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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That stream sink, streamsink is point at which a surface stream sinks into the ground [10]. see also doline; ponor; sink; sinkhole; sumidero; swallet; swallow hole.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for water-flow (Keyword) returned 107 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 31 to 45 of 107
An example of identifying karst groundwater flow, 1998, Stevanovic Z. , Dragisic V. ,
Hydrogeological investigations for the purpose of regulating the karst aquifer were carried out in the mountain massif of Kucaj in the Carpatho-Balkan range of eastern Serbia. Different geo-physical methods were applied in order to identify the position of karstified zones with active circulation of karst underground streams. Especially good results were obtained by using the spontaneous potential method for the exploration and construction of boreholes and wells. In the valleys of Crni Timok and Radovanska reka the measurements have been carried out upstream along the whole width of the alluvium to the limestone periphery. A number of positive and negative anomalies have been recorded. In the centres of positive anomalies several boreholes were located: HG-19 (centre of anomaly 30 mV, total length of the biggest cavern is 9 m); HG-1 ( mV, cavern of 2m); HG-15 (max, ? mV, effective cavernousness is 17%)

Migration of dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons, MTBE and chlorinated solvents in a karstified limestone aquifer, Stamford, UK, 1998, Banks D,
Two incidents of hydrocarbon contamination to the Lincolnshire Limestone in east Stamford, UK, have been investigated. No evidence of LNAPL contamination of groundwater was observed, suggesting that the spills may largely have been retained in the unsaturated zone. Some groundwater contamination by dissolved hydrocarbons occurred, apparently especially at times of high recharge. Rapid flow paths were proven to nearby springs in the River Welland (with groundwater flow velocities of up to 240 m day-1), and dissolved hydrocarbon and MTBE contamination appears to have been flushed rapidly from these systems. MTBE contamination at Tallington Pumping Station (5 km east of the site) is not clearly linked to these incidents. Of potentially more concern was the discovery of dissolved chlorinated solvent contamination in the groundwater at the spill sites, possibly related to a landfilled quarry and/or a nearby engineering works. No direct evidence of DNAPL was observed. A conceptual model of solvent distribution suggests independent sources of TCE, PCE and TCA

Mapping Chicxulub crater structure with gravity and seismic reflection data, 1998, Hildebrand A. R. , Pilkington M. , Ortizaleman C. , Chavez R. E. , Urrutiafucugauchi J. , Connors M. , Granielcastro E. , Camarazi A. , Halpenny J. F. , Niehaus D. ,
Aside from its significance in establishing the impact-mass extinction paradigm, the Chicxulub crater will probably come to exemplify the structure of large complex craters. Much of Chicxulub's structure may be mapped' by tying its gravity expression to seismic-reflection profiles revealing an [~]180 km diameter for the now-buried crater. The distribution of karst topography aids in outlining the peripheral crater structure as also revealed by the horizontal gradient of the gravity anomaly. The fracturing inferred to control groundwater flow is apparently related to subsidence of the crater fill. Modelling the crater's gravity expression based on a schematic structural model reveals that the crater fill is also responsible for the majority of the negative anomaly. The crater's melt sheet and central structural uplift are the other significant contributors to its gravity expression. The Chicxulub impact released [~]1.2 x 1031 ergs based on the observed collapsed disruption cavity of [~]86 km diameter reconstructed to an apparent disruption cavity (Dad) of [~]94 km diameter (equivalent to the excavation cavity) and an apparent transient cavity (Dat) of [~]80 km diameter. This impact energy, together with the observed [~]2 x 1011 g global Ir fluence in the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) fireball layer indicates that the impactor was a comet estimated as massing [~]1.8 x 1018 g of [~]16.5 km diameter assuming a 0.6 gcm-3 density. Dust-induced darkness and cold, wind, giant waves, thermal pulses from the impact fireball and re-entering ejecta, acid rain, ozone-layer depletion, cooling from stratospheric aerosols, H2O greenhouse, CO2 greenhouse, poisons and mutagens, and oscillatory climate have been proposed as deleterious environmental effects of the Chicxulub impact with durations ranging from a few minutes to a million years. This succession of effects defines a temperature curve that is characteristic of large impacts. Although some patterns may be recognized in the K-T extinctions, and the survivorship rules changed across the boundary, relating specific environmental effects to species' extinctions is not yet possible. Geochemical records across the boundary support the occurrence a prompt thermal pulse, acid rain and a [~]5000 year-long greenhouse. The period of extinctions seems to extend into the earliest Tertiary

Evidence for rapid groundwater flow and karst-type behaviour in the Chalk of southern England, 1998, Macdonald A. M. , Brewerton L. J. , Allen D. J. ,
With the growing importance of groundwater protection, there is increasing concern about the possibility of rapid groundwater flow in the Chalk of southern England and therefore in the frequency and distribution of karstic' features. Pumping test data, although useful in quantifying groundwater resources and regional flow, give little information on groundwater flow at a local scale. Evidence for rapid groundwater flow is gathered from other, less quantifiable methods. Nine different strands of evidence are drawn together: tracer tests; observations from Chalk caves; Chalk boreholes that pump sand; descriptions of adits; the nature of water-level fluctuations; the Chichester flood; the nature of the surface drainage; geomorphological features; and the presence of indicator bacteria in Chalk boreholes. Although the evidence does not prove the widespread existence of karstic features, it does suggest that rapid groundwater flow should be considered seriously throughout the Chalk. Rapid groundwater flow is generally more frequent close to Palaeogene cover and may also be associated with other forms of cover and valley bottoms

Geochemical modeling of groundwater in karst area and its application at Pingdingshan coalfield, 1998, Wang G. C. , Tao S. , Shen Z. L. , Zhong Z. X. ,
Several approaches including hydrogeochemistry and isotope hydrogeology have been used to investigate the karst groundwater systems at Pingdingshan coalfield in recent years. The results of the modeling and evaluation of groundwater chemistry, as parts of recent research progress at the area, are presented. The characteristics of Cambrian karst groundwater flow was analyzed in terms of tritium distribution of groundwater based on the fact that the Guodishan fault, the largest one within the coalfield, is divided into permeable (southern and northern) and impermeable (middle) sections. The evolution of groundwater chemistry, the suitability of geothermometers and the feature of karst development were deduced and discussed using the speciation modeling and mass balance approach

Regional groundwater flow model construction and wellfield site selection in a karst area, Lake City, Florida, 1999, Dufresne Dp, Drake Cw,
The city of Lake City is in the process of expanding their water supply facilities by 45 420 m(3) day(-1) (12 MGD) to meet future demands. One portion of wellfield site selection addressed here includes analysis of ambient groundwater quality and its potential for contamination. This study also addresses the potential impacts of groundwater withdrawals to existing legal users, wetlands, surface waters and spring flows. A regional groundwater flow model (MODFLOW) was constructed using existing hydrogeologic data from state and federal agencies in order to simulate the existing hydrologic conditions of this karst area and to predict withdrawal impacts. The model was calibrated by matching potentiometric surface maps and spring flows to within reasonable ranges. Drawdowns in the Floridan and surficial aquifers predicted by the model show minimal impacts to existing legal users and only a 5% reduction in the flow at Ichetucknee Springs ca 21 km (13 miles) away. Due to the karstic nature of the Floridan aquifer here, the equivalent-porous-medium flow model constructed would not be appropriate for contaminant transport modeling. The groundwater flow model is, however, appropriate to represent hydraulic heads and recharge/discharge relationships on a regional scale. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Investigation of groundwater flow in karst areas using component separation of natural potential measurements, 1999, Wanfang Z. , Beck Barry F. , Stephenson J. Brad,

Determining karst transmissivities with inverse modeling and an equivalent porous media, 1999, Larocque M. , Banton O. , Ackerer P. , Razack M. ,
Flow simulation is difficult to implement in heterogeneous media such as karst aquifers, primarily because the structure of the rock is extremely complex and usually unknown. The aim of this study was to verify the possibility of using inverse modeling and an equivalent porous media to identify transmissivities in a slightly karstified aquifer, the La Rochefoucauld karst (Charente, France), Different simulation scenarios were tested: using two spatial discretizations with different finite-element cell sizes and using measured or interpolated heads. The inverse modeling was performed with the downscaling parameterization procedure, using a finite-element representation of bidimensional ground water flow. The inverse modeling converged satisfactorily with all scenarios: head residuals were small and spring flow rates and the river/aquifer exchanges were adequately stimulated. The scenario using small cells and measured heads generated a highly heterogeneous transmissivity field, indicating an overparameterization of the problem. The calibrated transmissivities and simulated heads of this scenario proved less reliable overall than those of the other scenarios. The use of interpolated heads generated more uniform transmissivities as a result of the head smoothing. A rotation of the initial parameter mesh showed that the scenarios using interpolated heads generate the most stable and reliable results. The scenarios with interpolated heads could therefore be used when head measurements are limited or are unevenly distributed over the aquifer. Overall, the calibrated transmissivities reproduced the entire range of transmissivities measured in the field using different methods. The results indicate that inverse modeling and an equivalent porous media can be used to determine transmissivities in a moderately karstified aquifer

Effects of groundwater flow on mineral diagenesis, with emphasis on carbonate aquifers, 1999, Hans G. Machel,

Geomorphic aspects of groundwater flow, 1999, Lafleur Robert G. ,

Patterns in groundwater chemistry resulting from groundwater flow, 1999, Pieter J. Stuyfzand,

Relation of streams, lakes, and wetlands to groundwater flow systems, 1999, Winter Thomas C. ,

Scale aspects of groundwater flow and transport systems, 1999, Wouter Zijl,

Karstic groundwater flow characteristics in the Cretaceous Chalk aquifer, Northern Ireland, 1999, Barnes S,
The Cretaceous Chalk in Northern Ireland (Ulster White Limestone Formation) is a locally important aquifer for both public and private supply, yet little is known about its groundwater flow regime. This issue is important for the protection of existing groundwater abstractions and for the development of new sources as it will help determine groundwater vulnerability and resource potential in the Chalk. The subject has been addressed using hydrochemical variations from individual springs, together with artificial and natural water tracing techniques employed from river-sinks located at outcrop. A common orientation has been established between traced groundwater flow routes and the dominant northwest-southeast fracture trend within the Ulster White Limestone Formation. Hydraulic gradient has also been shown to have little significance in controlling the flow direction, suggesting poor fracture connectivity and thus extreme aquifer heterogeneity. Tracer breakthrough curve characteristics and velocities (up to 2838 metres per day) are indicative of conduit rather than fracture flow. In addition, the highly variable water chemistry associated with all the proven river-sink supplied springs has been independently classified to meet conduit flow criteria. Conversely, the much less variable water chemistry associated with springs draining Chalk subcrop areas (with no influence from river-sinks) is consistent with a less active karstic regime

The geochemistry of sulphur in a mixed allogenic-autogenic karst catchment, Castleton, Derbyshire, UK, 2000, Bottrell Sh, Webber N, Gunn J, Worthington Srh,
Analyses are presented of anion chemistry and sulphur isotopic compositions of sulphate in sinking streams and groundwaters in a mixed allogenic-autogenic karst catchment. Using the sulphur isotopic data, sources of sulphate from agriculture and the effects of sulphate reduction arising from slurry application can be distinguished from natural rock weathering sources. Within the aquifer, sulphate in known autogenic waters has isotopic compositions distinct from allogenic waters, the autogenic waters being dominated by sulphate from rainfall and rock weathering in these low agricultural intensity catchments. On this basis, water rising at low flow from Whirlpool Rising, Speedwell Cavern, has been identified as dominantly autogenic. Groundwater flow between the sinks and risings in Speedwell Cavern is believed to be along conduits following mineralized faults (rakes). During transit SO42-/Cl- in the water increases. Isotopic mass balance shows that this must be due to addition of sulphate from the oxidation of ore minerals by groundwater. Mass balance considerations show that the present rate of sulphide oxidation must be the result of enhancement by lead mining operations on the rakes. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

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