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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That background noise is the level of intensity of signals due to normal activities other than the specific signal emission [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for morphogenesis (Keyword) returned 45 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 31 to 45 of 45
GEOMORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MASSIF PRENJ, 2008, Lepirica Alen
The researched area of the mountain massif Prenj with surface of 463 km2 is located in the zone of high karst of Outer Dinarides of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is circular mountain morphostructure with assymetrical transversal profile. Developed in Mesozoic subhorizontal layers of limestone and dolomite over 3500 thick, fissured by numerous reverse and normal faults. Prenj is folded-thrusted mountain massif (2103 m a.s.l.) uplifted during neotectonic phase of Dinarides development, structurally represented by three blocks. A high degree of correlation between lithology, fault structures and relief has been determinated. The main fault structures caused by rotation of Prenj blocks which were reflected on different orientations of stretching of the mountain ridges and composite valleys of Neretva, Konjika Bijela, Mostarska Bijela, Glogonica and Id-bar. Thrusts express tectonic, lithological, and morphological border of the considered mountain with inter mountain Neogene depressions in the North and South. Netectonic movements and dominanting carbonate composition of the terrain have influenced on reticular relief structure of the massif. Linear landforms of ridges formed in karst are neotectonically, rectilinearly and half-arc elongated up to 12 km. In regards to morphogenesis during the Quaternary, the massif is characterized by development: derasional, glacial, periglacial, karstic, fluviokarstic, fluviodenudational and fluvial erosional and accumulational processes and landforms. Finally, geomorphological regionalization of Prenj was made on the basis of the criteria of similarity of morpho-evolutionary, structural-lithological and orographical characteristics.

Englacement, eustatisme et rajustements karstiques de la bordure sud de larchipel de Madre de Dios (Patagonie, Province ltima Esperanza, Chili, 2008, Jaillet S. , Maire R. , Brehier F. , Despain J. , Lans B. , Morel L. , Pernette Jf. , Ployon E. , Tourte B. , Patagonia U.
Glaciation, eustatics and karst readjustment at the southern edge of the Madre de Dios archipelago (Patagonia, Ultima Esperanza Province, Chile). In the channels of Patagonia (Chile), at a latitude of 50 S, lies the Madre de Dios archipelago, a group of islands with limestone zones with the southernmost caves on the planet. Over the course of three expeditions in 2000, 2006 and 2008, alpine caves, marine caves and spectacular karren fields were explored and found to contain karst features in a mountain and fiord environment. Precipitation of 8000 mm/yr and strong winds form exaggerated superficial karst forms. Above all, the legacy of the Quaternary glaciers (dynamics of glacier retreat, eustatic variations in sea level, isostatic rebound), is the subject of this article. At the convergence of the influences of the Andes mountains to the East and the Pacific ocean to the West, the karst with its surface and its subterranean and submarine forms, constitutes a key to the understanding of the landscape. We show that in each stage in this evolution (glacial retreat, sea level rise, isostatic rebound), the karst has developed forms that register 21,000 years of morphogenesis in this unique region.

Morphogenesis of hypogenic caves, 2009, Klimchouk A. B.

Hypogenic speleogenesis is the formation of solution-enlarged permeability structures by waters ascending to a cave-forming zone from below in leaky confined conditions, where deeper groundwaters in regional or intermediate flow systems interact with shallower and more local groundwater flow systems. This is in contrast to more familiar epigenic speleogenesis which is dominated by shallow groundwater systems receiving recharge from the overlying or immediately adjacent surface. Hypogenic caves are identified in various geological and tectonic settings, formed by different dissolutional mechanisms operating in various lithologies. Despite these variations, resultant caves demonstrate a remarkable similarity in patterns and meso-morphology, which strongly suggests that the hydrogeologic settings were broadly identical in their formation. Hypogenic caves commonly demonstrate a characteristic morphologic suite of cave morphs resulting from rising flow across the cave-forming zone with distinct buoyancy-dissolution components. In addition to hydrogeological criteria (hydrostratigraphic position, recharge-discharge configuration and flow pattern viewed from the perspective of the evolution of a regional groundwater flow system), morphogenetic analysis is the primary tool in identifying hypogenic caves. Cave patterns resulting from ascending transverse speleogenesis are strongly guided by the permeability structure in a cave formation. They are also influenced by the discordance of permeability structure in the adjacent beds and by the overall hydrostratigraphic arrangement. Three-dimensional mazes with multiple storeys, or complex 3-D cave systems are most common, although single isolated chambers, passages or crude clusters of a few intersecting passages may occur where fracturing is scarce and laterally discontinuous. Large rising shafts and collapse sinkholes over large voids, associated with deep hydrothermal systems, are also known. Hypogenic caves include many of the largest, by integrated length and by volume, documented caves in the world. More importantly, hypogenic speleogenesis is much more widespread than it was previously presumed. Growing recognition of hypogenic speleogenesis and improved understanding of its peculiar characteristics has an immense importance to both karst science and applied fields as it promises to answer many questions about karst porosity (especially as deep-seated settings are concerned) which remained poorly addressed within the traditional epigenetic karst paradigm.


Assessment of the thickness of the epikarst zone from distribution of dolines depth, 2009, Klimchouk A. B. , Amelichev G. N. , Naumenko V. G. , Tokarev S. V.

Epikarst zone, due to its peculiar hydrogeologic features and functions, plays a fundamental role in karst morphogenesis and natural protection of groundwater in the conditions of open karst. The presence of epikarst considerably diminishes high vulnerability of groundwaters, generally characteristic for karst systems. Thickness of the epikarst zone is the most important parameter that determines buffering capacity of epikarst with regard to groundwater resources, its ability to retard and neutralize contaminants, hence – the protective role of epikarst with regard to groundwater resources.

The main problem in evaluation of epikarst during groundwater vulnerability assessment is luck of methods for its mapping in area. This paper, based on the analysis of regularities of epikarst morphogenesis, substantiates a possibility to assess variations in thickness of epikarst by distribution of depth of karst dolines.

Maps of doline depth distribution (representing thickness of epikarst) are created for main massifs of the Mountain Crimea, as well as maps of density of dolines and documented caves. Conjugate analysis of these maps from the standpoint of the epikarst concept gives important information about relationship of surface and underground karstification and serves as a basis for accounting for epikarst during groundwater vulnerability assessment in regions of open karst.


The role of geochemical transformations in karst geomorphogenesis, 2010, Vakhrushev B. A.

Geochemical transformations in the system «water - rock» constitute the genetic basis of karst morphogesis. The article demonstrates that corrosion and chemical sedimentation are largely responsible for the morphological look of cavities. The basic method used is thermodynamic calculations of geochemical equilibria, which determine an aggressiveness of natural solutions.

The change of isobar-isothermal potential (free energy of Gibbs) was used as a measure of chemical affinity of matters, i.e. their capabilities to enter into a reaction between them with formation of other matters.

Variety of hydrochemical situations taking place in carbonate , summarized in five typical conditions, which include considerable part of possible karst morphogenetic settings, while others can be obtained by combination of the examined ones. Every situation is described by hydrochemical calculations.

The second part of the paper is dedicated to practical application of the described methodology, i.e. to the calculations of thermodynamic equilibria observed in the underground streams of the Krasnaya (Red) Cave in Crimea. Close connection of morphological look of the cave with geochemical transformations is shown, which control corrosion and chemical accumulation along the whole length of the karst system.


On the essence of karst, 2010, Klimchouk, O. B. , Andreychouk, V. N.

The long-lasting uncertainty with the central for karstology notion of karst hinders synthesis of knowledge and the development of a theoretical basis of this scientific discipline. This paper analyses the essence of karst, based on generalization of the modern ideas about regularities of the origin and evolution of conduit permeability in soluble rocks, viewed in the light of ideas of synergetics and non-equilibrium thermodynamics of I.P.Prigogine regarding self-organization in open systems and formation of ordered dissipative structures.

The presence of soluble rocks in the sedimentary environment determines a phenomena of self-organization of the flow structure, which brings the water-rock system into a new capacity-state, namely karstic. The property of self-organization of this geosystem realizes via specific (speleogenetic) mechanism of permeability development, which action radically changes (organizes in a special manner) the structure and functioning of the flow system.

The mechanism of self-organization of flow and of the formation of the karst geosystem (speleogenesis) includes: 1) early speleogenesis, positive feedback between flow and the rate of enlargement of initial flow paths (revealing of proto-conduits), 2) speleogenetic initiation: a cascade breakthroughs of proto-conduits to the condition of rapid dissolution kinetics, with accelerated growth of initiated conduits, hydrodynamic competition, respective destabilization and reorganization of the flow pattern and change in boundary conditions, and, 3) speleogenetic development: stabilization of the system at dynamic equilibrium at the expense of increased energy exchange with the environment, and further growth of conduits. As a result of this specific evolution the geosystem acquires new, karstic, capacity and more complex of organization, with the establishment of one more level of permeability, the most contrast one.

The notion of karst is derived from the essence of progressive evolution of the geosystem containing permeable soluble rocks, driven by water exchange and speleogenetic mechanism of self-organization of the permeability structure. Regressive evolution of the karst geosystem includes processes of gravitational destruction and various accumulations, which lead to fragmentation and demolition of relict structures of karst permeability. Based on this new approach to definition of the notion of karst, criteria of distinction between proper karst and similar but not identical phenomena (merokarst, pseudokarst) are discussed.


Major stone forest, litomorphogenesis and development of typical shilin (Yunnan, China), 2012, Knez M. , Slabe T. , Liu H.

Major stone forest excellently reveals most characteristics of the formation of the various stone forests. The relatively thick stratification and evenly composed rock clearly display the development of stone forests from subsoil karren. This is evident from the shape of individual parts of the stone forest and the shape and rock relief of pillars that comprise the forest. It is the most typical example of development of karren from subsoil to rain and vegetation exposed stone forest. With it we can compare stone forests shaped on different rock and geomorphological and hydrological conditions. Type of rock is clearly reflected in the intensity of corrosion and erosion and with it in the formation and morphological appearance of individual stone pillars and larger blocks of rock. The rock relief on the pillars in stone forests reveals the interwoven traces of the original shaping of the rock below soil and sediment, of the lowering of the level of soil and sediment, and of the younger but distinct transformation of pillars by rainwater, which naturally dominates on the tops. The exceptional character and picturesqueness of this karst phenomenon is the reason for the successful development of the stone forest as an international tourist attraction that was deservedly placed on the UNESCO world heritage list.


Major stone forest, litomorphogenesis and development of typical shilin (Yunnan, China), 2012, Knez Martin, Slabe Tadej, Liu Hong

Major stone forest excellently reveals most characteristics of the formation of the various stone forests. The relatively thick stratification and evenly composed rock clearly display the development of stone forests from subsoil karren. This is evident from the shape of individual parts of the stone forest and the shape and rock relief of pillars that comprise the forest. It is the most typical example of development of karren from subsoil to rain and vegetation exposed stone forest. With it we can compare stone forests shaped on different rock and geomorphological and hydrological conditions. Type of rock is clearly reflected in the intensity of corrosion and erosion and with it in the formation and morphological appearance of individual stone pillars and larger blocks of rock. The rock relief on the pillars in stone forests reveals the interwoven traces of the original shaping of the rock below soil and sediment, of the lowering of the level of soil and sediment, and of the younger but distinct transformation of pillars by rainwater, which naturally dominates on the tops. The exceptional character and picturesqueness of this karst phenomenon is the reason for the successful developmentof the stone forest as an international tourist attraction that was deservedly placed on the UNESCO world heritage list.


Geomorphogenesis of astructural slopes of the Inner Range of the Mountainous Crimea: the role of hypogenic karst in the formation and retreat of cliffs, 2012, Tymokhina . . , Klimchouk A. B. , Amelichev G. M.

In geomorphogenesis of the fore-mountain region, a leading role is played by the processes of dismemberment of «shielding» limestone layers of the monoclinal stratified structure, and slope processes in the intervals of rocky limestone utcrops. Their main pre-condition for the latter is hypogene karst development which preceded the modern relief and controlled its formation. Karstified fracture-karst zones, 100 to 400 m wide, in the Cretaceous-Paleogene strata controlled the entrenchment of valleys in the limestone layers. The basic elements of hypogenic karst structures, which forms their spatial framework, are subvertical
fracture-karst conduits (karst «rifts»). Dissection of limestone layers along vertical fracture-karst rift conduits initially set the cliff-like shape of valleys slopes, and presence of such rift conduits in the rear of cliffs of already incised valleys determines the mechanisms of cliff retreat, with the maintenance of verticality, and controls position and configuration of segments of cliffs. A dominant slope process in the intervals of limestones is block toppling, whereas blocks become separated mainly along remaining
fracture-karst conduits in rearward parts of cliffs. Hypogenic sculptural morphology is displayed in the exposed walls of the fracture-karst conduits, which determines the originality and nomenclature of morphology of limestone cliffs of the Inner Range. In those areas of slopes where position of cliffs has stabilized for considerable time due to absence of new lines of block detachment in the rear, weathering becomes a significant process in the morphogenesis of surfaces. Slopes lose their verticality and acquire
the smoothed rims. Specific hypogenic sculptural morphology of cliffs is being destroyed on such slopes. The finding about control of slope processes in limestones by hypogenic fracture-karst structures gives new important criteria for the slope condition assessment and prognosis of hazardous collapses and rockfalls in the limits of the Internal Range 


Rock features and morphogenesis in epigenic caves, 2013, Slabe T. , Prelovsek M.

The factors that form karst caves also leave their traces on the interior surface of the caves. These traces are called rock features. Rock features combine to create the overall relief, the shape of the interior surface of a cave. Rock features and rock relief therefore offer the first and often even comprehensive explanation of the formation and development of the caves that characteristically hollow karst aquifers.
 


HYPOGENIC SPELEOGENESIS IN THE CRIMEAN FORE-MOUNTAINS (THE BLACK SEA REGION, SOUTH UKRAINE) AND ITS ROLE IN THE REGIONAL GEOMORPHOLOGY, 2013, Klimchouk A. , Amelichev G. , Tymokhina E. , Tokarev S.

 

The leading role in the geomorphic development of the Crimean fore-mountain region is played by the processes of dismemberment of “shielding” limestone layers of the monoclinal stratified structure through valley entrenchment, and by further retreat of vertical rocky outcrops via block-toppling mechanism. These processes are guided by the presense of hypogene karst structures, whose formation preceded the modern relief. Karstified fracture-karst zones, 100 to 400 m wide, in the Cretaceous-Paleogene strata controlled the entrenchment of valleys in the limestone layers. The basic elements of hypogenic karst structures, which form their spatial framework, are sub-vertical fracture-karst conduits (karst “rifts”). Denudational opening of vertical fracture-karst rift conduits in limestone layers set the cliff-like shape of valleys slopes, and presence of such rift conduits in the rear of cliffs of already incised valleys determines the block-toppling mechanisms of slope retreat. This maintains the verticality of cliff segments in the cuesta ridge and controls their position. Hypogenic sculptural morphology is extensively displayed in the exposed walls of cliffs (former conduit walls), which determines the originality and nomenclature of morphology of limestone cliffs of the Inner Ridge. In those areas of slopes where position of cliffs has stabilized for considerable time due to absence of new lines of block detachment in the rear, weathering becomes a significant process in the morphogenesis of surfaces. The abundance, outstanding expression, preservation and accessibility of relict hypogene karst features in the extensive cuesta cliffs of the Inner Ridge makes the region the foremost one for studying regularities of hypogene solution porosity development, the process currently ongoing in the adjacent artesian basin of the Plain Crimea.


The hypogene karst of the Crimean Piedmont and its geomorphological role (in Russian), 2013, Klimchouk A. B. Tymokhina E. I. Amelichev G. N. Dublyansky Y. V. Spö, Tl C.
The book offers a fundamental new interpretation of the origin of karst in the Crimean Piedmont and explains the role karstification played in the geomorphogenesis of the region. The hypogene origin of karst cavities, their leading role in dismembering the Crimean Piedmont’s homocline and the formation of the characteristic cuesta and rock-remnant relief of the area is demonstrated on the basis of a systematic and comprehensive study, which included modern isotopic and geochemical methods.
The hypogene karst in the area developed in conditions of the confined to semi-confined groundwater flow systems, via interaction between the ascending flow of the deep-seated fracture-karst (conduit) water and the strata-bound, predominantly porous aquifers of the layered formations in the homoclinal northern mega-slope of the Crimean Mountains. The major pre-requisites for hypogene karst development is a position of the area at the flank of the Prichernomorsky artesian basin, and in a geodynamically active suture zone, which separates the fold-thrust structure of the Crimea Mountains and the Scythian plate. Opening of the stratified structure of the Piedmont follows the near-vertical cross-formational fracture-karst channels, resulting in the development of the pronounced cuesta relief with steep cliffs, which feature massive exposure of channels with karst-affected morphology.
Hypogene karstification results in characteristic morphologies, including caves, cliff niches and open chambers, variously sculptured and honeycomb-cellular surfaces of limestone cliffs, wide and shallow couloirs near the rims of cuestas, and rock remnants-“sphinxes”. The carbonate bedrock in the walls of the hypogene cavities revealed isotopic alteration (both O and C) caused by the action of hypogene fluids. The time of formation of cuestas in the Inner Range of the Crimean Mountains, determined on the basis of the U-Th disequilibrium dating of speleothems, turned out to be younger than thought previously. The active development of hypogene karst in the geologically recent past was the main factor responsible for today’s geomorphologic peculiarity of the Crimean Piedmont.
The book will be of interest for karstologists, hydrogeologists, geomorphologists, geologists, and environmental scientists studying karst regions, ore geology and carbonate reservoirs of hydrocarbons. It will also be useful for students of the respective disciplines, and for all those interested in the nature of the Crimean Piedmont.

Cave deposits and sedimentary processes in Cova des Pas de Vallgornera (Mallorca, Western Mediterranean), 2014, Fornós J. J. , Ginés J. , Gràcia F. , Merino A. , Gómezpujol L. , Bover P.

The Cova des Pas de Vallgornera is an important and protected coastal cave, located in the southern part of the island of Mallorca, that outstands due to its length and the complex processes involved in its speleogenesis. Although sediments are not the main topic of interest, their presence as well as their paleontological contents are valuable evidence for paleoclimatic and chronological reconstructions of the cave morphogenesis. The sedimentary infilling is characterized by a scarce presence of clastic sedimentation, mainly composed of silts and clays, which can only be found at some minor passages in the innermost parts of the cave. It corresponds to a clayey sedimentation mainly derived from the soil infiltration that can be found mixed with carbonate particles detached from the cave walls. A particularly different situation occurs in the northernmost end of the cave where an important sequence of silty sands are present, hosting a very rich paleontological deposit. The objective of this paper is to describe the detrital deposits present in the cave by means of the integration of sedimentological, chemical, and mineralogical data, which will aim to provide a better understanding of the processes that have occurred during the system’s speleogenetic evolution.


Clay cortex in epikarst forms as an indicator of age and morphogenesis—case studies from Lublin–Volhynia chalkland (East Poland,West Ukraine), 2014,

Clay cortex from the contact zone between the host rock (chalk) and infilling deposits were examined in

paleokarst forms (pockets, pipes, and dolines of different age) from the Lublin–Volhynia chalk karst region. In light of the sedimentological and micromorphological analyses, it seems possible to work out a model as the basis for genetic and stratigraphic discussions. (1) Dolineswith the Paleogene orNeogene mineral infills are characterized by (a) homogeneous, residual type of massive clay gradually passing into the chalkmonolith, and at the sametime(b) relatively thickweathered zone. (2) Pipeswith glacigenic mineral infill fromthe Saalian Glacial are characterized by (a) sharp contact between host rock and clay, (b) narrow weathering zone of chalk, (c) diffuse nature of the contact zone between residual clay and mineral infill, and (d) contamination of clay by clastic material. (3) Pocketswith glacigenic mineral infill and traces of theWeichselian periglacial transformation are characterized by (a) strong contamination of chalk by quartz grains, (b) diffuse transition between clay and infill: fromclayey matrixwith single quartz grains (at the contactwith chalk) to clayey coatings and intergranular bridges (in the infill), (c) intensive weathering (cracking) of mineral grains in the infill.


Incipient vertical traction carpets within collapsed sinkhole fills, 2014,

Small vertically oriented traction carpets are reported from the collapsed sandy fills of 100 m deep Devonian limestone sinkholes underlying the Lower Cretaceous Athabasca oil sands deposit in north-eastern Alberta, Western Canada. Dissolution of 100 m of underlying halite salt beds caused cataclysmic collapse of the sinkhole floors and water saturated sinkhole sand fills to descend very rapidly. Turbulent currents flushed upper sinkhole fills of friable sandstone blocks and disaggregated sand and quartz pebble for tens of metres. Laminar deposits with inverse grading accumulated as many as six to eight curvilinear entrained pebble streaks, 10 to 30 cm long, vertically impinged against the sides of descending collapse blocks. These deposits were initiated as vertically oriented early stage traction carpets that interlocked fine sand grains and inversely graded overlying pebbles entrained below the dilute overlying turbulent flows. Vortexes that flushed these sinkhole fills and induced these depositional processes may have lasted only seconds before the very rapid descents abruptly halted. Some of the fabrics were suspended vertically in-place and preserved from unlocking and obliteration. These small fabrics provide insight into the instability and ephemeral character of the transition from strong gravity-driven grain falls to very early stages of traction carpet formation. These short-lived deposits of very thin sand layers resulted from sufficient incipient frictional freezing that grain interlocking overcame, however briefly, the strong gravity drives of the vertical falls that would have otherwise dispersed grains and obliterated any organized fabric patterns. Tenuous frictionally locked grains were also suspended at the centres of hyperbolic grain fall flows that briefly developed between turbulent flow eddies, some of which were fortuitously preserved. Some of these suspended grain locking zones passed downward onto the relatively more stable surfaces of the rapidly descending block surfaces. The morphogenesis of these early stage traction carpets differ from more fully developed deposits elsewhere because of their short-lived transport, dynamic instability and vertical orientation.


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