites deposited during the transgressive-phase and stillstand-phase of the current sea-level highstand. The three formations are separated from one another by well-developed terra-rossa paleosols or other erosion surfaces that formed predominantly during intervening sea-level lowstands. The karst landforms of San Salvador consist of karren, depressions, caves, and blue holes. Karren are small-scale dissolutional etchings on exposed and soil-covered bedrock that grade downward into the epikarst, the system of tubes and holes that drain the bedrock surface. Depressions are constructional features, such as swales between eolian ridges, but they have been dissolutionally maintained. Pit caves are vertical voids in the vadose zone that link the epikarst to the water table. Flank margin caves are horizontal voids that formed in the distal margin of a past fresh-water lens; whereas banana holes are horizontal voids that developed at the top of a past fresh-water lens, landward of the lens margin. Lake drains are conduits that connect some flooded depressions to the sea. Blue holes are flooded vertical shafts, of polygenetic origin, that may lead into caves systems at depth. The paleokarst of San Salvador is represented by flank margin caves and banana holes formed in a past fresh-water lens elevated by the last interglacial sea-level highstand, and by epikarst buried under paleosols formed during sea-level lowstands. Both carbonate deposition and its subsequent karstification is controlled by glacio-eustatic sea-level position. On San Salvador, the geographic isolation of the island, its small size, and the rapidity of past sea level changes have placed major constraints on the production of the paleokarst

Karst Geomorphology and Hydrogeology of the Northeastern Mackenzie Mountains, District of Mackenzie, N.W.T., PhD Thesis, 1995, Hamilton, James P.

This thesis describes the geomorphology and hydrogeology of karst systems in portions of the northeastern Canyon Ranges of the Mackenzie Mountains and the Norman Range of the Franklin Mountains. N.W.T. In the region, mean annual temperatures are -6 to -8°C, total annual precipitation is 325 to 500 mm, and permafrost has a widespread to continuous distribution. The area was glaciated in the Late Wisconsinan by the Laurentide Ice Sheet.
The Canyon Ranges and Norman Range are composed of a sequence of faulted and folded miogeoclinal sedimentary rocks that span the Proterozoic to Eocene. The geology is reviewed with an emphasis on strata that display karst. Included are several dolomite and limestone formations, two of which are interbedded with evaporites in the subsurface. The principal groundwater aquifer is the Lower Devonian Bear Rock Formation. In subcrop, the Bear Rock Formation is dolomite and anhydrite, outcrops are massive calcareous solution breccias. This is the primary karst rock.
The regional distribution and range of karst landforms and drainage systems are described. Detailed mapping is presented from four field sites. These data were collected from aerial photography and ground surveys. The karst has examples of pavement, single and compound dolines, subsidence troughs, polje, sinking streams and lakes. and spring deposits. The main types of depressions are subsidence and collapse dolines. Doline density is highest on the Bear Rock Formation. Surficial karst is absent of less frequent in the zone of continuous permafrost or outside the glacial limit.
At the field sites, water samples were collected at recharge and discharge locations. Samples were analyzed for a full range of ionic constituents and many for natural isotopes. In addition, several springs were monitored continuously for discharge, temperature, and conductivity. Dye tracing established linkages between recharge and discharge at some sites. These data are summarized for each site, as is the role of permafrost in site hydrology.
The relationships between geological structure, topography, ,and groundwater systems are described. Conduit aquifers are present in both dolomite and limestone. These systems are characterized by discharge waters of low hardness and dissolved ion content. Aquifers in the Bear Rock Formation have a fixed flow regime and often have highly mineralized discharge. At the principal field site. there was a time lag of 40 to 60 days between infiltration and discharge in this unit. At a second site, flow through times were on the order of years. Variability in these systems is attributed to bedrock properties and boundary conditions.
Preliminary rates of denudation are calculated from the available hydrochemical data. Total solutional denudation at the primary field site is approximately 45 m³ kmˉ² aˉ¹ (mm kaˉ¹). The majority is attributed to the subsurface dissolution of halite and anhydrite. The predominance of subsurface dissolution is linked to the high frequency of collapse and subsidence dolines and depressions.
The karst features and drainage systems of the northern Mackenzie Mountains date to the Tertiary. Glaciation has had a stimulative effect on karst development through the subglacial degradation of permafrost and the altering of boundary conditions by canyon incision.


Karst Geomorphology and Hydrology of Gunung Tempurung, Perak, Malaysia, 1995, Gilleson David , Holland Ernst , Davies Gareth

Gunung Tempurung is a 600-metre high limestone tower in the Kinta Valley located to the south of the city of Ipoh, Malaysia. The tower contains at least one extensive cave system, Gua Tempurung, which has a length of approximately 4800 metres and a vertical range of about 200 metres. The tower is an erosional remnant of a thick sequence of Silurian - Permian Limestones initially formed as a shelf deposit near an ancient coastline. The carbonate rocks lie adjacent to, and are laterally bounded by, Late Mesozoic granite plutoniic rocks emplaced by activity related to the Late Triassic uplift from plate boundary stresses along the western edge of the Malay Peninsular. The limestones have been folded and compressed between the granites and have been altered by contact metamorphism to marbles and skarn. Hydrothermal mineralisation of the limestone host rock has yeilded deposits of tin, with some tungsten minerals and other minor ores. In the central part of the karst tower a river-cave system, Gua Tempurung, developed from local damming of the north and south outlets of a small catchment derived from the granite upland area to the east. In several locations inside the dry upper chambers of the cave, vein deposits of tin (cassiterite) are evident in walls and ceilings. Additionally alluvial tin deposits derived from the Old Alluvium are present in the cave.


Nickpoint recession in karst terrains: An example from the Buchan karst, southeastern Australia, 1996, Fabel D, Henricksen D, Finlayson Bl, Webb Ja,
Nickpoint recession in the Buchan karst, southeastern Australia, has resulted in the formation of an underground meander cut-off system in the Murrindal River valley. Three nickpoints have been stranded in the surface channel abandoned by the subterranean piracy, and these can be correlated with river terraces and epiphreatic cave passages in the nearby Buchan River valley. The presence of palaeomagnetically reversed sediments in the youngest cave passage in the Buchan valley implies that the topographically lowest nickpoint in the Murrindal valley is more than 730 ka old, and the other nickpoints are probably several million years old. The nickpoints are occasionally active during floods, but the diversion of most surface flow underground has slowed down their retreat to the extent that they have been effectively stationary for several million years Underground nickpoint migration has been by both incision within major phreatic conduits and their abandonment for lower-level passages. The nickpoints are all present in the upstream part of the cave system, but have not migrated past the sink in the river channel, despite the long period of time available for this to happen. The sink is characterized by collapsed limestone blocks; these filter out the coarse bedload from the river channel. As a result, erosion within the cave passages is dominantly solutional and therefore slower than in the surface channel, where it is mostly mechanical. In addition, to transmit a drop in base level the cave system requires the removal of a larger volume of rock than for the surface migration of a nickpoint, because any roof collapse material in the subsurface system must be removed. These factors have slowed the migration of the base-level changes through the subsurface system, and may be a general feature in caves that have diffuse sinks as their main inputs

Essay on development of karstology and its place among environmental sciences. [in French], 1998, Nicod, Jean

Specificity of the tropical karst. [in French], 1998, Salomon, Jeannol

Specificity of karst in arid and semi-arid areas. [in French], 1998, Salomon, Jeannol

Perspectives on karst geomorphology in the 20th century, 1998, Ford, Derek

The article presents a short history of karst geomorphology development in the 20th century. It began with Cvijic and discused in details the geographical cycle of erosion and karst, climatic geomorphology, and global models of carbonate dissolution. The positive side of modern studies in karst geomorphology are multidisciplinarity and opening towards international research community and is not confined within paradigms. Three most important aspect in modern karstology are the study of "rock control", of deep karstification, and of the paleokarst. The role of Dinaric karst in the development of karst geomorphology is emphasised.


Large collapse dolines in Puglia (southern Italy): the cases of "Dolina Pozzatina" in the Gargano plateau and of "puli" in the Murge, 2000, Castiglioni Benedetta, Sauro Ugo

The paper deals with the description of the largest doline of Gargano and of other large dolines (puli) of Puglia in southern Italy aiming to suggest an interpretation of their origin and development, in relationship with tectonic events, karst corrosion processes, and transgressive and regressive cycles.


Karst geomorphology and hydrogeology of the Bear Rock Formation, a remarkable dolostone and gypsum megabreccia in the continuous permafrost zone of Northwest Territories, Canada, 2001, Hamilton J. , Ford D.

Lunan "Shilin" (Stone Forest), human impact and protection of (eventual) World Heritage Site (Yunnan, China), 2001, Kranjc Andrej, Liu Hong

The Chinese expression "shilin" (stone forest) is becoming an international term meaning megakarren, that is a Čforest« of intensively corroded limestone pinnacles. The best known is Shilin near the town of Lunan. The first known description of Shilin is from 1382. Shilin is very important tourist site. Modern tourism began to develop in 1980, in 1999 the number of visitors reached over 2 million. In 1981 the whole area (350 sq. km) was protected. Under the auspices of the National Ministry of Construction material is being collected for an application to inscribe Shilin into the list of World's Natural Heritage at UNESCO. Related to human impact the most important threats are: exploitation (destruction) of limestone pinnacles as a source of rock material; the pressure of population towards the protection zone due to their increase (need for new building plots); agriculture (farming and stockbreeding) connected to soil erosion and underground water pollution (use of fertilisers); fast growth of visitor numbers. The Shilin administration introduced different protection measures: ban on rock (limestone pinnacles) exploitation in the protection zone (orientation towards afforestation); construction of new tourist facilities out of the core zone (and demolition of some of them in that zone); establishment of a special protection department within Shilin management (18 person); education of "special voluntary rangers" - recruited among highly respected persons of villages and towns in the region.


Karst features of narrow limestone belts - case study of the ridge Dževrinska Greda, Eastern Serbia, 2001, Ć, Alić, Ljubojević, Jelena

The paper presents several most interesting features of the ridge Dževrinska Greda (Carpatho-Balkanides, Eastern Serbia). Being 20 km long and, on average, 100-300 m wide, this narrow limestone belt is a typical polygon for contact karst and fluviokarst research. Beside examples of features such as through cave, through gorge, dry and blind valleys, there is also a discussion on types of contact (tectonic and sedimentary), impact of fluvial factors, directions of groundwater flow, etc.


Notion and forms of contact karst, 2001, Gams, Ivan

These forms are through valley, blind valley, karst plain, cave with allogenic river, overflow polje, cave on the impermeable rock, subglacial karst and interstratal karst. Emphasized is the role of climate and alluvium for closed basins by comparing Wombeyan cave area in Australia with polje Velo polje in Julian Alps (Slovenia). In the temperate humid alpine climate is intensive mechanical weathering on the steep and bare slopes above Velo polje (1680 m) and steep dry valley rising up to 2200 m. After heavy downpour the periodical brook Velski potok is sinking on the 400 m wide bottom and depositing new sheet of rubble, sand and organic particles. This process lasted since last glacier retreat 9 - 10,000 years ago. Despite age of many hundred million years and confluence of two rivers from surroundings built of igneous rocks on southern corner of 3,6 km2 large isolated Wombeyan marble there prevail gorges, caves and narrow valleys without large alluviated bottoms, and the surface is not levelled. The main reasons for the difference are in this view the semi-arid climate and the absence of alluvium causing larger and longer moist contact of alluvium with limestone basis.


Contact karst phenomena on the edge of the Galyaság (Gömör-Torna karst), 2001, Mó, Ga Já, Nos

The lowest part of the karst region, the Galyaság, incorporating low middle mountains and hilly territories is situated on the Southern border of the Gömör-Torna Karst. The Galyaság is the mosaic of diverse structural and superficial regions. Running from West to East it can be divided into 4, more or less morphologically diverse territories. Its Western part, resembling to the Aggteleki-plateau is built from limestone with strong inclination towards karstification. On the edge of the karst plateau, around the Pitics-mount, non-karstified rocks also appear, which become predominant towards the East. The Teresztenye-plateau (Galya-wood) is a karstic island in the ring of Lower Triassic slate and Pannon sediments. On the Eastern border of the Galyaság, on the territory neighbouring the Bódva-river no karstic rocks can be found. On the characteristic allogenic karst of the Galyaság, in the formation of the surface and sub-surface forms, besides the corrosion of the infiltrating waters, the corrosion-erosion effects of the outflowing and the dissappearing waters in swallow holes coming from the neighbouring non-karstic regions can be well observed. In the paper the observations accomplished on the border area of the Galyaság, during the research of the phenomena of the contact karst, are presented.


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