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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That solution lake is a lake whose origin is attributed largely to solution of underlying rock.?

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Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for hypogenic karst (Keyword) returned 45 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 31 to 45 of 45
Hypogene karst of the eastern part of the Crimean fore-mountains, 2012, Klimchouk A. B. , Amelichev G. M. , Tymokhina . . , Tokarev S. V.

Carbonate rocks of upper Cretaceous, Paleocene and Eocene crop out in cuesta escarpments in different sectors of the eastern part of the Inner Range of the Crimean fore-mountains. Scarps and adjacent strips of the plateaus demonstrate a set of features, characteristic and unique for the Crimean fore-mountain region, represented by various conduit and cavernous forms (karstified fractures, grottoes, niches, caves, vugs and zones of vuggy porosity), sculptured surfaces and honeycomb, boxwork and spongework surfaces of scarps, and also by couloirs and blind valleys in the near-scarp strips of structural slopes. The paper demonstrates that all these forms are relics of the morphology of sub-vertical hypogenic rift-like conduits, their meso-elements and forms of the vuggy fringe, exposed due to the scarp retreat by block toppling. Previous ideas of the formation of grottoes and niches in scarps by processes of external weathering and gravitational destruction are shown to be inadequate, and the hypogenic karst origin of these forms is firmly established. The analysis of distribution and morphology of relict hypogenic karst features has allowed reconstructing the structure and functioning of hypogenic karst systems, which had been formed by dissolution and metasomatic alteration of host rocks under confined conditions, along cross-formational tectonic fractures organized in linear corridors and clusters. Interaction of rising fracture-vein waters of the deep circulation system with intra- and interstratal waters of shallower systems played a particular role in hypogenic speleogenesis. It is shown that hypogenic karst was one of the primary factors of regional geomorphic development as it determined locations and morphology of the cuesta escarpments, as well as further landform development in the adjacent areas of the structural surfaces.


Acqua Fitusa Cave: an example of inactive water-table sulphuric acid cave in Central Sicily, 2012, Vattano M. , Audra Ph. , Bigot J. Y. , Waele J. D. , Madonia G. , Nobcourt J. C.

Hypogenic caves are generated by water recharging from below independently of seepage from the overlying or immediately adjacent surface. These waters are often thermal and enriched in dissolved gases, the most common of which are CO2 and H2S. Hypogenic caves can be thermal caves, sulphuric acid caves, basal injection caves. They differ from epigenic caves in many ways, such as: speleogenetic mechanisms, morphological features, chemical deposits, and lack of alluvial sediments (KLIMCHOUK, 2007; KLIMCHOUK & FORD, 2009; PALMER, 2011). Several studies were conducted to evaluate the hypogenic origin of a large number of caves (AUDRA et alii, 2010; KLIMCHOUK & FORD, 2009; STAFFORD et alii, 2009). A significant contribution was given by the work of Klimchouk (2007) that systematically provided instruments and models to better understand and well define the hypogenic karst processes and landforms. Detailed studies on hypogenic caves were carried out in Italy since the 90s in different karst systems, especially in the Central and Southern Appenines. These studies mainly concerned chemical deposits related to ascending water and micro-biological action (GALDENZI & MENICHETTI, 1995; GALDENZI, 1997; PICCINI, 2000; GALDENZI & MARUOKA, 2003, FORTI & MOCCHIUTTI, 2004; GALDENZI, 2012). In this paper, we present the first results of researches conducted in Acqua Fitusa cave that was believed to be an epigenic cave until today. Acqua Fitusa cave is located in Central Sicily, along the north-eastern scarp of a N-S anticline, westward vergent, forming the Mt. La Montagnola. The cave formed in the Upper Cretaceous Rudist breccias member of the Crisanti Fm., composed of conglomerates and reworked calcarenites with rudist fragments and benthic foraminifers ( CATALANO et alii, 2011). The cave consists at least of three stories of subhorizontal conduits, displaying a total length of 700 m, and a vertical range of 25 m. It represents a clear example of inactive water-table sulphuric acid cave, produced mainly by H 2S degassing in the cave atmosphere. Despite the small size, Acqua Fitusa cave is very interesting for the abundance and variety of forms and deposits related to rising waters and air flow. A ~ 7 m deep inactive thermo-sulphuric discharge slot intersects the floor of some passages for several meters (Fig. 1). Different morphologies of small and large sizes, generated by condensation-corrosion processes, can be observed along the ceiling and walls: ceiling cupolas and large wall convection niches occur in the largest rooms of the cave; deep wall convection niches, in places forming notches, incise cave walls at different heights; condensation-corrosion channels similar to ceiling-half tubes carve the roof of some passages; replacements pockets due to corrosion-substitution processes are widespread; boxwork due to differential condensation-corrosion were observed in the upper parts of the conduits. Sulphuric notches with flat roof, linked to lateral corrosion of the thermal water table, carve the cave walls at different heights recording past stages of base-level lowering. 


Karst and caves on the coast of the Sudak Bay (Crimea), 2012, Amelichev G. N. , Batueva E. I. , Svetlov R. S.

The article reports on results of examination of karst on the slopes of Sudak mountain-seashore amphitheater of Crimea. The phisical-geographical conditions of modern karstification are characterized. Description of geological and hydrogeological structure of area is given with an account for a new geodynamic model of the region. Karstological and speleological investigations reveal wide occurence of caves and related morphs of the hypogenic origin. Five cave clusters are distinguished, each of which includes one to four karst caves, accompanied with a set of relict forms in the superficial outcrops. Maps and descriptions of a several known caves of the coast are given, previously unpublished


Geomorphogenesis of astructural slopes of the Inner Range of the Mountainous Crimea: the role of hypogenic karst in the formation and retreat of cliffs, 2012, Tymokhina . . , Klimchouk A. B. , Amelichev G. M.

In geomorphogenesis of the fore-mountain region, a leading role is played by the processes of dismemberment of «shielding» limestone layers of the monoclinal stratified structure, and slope processes in the intervals of rocky limestone utcrops. Their main pre-condition for the latter is hypogene karst development which preceded the modern relief and controlled its formation. Karstified fracture-karst zones, 100 to 400 m wide, in the Cretaceous-Paleogene strata controlled the entrenchment of valleys in the limestone layers. The basic elements of hypogenic karst structures, which forms their spatial framework, are subvertical
fracture-karst conduits (karst «rifts»). Dissection of limestone layers along vertical fracture-karst rift conduits initially set the cliff-like shape of valleys slopes, and presence of such rift conduits in the rear of cliffs of already incised valleys determines the mechanisms of cliff retreat, with the maintenance of verticality, and controls position and configuration of segments of cliffs. A dominant slope process in the intervals of limestones is block toppling, whereas blocks become separated mainly along remaining
fracture-karst conduits in rearward parts of cliffs. Hypogenic sculptural morphology is displayed in the exposed walls of the fracture-karst conduits, which determines the originality and nomenclature of morphology of limestone cliffs of the Inner Range. In those areas of slopes where position of cliffs has stabilized for considerable time due to absence of new lines of block detachment in the rear, weathering becomes a significant process in the morphogenesis of surfaces. Slopes lose their verticality and acquire
the smoothed rims. Specific hypogenic sculptural morphology of cliffs is being destroyed on such slopes. The finding about control of slope processes in limestones by hypogenic fracture-karst structures gives new important criteria for the slope condition assessment and prognosis of hazardous collapses and rockfalls in the limits of the Internal Range 


Marine seismic-reflection data from the southeastern Florida Platform: a case for hypogenic karst, 2013, Cunningham, Kevin J.

Recent acquisition of twenty marine seismic-reflection profiles suggests a hypogenic karst origin for the Key Biscayne sinkhole located on the seafloor of Miami Terrace at the southeastern part of Florida Platform. Analysis of the seismic-reflection data strongly suggest the submarine sinkhole was produced by dissolution and collapse of Plio(?)-Pleistocene age carbonate strata. A complex fault system that includes compres-sional reverse faults underlies the sinkhole, providing a physical system for the possible exchange of groundwater with the sinkhole. One seismic profile is suggestive of a mas-ter feeder pipe beneath the sinkhole. The feeder pipe is characterized by seismic-reflection configurations that resemble megabreccia and stratal collapse. The sinkhole is located at a depth of about 365 m below sea level. The record of sea-level change dur-ing the Plio(?)-Pleistocene and amount of subsidence of the Florida Platform during this span of time indicates that the sinkhole has always been submerged at a water depth of about 235 m or more. Thus, the near-surface epigenic karst paradigm can be ruled out. Possible hypogenic models for sinkhole formation include ascending fluids along the fault system, such as, dissolution related to the freshwater/saltwater mixing at a regional groundwater discharge site, or processes related to gases derived from gener-ation of hydrocarbons within deep Mesozoic strata. Hydrocarbon-related karstification provides several possible scenarios: (1) oxidation of deep oil-field derived hydrogen sulfide at or near the seafloor to form sulfuric acid, (2) reduction of Cretaceous or Paleocene anhydrite or both by oil-field methane to form hydrogen sulfide and later oxidation to form sulfuric acid, and (3) carbon-dioxide charged groundwater reacting to form carbonic acid. Further, anerobic microbes could form methane outside of a hy-drocarbon reservoir that ascends through anhydrite to form hydrogen sulfide and later oxidized to sulfuric acid.


Thermal springs and hypogenic karstification processes in flow system context, 2013, Madlsző, Nyi Judit, Erő, Ss Anita

Marine seismic-reflection data from the southeastern Florida Platform: a case for hypogenic karst, 2013, Cunningham, Kevin J.

Thermal springs and hypogenic karstification processes in flow system context, 2013, Mdlsző, Nyi Judit, Erő, Ss Anita

Uplifted unconfined and adjoining confined continental carbonate aquifers contain thermal water with marginal thermal springs as decisive discharge features connected to tectonic contact between the unconfined and confined part of the system. These areas are characterised by positive thermal anomaly, particular mineral precipitates and phre-atophyte vegetation. These systems are important not only as sources of thermal water but the confined parts of the system can serve as hydrocarbon reservoirs, moreover Mississippi Valley Type (MVT) ore deposits can also be connected to such environ-ments. Hypogenic speleogenesis can be active at such marginal discharge zones of groundwater due to the direct corrosive effect of deep originated fluids. These different processes are known from the literature however their relationships have not been revealed comprehensively. The application of regional groundwater flow system theory and evaluation can give a chance to understand the common origin of these different processes, which is moving groundwater. The Buda Thermal Karst offers an exception-al natural laboratory where groundwater flow systems and their effect on rock matrix and the environment can be examined and proved directly. Moreover as new discharge phenomenon a karst corrosive biofilm was recognized here. The presentation displays the most important conclusions which can be generalized for areas with similar hydro-geological settings. The research is supported by the NK 101356 OTKA research grant


HYPOGENIC SPELEOGENESIS IN THE CRIMEAN FORE-MOUNTAINS (THE BLACK SEA REGION, SOUTH UKRAINE) AND ITS ROLE IN THE REGIONAL GEOMORPHOLOGY, 2013, Klimchouk A. , Amelichev G. , Tymokhina E. , Tokarev S.

 

The leading role in the geomorphic development of the Crimean fore-mountain region is played by the processes of dismemberment of “shielding” limestone layers of the monoclinal stratified structure through valley entrenchment, and by further retreat of vertical rocky outcrops via block-toppling mechanism. These processes are guided by the presense of hypogene karst structures, whose formation preceded the modern relief. Karstified fracture-karst zones, 100 to 400 m wide, in the Cretaceous-Paleogene strata controlled the entrenchment of valleys in the limestone layers. The basic elements of hypogenic karst structures, which form their spatial framework, are sub-vertical fracture-karst conduits (karst “rifts”). Denudational opening of vertical fracture-karst rift conduits in limestone layers set the cliff-like shape of valleys slopes, and presence of such rift conduits in the rear of cliffs of already incised valleys determines the block-toppling mechanisms of slope retreat. This maintains the verticality of cliff segments in the cuesta ridge and controls their position. Hypogenic sculptural morphology is extensively displayed in the exposed walls of cliffs (former conduit walls), which determines the originality and nomenclature of morphology of limestone cliffs of the Inner Ridge. In those areas of slopes where position of cliffs has stabilized for considerable time due to absence of new lines of block detachment in the rear, weathering becomes a significant process in the morphogenesis of surfaces. The abundance, outstanding expression, preservation and accessibility of relict hypogene karst features in the extensive cuesta cliffs of the Inner Ridge makes the region the foremost one for studying regularities of hypogene solution porosity development, the process currently ongoing in the adjacent artesian basin of the Plain Crimea.


Hypogenic Karstification and Conduit System Controlling by Tectonic Pattern in Foundation Rocks of the Salman Farsi Dam in South-Western Iran, 2013, Koleini M. , Van Rooy J. L. , Bumby A.

The Salman Farsi dam project is constructed on the Ghareh Agahaj River about 140km south of Shiraz city in the Zagros Mountains of southwestern Iran. This tectonic province of southwestern Iran is characterized by a simple folded sedimentary sequence. The dam foundation rocks compose of the Asmari Formation of Oligo-miocene and generally comprise of a variety of karstified carbonate rocks varying from strong to weak rocks. Most of the rocks exposed at the dam site show a primary porosity due to incomplete diagenetic recrystallization and compaction. In addition to these primary dispositions to weathering, layering conditions (frequency and orientation of bedding) and the subvertical tectonic discontinuities channeled preferably the infiltrating by deep-sited hydrothermal solutions. Consequently the porosity results to be enlarged by dissolution and the rocks are expected to be karstified and to develop cavities in correspondence of bedding, major joint planes and fault zones. This kind of karsts is named hypogenic karsts which associated to the ascendant warm solutions. Field observations indicate strong karstification and vuggy intercalations especially in the middle part of the Asmari succession. The biggest karst in the dam axis which identified by speleological investigations is Golshany Cave with volume of about 150,000 m3. The tendency of the Asmari limestone for strong dissolution can alert about the seepage from the reservoir and area of the dam locality


Hypogenic Karstification and Conduit System Controlling by Tectonic Pattern in Foundation Rocks of the Salman Farsi Dam in South-Western Iran, 2013, Koleini Mehran, Van Rooy Jan Louis, Bumby Adam

The Salman Farsi dam project is constructed on the Ghareh Agahaj River about 140km south of Shiraz city in the Zagros Mountains of southwestern Iran. This tectonic province of southwestern Iran is characterized by a simple folded sedimentary sequence. The dam foundation rocks compose of the Asmari Formation of Oligo-miocene and generally comprise of a variety of karstified carbonate rocks varying from strong to weak rocks. Most of the rocks exposed at the dam site show a primary porosity due to incomplete diagenetic recrystallization and compaction. In addition to these primary dispositions to weathering, layering conditions (frequency and orientation of bedding) and the subvertical tectonic discontinuities channeled preferably the infiltrating by deep-sited hydrothermal solutions. Consequently the porosity results to be enlarged by dissolution and the rocks are expected to be karstified and to develop cavities in correspondence of bedding, major joint planes and fault zones. This kind of karsts is named hypogenic karsts which associated to the ascendant warm solutions. Field observations indicate strong karstification and vuggy intercalations especially in the middle part of the Asmari succession. The biggest karst in the dam axis which identified by speleological investigations is Golshany Cave with volume of about 150,000 m3. The tendency of the Asmari limestone for strong dissolution can alert about the seepage from the reservoir and area of the dam locality.


Hypogenic Karstification and Conduit System Controlling by Tectonic Pattern in Foundation Rocks of the Salman Farsi Dam in South-Western Iran, 2013, Koleini M. , Louis J. , Rooy V. , Bumby A.

The Salman Farsi dam project is constructed on the Ghareh Agahaj River about 140km south of Shiraz city in the Zagros Mountains of southwestern Iran. This tectonic province of southwestern Iran is characterized by a simple folded sedimentary sequence. The dam foundation rocks compose of the Asmari Formation of Oligo-miocene and generally comprise of a variety of karstified carbonate rocks varying from strong to weak rocks. Most of the rocks exposed at the dam site show a primary porosity due to incomplete diagenetic recrystallization and compaction. In addition to these primary dispositions to weathering, layering conditions (frequency and orientation of bedding) and the subvertical tectonic discontinuities channeled preferably the infiltrating by deep-sited hydrothermal solutions. Consequently the porosity results to be enlarged by dissolution and the rocks are expected to be karstified and to develop cavities in correspondence of bedding, major joint planes and fault zones. This kind of karsts is named hypogenic karsts which associated to the ascendant warm solutions. Field observations indicate strong karstification and vuggy intercalations especially in the middle part of the Asmari succession. The biggest karst in the dam axis which identified by speleological investigations is Golshany Cave with volume of about 150,000 m3. The tendency of the Asmari limestone for strong dissolution can alert about the seepage from the reservoir and area of the dam locality


HELIUM ISOTOPES AS INDICATOR OF CURRENT HYPOGENIC KARST DEVELOPMENT IN TAURIDS KARST REGION, TURKEY, 2014, Ozyurt N. N. , Bayari C. S.

Hypogenic karst development by means of the aggressiveness of hydrothermal fluids driven and fed by mantle heat and mass flux is a known phenomenon. However, in cases when hydrothermal fluid cools down upon thermal conduction in the near-surface environment and is diluted by near-surface cool groundwater, evidences of this phenomenon may be erased completely. Recent data on the isotopes of helium dissolved in cool karst groundwater samples collected from three different karst aquifers in Turkey suggest an apparent mass flux from mantle, as well as from the crust. In the cases considered, helium content from the mantle increases with the increasing age of groundwater. All cases are located nearby the suture zones which may be easing the upward heat and mass flux. Despite sampling difficulties and high analysis costs, helium isotopes dissolved in cool karst groundwater seem to be useful tool to detect the current hypogenesis at the depths of karst aquifers


Sulfuric acid speleogenesis (SAS) close to the water table: Examples from southern France, Austria, and Sicily, 2015,

Caves formed by rising sulfuric waters have been described from all over the world in a wide variety of climate  settings, from arid regions to mid-latitude and alpine areas. H2S is generally formed at depth by reduction of  sulfates in the presence of hydrocarbons and is transported in solution through the deep aquifers. In tectonically  disturbed areas major fractures eventually allow these H2S-bearing fluids to rise to the surface where oxidation  processes can become active producing sulfuric acid. This extremely strong acid reacts with the carbonate  bedrock creating caves, some of which are among the largest and most spectacular in the world. Production of  sulfuric acid mostly occurs at or close to the water table but also in subaerial conditions in moisture films and  droplets in the cave environment. These caves are generated at or immediately above the water table, where  condensation–corrosion processes are dominant, creating a set of characteristic meso- and micromorphologies.  Due to their close connection to the base level, these caves can also precisely record past hydrological and  geomorphological settings. Certain authigenic cave minerals, produced during the sulfuric acid speleogenesis  (SAS) phase, allow determination of the exact timing of speleogenesis. This paper deals with the morphological,  geochemical and mineralogical description of four very typical sulfuric acid water table caves in Europe: the  Grotte du Chat in the southern French Alps, the Acqua Fitusa Cave in Sicily (Italy), and the Bad Deutsch Altenburg  and Kraushöhle caves in Austria


ГИПОГЕННЫЙ КАРСТ В ИСКУССТВЕННЫХ ВЫРАБОТКАХ ПРЕДГОРНОГО И РАВНИННОГО КРЫМА, 2015,

В последние годы на Крымском полуострове активно развивается концепциягипогенного карста и происходит последовательное усовершенствование региональной модели гипогенного спелеогенеза. Это стало возможным благодаря новым теоретико-прикладным разработкам в области региональной геодинамики (Юдин, 2011), карстовой гидрогеологии и геоморфологии (Klimchouk, 2007; Климчук, 2013; Климчук и др., 2013), карстологии (Климчук, Андрейчук, 2010), изотопной геохимии (Dublyansky, Spotl, 2008; Дублянский и др., 2013). Проведенные во многих уголках Крыма детальные спелеоморфогенетические, геолого-гидрогеологические и геохимические исследования показали высокую степень сходства морфоскульптурных комплексов, минеральных образований и изотопно-геохимических изменений горных пород с классическими областями развития гипогенного карста в мире. Установлено, что широко представленные в аструктурных обрывах куэст Предгорного Крыма разнообразные полостные формы являются реликтами гипогенных каналово-полостных систем, раскрытых в ходе отседания и обваливания по ним блоков горных пород. Кроме широко представленных в естественных обнажениях, накопилась критическая масса гипогенных индикаторов, обнаруженных в искусственных выработках при закладке катакомб, карьеров, подземных хранилищ, дорожных выемок, водосборных галерей идренажных коллекторов, скважин и колодцев.Цель данного сообщения – обобщить и систематизировать сведения оразнообразных проявлениях гипогенного карста на техногенных объектах Крыма для включения их в региональную модель.


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