Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That Froude number is a dimensionless numerical quantity used as an index to characterize the type of flow in a hydraulic structure that has the force of gravity (as the only force producing motion) in conjunction with the resisting force of inertia. it is the ratio of inertia forces to gravity forces, and is equal to the square of a characteristic velocity (mean, surface, or maximum velocity) of the system divided by the product of a characteristic linear dimension (e.g. diameter or depth) and the gravity constant, acceleration due to gravity, all of which are expressed in consistent units in order that the combinations will be dimensionless. the number is used in open-channel flow studies or where the free surface plays an essential role in influencing motion [1] such as in karst conduits that are not necessarily flowing at pipe-full conditions. see also chezy equation; manning equation; reynolds number.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

What is Karstbase?



Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for hydrographs (Keyword) returned 55 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 31 to 45 of 55
Storm pulse chemographs of saturation index and carbon dioxide pressure: implications for shifting recharge sources during storm events in the karst aquifer at Fort Campbell, Kentucky/Tennessee, USA, 2004, Vesper D. J. , White W. B. ,
Continuous records of discharge, specific conductance, and temperature were collected through a series of storm pulses on two limestone springs at Fort Campbell, western Kentucky/Tennessee, USA. Water samples, collected at short time intervals across the same storm pulses, were analyzed for calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, total organic carbon, and pH. Chemographs of calcium, calcite saturation index, and carbon dioxide partial pressure were superimposed on the storm hydrographs. Calcium concentration and specific conductance track together and dip to a minimum either coincident with the peak of the hydrograph or lag slightly behind it. The CO2 pressure continues to rise on the recession limb of the hydrograph and, as a result, the saturation index decreases on the recession limb of the hydrograph. These results are interpreted as being due to dispersed infiltration through CO2-rich soils lagging the arrival of quick-flow from sinkhole recharge in the transport of storm flow to the springs. Karst spring hydrographs reflect not only the changing mix of base flow and storm flow but also a shift in source of recharge water over the course of the storm

A frequency domain approach to groundwater recharge estimation in karst, 2004, Jukic D. , Icjukic V. ,
This paper presents an alternative method for determining the values of parameters of a groundwater recharge model. The phreatic zone of a karst aquifer is considered as the linear and time-invariant filter that transforms the input signal of groundwater recharge rates into the output signal of spring discharges. Similarities between transfer functions of total rainfall rates and transfer functions of groundwater recharge rates are the basis for developing the parametric periodogram depending on parameters of a groundwater recharge model. The values of parameters are estimated by minimizing the differences between the parametric periodogram and a periodogram of spring discharges. The approximate Whittle log likelihood function is the criterion for determining the optimal values of the parameters. By using this frequency domain approach, groundwater-balance calculations are avoided so the method can be applied on unexplored karst aquifers when groundwater-balance cannot be achieved without extensive geologic and hydrogeologic investigations. The results of the applications on two springs located in the Dinaric karst area in Croatia are discussed. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

An inexpensive, automatic, submersible water sampler, 2004, Martin J. B. , Thomas R. G. , Hartl K. M. ,
Currently available water samplers are manually actuated, can only be deployed onshore, limiting their use to small or developed water bodies, or are designed for deployment in the deep sea, making them large and expensive. The automatic submersible water sampler described here is small, lightweight, actuated by a microprocessor, and inexpensively and easily constructed. The sampler consists of a pressure case, sample containers constructed of 10 spring-loaded 60 mL syringes connected to solenoid valves, and electronics to control opening and closing of the solenoid valves. Vacuum in the syringes keeps the springs compressed while the solenoid valves are closed. When a valve opens, the spring expands and draws water past a screen and/or filter into the syringe. Once the syringe is filled, the solenoid valve closes, storing the sample. More than one syringe can be opened simultaneously if more than 60 mL are required. Preservatives can be added to the syringe prior to deployment. Some environments where it could be used include karst aquifers, lakes, large rivers, and estuaries

Characterizing a coastal karst aquifer using an inverse modeling approach: The saline springs of Thau, southern France, 2004, Pinault J. L. , Doerfliger N. , Ladouche B. , Bakalowicz M. ,
[1] A methodological approach using inverse modeling was used to characterize the functioning of the deep and shallow reservoirs of the Thau karst aquifer system. Three springs were monitored at the convergence of rising saline water diluted with shallow groundwater in karst conduits and unmixed shallow groundwater that behaves as confined groundwater. In such a method, impulse responses of flow and fluxes are combined in order to separate hydrographs. The model explains the salinity and hydraulic head variations of the submarine and inland springs. It confirms and improves the conceptual model of this groundwater system in which mixing of saline and subsurface waters occurs. The different forces driving the upward flowing mixed water into the drainage axis and faults were studied in order to elucidate the springs' functioning. A comparative study of spring functioning is proposed, which clearly shows the very high sensitivity of the groundwater system to changes in recharge and discharge conditions

Dynamic hydrologic and geochemical response in a perennial karst spring, 2004, Winston W. E. , Criss R. E. ,
Storms induce rapid variations in the discharge, specific conductivity, and temperature of a perennial karst spring in eastern Missouri that are followed by gradual return to normal conditions. These dynamics reflect the varying relative proportions of 'base flow'' and 'event water'' components that have different delta(18)O signatures, solute concentrations, flow paths, and transport timescales, which combine with other transport impedances to govern the temporal behavior of water quality parameters. A new Darcian model accurately reproduces the hydrograph and its separated components, defines the time constants that govern their physical and geochemical responses, and affords a quantitative method to investigate these linked behaviors. Analysis of 58 storm events reveals an average pulse time constant of 0.4 0.2 days that is much shorter than the similar to2 year residence time of water in the aquifer derived from long-term delta(18)O variations. For individual pulses this short time constant for total flow approximates that of the base flow component, but the time constant for the event water component is even shorter. The same model also approximates other storm-induced variations and indicates they are all triggered at the same time but respond according to different time constants of 1.6 0.2 days for oxygen isotopes, 1.6 0.9 days for temperature, and 3.4 1.0 days for specific conductivity and major ion concentrations. The time constant for discharge decreases somewhat with greater peak flows, while the geochemical time constants increase

Do woody plants affect streamflow on semiarid karst rangelands?, 2005, Wilcox B. P. , Owens M. K. , Knight R. W. , Lyons R. K. ,
There is considerable public and political pressure to reduce woody plant cover on rangelands as a means of increasing water yield, despite the lack of studies documenting that such a strategy is effective. In the Texas Hill Country, runoff from the Edwards Plateau recharges the highly productive and regionally vital Edwards Aquifer. The dominant woody plant on the Plateau is Ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei Buchholz). To understand how woody plant cover may affect the amount and timing of runoff in this region, we monitored streamflow from nine small (3- to 6-ha) watersheds over a 13-year period. After the first two years (initial observations), 100% of the shrub cover was removed from three of the watersheds and similar to70% from another three. Following these treatments we continued to monitor runoff for four years, suspended monitoring for four and a half years, and then resumed monitoring for an additional three years. Runoff from these nine first-order watersheds generally accounted for <5% of the total precipitation and occurred entirely as stormflow (there was no baseflow before or after treatment). Some runoff was generated as subsurface flow, as indicated by hydrographs showing prolonged runoff (typically lasting hours longer than the rainfall). We evaluated the influence of woody plant cover on streamflow by comparing streamflow during the four-year treatment period with that during the posttreatment period (when considerable recovery of woody plants had taken place). Our findings indicate that changes in woody plant cover had little influence on the amount, timing, or magnitude of streamflow from these watersheds. On the basis of this work and other observations in the region, we hypothesize that, for small watersheds, changes in shrub cover will have little or no effect on streamflow except where springs are present

Study of cavernous underground conduits in Nam La (Northwest Vietnam) by an integrative approach, 2005, Tam V. T. , De Smedt F. , Batelaan O. , Hung L. Q. , Dassargues A. ,
This paper presents the result of an investigation of underground conduits, which connect the swallow holes and the resurgence of a blind river in the tropical, highly karstified limestone Nam La catchment in the NW of Vietnam. The Nam La River disappears underground in several swallow holes near the outlet of the catchment. In the rainy season this results in flooding upstream of the sinkholes. A hypothesis is that the Nam La River resurges at a large cavern spring 4.5 km east of the catchment outlet. A multi-thematic study of the possible connections between the swallow holes and the resurgence was carried out to investigate the geological structure, tectonics, cave structure analysis and discharge time series. The existence of the underground conduits was also tested and proven by tracer experiments. On the basis of a lineament analysis the location of the underground conduits were predicted. A remote sensing derived lineament-length density map was used to track routes from the swallow holes to the resurgence, having the shortest length but highest lineament density. This resulted in a plan-view prediction of underground conduits that matches with the cave and fault development. The functioning of the conduits was further explained by analysing flooding records of a nearby doline, which turns out to act as a temporary storage reservoir mitigating flooding of the catchment outlet area

A quantitative method for the characterisation of karst aquifers based on spring hydrograph analysis, 2005, Kovacs A. , Perrochet P. , Kiraly L. , Jeannin P. Y. ,
This paper presents a method for characterizing flow systems in karst aquifers by acquiring quantitative information about the geometric and hydraulic aquifer parameters from spring hydrograph analysis. Numerical sensitivity analyses identified two fundamentally different flow domains, depending on the overall configuration of aquifer parameters. These two domains have been quantitatively characterized by deducing analytical solutions for the global hydraulic response of simple two-dimensional model geometries. During the baseflow recession of mature karst systems, the hydraulic parameters of karst conduits do not influence the drainage of the low-permeability matrix. In this case the drainage process is influenced by the size and hydraulic parameters of the low-permeability blocks alone. This flow condition has been defined as matrix-restrained flow regime (MRFR). During the baseflow recession of early karst systems and fissured systems, as well as the flood recession of mature systems, the recession process depends on the hydraulic parameters and the size of the low-permeability blocks, conduit conductivity and the total extent of the aquifer. This flow condition has been defined as conduit-influenced flow regime (CIFR). Analytical formulae demonstrated the limitations of equivalent models. While equivalent discrete-continuum models of early karst systems may reflect their real hydraulic response, there is only one adequate parameter configuration for mature systems that yields appropriate recession coefficient. Consequently, equivalent discrete-continuum models are inadequate for simulating global response of mature karst systems. The recession coefficient of equivalent porous medium models corresponds to the transition between matrix-restrained and conduit-influenced flow. Consequently, equivalent porous medium models yield corrupted hydrographs both in mature and early systems, and this approach is basically inadequate for modelling global response of karst aquifers. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Application of spectral analysis of daily water level and spring discharge hydrographs data for comparing physical characteristics of karstic aquifers, 2005, Rahnemaei M. , Zare M. , Nematollahi A. R. , Sedghi H. ,
Bivariate time series techniques (in spectral domain) of daily rainfall and water level of piezometers or discharge of springs in karstic aquifers are employed to evaluate the lag times (delay) of aquifers response to rainfall events. The evaluation results show that the physical characteristics of karstic aquifers can be compared with each other by using the outcomes of these analyses. With attention to dual porosity idea of karstic aquifers, two lag times (t(1), t(2)) can be computed, which, are related to flow of water through larger fractures (conduit flow) and matrix of the rock (diffuse flow), respectively. Results obtained from these functions, correspond to the findings of physical characteristics, compiled from field investigations. Comparable to dual porosity idea in regard to recharge through the larger fractures (in the first step) and finer porosity of the rock (in the second step), the idea of 'Dual Recharge' in karstic aquifers is presented. Application of these techniques is verified using daily rainfall and water level of Qara, Sabzpooshan and Kaftarak piezometers and daily discharge of Qasreqhomsheh karst spring in Maharlu basin in Iran (52 degrees 20 '-52 degrees 40 ' E and 29 degrees 20 '-29 degrees 40 ' N) having different degree of karstification in their surroundings. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Springflow hydrographs: Eogenetic vs. telogenetic karst, 2006, Florea Lj, Vacher Hl,
Matrix permeability in the range of 10(-11) to 10(-14) m(2) characterizes eogenetic karst, where limestones have not been deeply buried. In contrast, limestones of postburial, telogenetic karst have matrix permeabilities on the order of 10(-15) to 10(-20) m(2). Is this difference in matrix permeability paralleled by a difference in the behavior of springs draining eogenetic and telogenetic karst? Log Q/Q(min) flow duration curves from 11 eogenetic-karst springs in Florida and 12 telogenetic-karst springs in Missouri, Kentucky, and Switzerland, plot in different fields because of the disparate slopes of the curves. The substantially lower flow variability in eogenetic-karst springs, which results in the steeper slopes of their flow duration curves, also makes for a strong contrast in patterns (e.g., 'flashiness') between the eogenetic-karst and telogenetic-karst spring hydrographs. With respect to both spring hydrographs and the flow duration curves derived from them, the eogenetic-karst springs of Florida are more like basalt springs of Idaho than the telogenetic-karst springs of the study. From time-series analyses on discharge records for 31 springs and published time-series results for 28 additional sites spanning 11 countries, we conclude that (1) the ratio of maximum to mean (Q(max)/Q(mean)) discharge is less in springs of eogenetic karst than springs of telogenetic karst; (2) aquifer inertia (system memory) is larger in eogenetic karst; (3) eogenetic-karst aquifers take longer to respond to input signals; and (4) high-frequency events affect discharge less in eogenetic karst. All four of these results are consistent with the hypothesis that accessible storage is larger in eogenetic-karst aquifers than in telogenetic-karst aquifers

Modelling of dripwater hydrology and hydrogeochemistry in a weakly karstified aquifer (Bath, UK): Implications for climate change studies, 2006, Fairchild Ij, Tuckwell Gw, Baker A, Tooth Af,
A better knowledge of dripwater hydrology in karst systems is needed to understand the palaeoclimate implications of temporal variations in Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca of calcareous cave deposits. Quantitative modelling of drip hydrology and hydrochemistry was undertaken at a disused limestone mine (Brown's Folly Mine) in SW England overlain by 15 m of poorly karstified Jurassic limestones, with sub-vertical fracturing enhanced by proximity to an escarpment. Discharge was monitored at 15 sites intermittently from the beginning of 1996, and every 10-20 days from later 1996 to early 1998. Samples for hydrochemical parameters (pH, alkalinity, cations, anions, fluorescence) were taken corresponding to a sub-set of these data and supplernented by bedrock and soil sampling, limited continuously logged discharge, and soil water observations. Three sites, covering the range of discharge (approximately 1 mu L s(-1) to 1 ml s(-1) maximum discharge) and hydrochemical behaviours, were studied in more detail. A quantitative flow model was constructed, based on two parallel unit hydrographs: responsive and relatively unresponsive to discharge events, respectively. The linear response and conservative mixing assumptions of the model were tested with hydrogeochemical data. Dripwaters at many of sites are characterized by evidence of prior calcite precipitation in the flowpath above the mine, which in the higher discharging sites diminishes at high flow. Also at low flow rates, dripwaters may access seepage reservoirs enriched in Mg and/or Sr, dependent on the site. The discharge at all three sites can be approximated by the flow model, but in each case, hydrochemical data show violations of the model assumptions. All sites show evidence of non-conservative mixing, and there are temporal discontinuities in behaviour, which may be stimulated by airlocks generated at low flow. Enhanced Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca often do relate to low-flow conditions, but the relationships between climate and hydrogeochemical response are non-linear. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Nonlinear kernel functions for karst aquifers, 2006, Jukic Damir, Icjukic Vesna,
SummaryThis paper presents a form of kernel function for karst aquifers derived from the time-invariant and non-anticipatory Volterra series. The shape of the kernel function depends on the current value of an index of antecedent recharge that is considered as an indicator of groundwater levels and vadose zone saturation. The proposed nonlinear form preserves specific characteristics of instantaneous unit hydrographs. By using analogies with the conceptual model of nonlinear reservoir, it is shown that the second component of the kernel function characterizes the prevailing type of groundwater flow. If the second component is positive, the free-surface flow is dominant, whereas the negative value indicates that the flow under pressure prevails. Groundwater recharge rates are calculated by using a groundwater recharge model based on the Palmer's soil-moisture balance method. The values of parameters of the groundwater recharge model are estimated by the spectral method which is modified to avoid the assumption about exponential forms of autocorrelation functions of input and output time series. This paper analyzes also the practical applicability of nonlinear kernels for the preliminary characterization of karst aquifers and the karst springs discharge modeling. The results of applications on the springs zones of the rivers Krka and Krcic are in accordance with previous assumptions that the Main Krka Spring is an ascending karst spring which aquifer is situated deeply inside the karst underground, whereas the Main Krcic Spring function as a descending karst spring

A proposed conceptual model for the genesis of the Derbyshire thermal springs, 2007, Brassington Fc,
Ten thermal springs occur in seven centres in Derbyshire, England, with temperatures up to 27.5 {degrees}C compared with an ambient groundwater temperature of about 9 {degrees}C. The springs discharge from a karstic Dinantian limestone aquifer along the boundary with the overlying Namurian strata around the edge of a regional dome structure. The water is heated by deep circulation to as much as 1 km, with the hottest spring being at Buxton spring, where the water is 5000 years old. A comparison of flow data from the Buxton spring with groundwater hydrographs shows seasonality in the thermal flows, suggesting that the loading effects produced by recharge are transmitted through this deep aquifer system. From a review of the geological history and the hydrogeology and the use of measurements on the Buxton spring it is suggested that the thermal flow system may have its roots in ancient convection cells possibly established in the deeply buried aquifer in late Carboniferous-Early Permian times. Subaerial erosion during the Pliocene removed the impermeable cap rocks and allowed both the thermally heated water to form warm springs and this deep groundwater circulation to be recharged by meteoric waters. The location of the individual springs is likely to date from the downcutting during the Late Pleistocene that formed the modern river valley topography

Benchmark Papers in Karst Science, 2007,
A collection of benchmark papers in karst science: The Decade 1971 ? 1980 13. The Geochemistry of Some Carbonate Ground Waters in Central Pennsylvania, D. Langmuir 14. Genetic Interpretation of Regressive Evolutionary Processes: Studies on Hybrid Eyes of Two Astyanax Cave Populations (Characidae, Pisces), H. Wilkins 15. Cavernicoles in Lava Tubes on the Island of Hawaii, F.G. Howarth 16. Evolutionary Genetics of Cave-Dwelling Fishes of the Genus Astyanax, J.C. Avise and R.L. Selander 17. Deducing Flow Velocity in Cave Conduits from Scallops, R.L. Curl 18. The Origin of Maze Caves, A.N. Palmer 19. Foraging by Cave Beetles: Spatial and Temporal Heterogeneity of Prey, T.C. Kane and T.L. Poulson 20. Considerations of the Karst Ecosystem, R. Rouch 21. Diffuse Flow and Conduit Flow in Limestone Terrain in the Mendip Hills, Somerset (Great Britain), T.C. Atkinson 22. The Development of Limestone Cave Systems in Dimensions of Length and Depth, D.C. Ford and R.O. Ewers The Decade 1981 ? 1990 23. Magnetostratigraphy of Sediments in Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, V.A. Schmidt 24. Uranium-Series Ages of Speleothem from Northwest England: Correlations with Quaternary Climate, M. Gascoyne, D.C. Ford and H.P. Schwarcz 25. Analysis and Interpretation of Data from Tracer Tests in Karst Areas, W.K. Jones 26. Evolution of Adult Morphology and Life-History Characters in Cavernicolous Ptomaphagus Beetles, S.B. Peck 27. Ecology of the Mixohaline Hypogean Fauna along the Yugoslav Coasts, B. Sket 28. Fractal Dimensions and Geometries of Caves, R.L. Curl 29. Regional Scale Transport in a Karst Aquifer. 1. Component Separation of Spring Flow Hydrographs, S.J. Dreiss 30. Morphological Evolution of the Amphipod Gammarus minus in Caves: Quantitative Genetic Analysis, D.W. Fong 31. The Flank Margin Model for Dissolution Cave Development in Carbonate Platforms, J.E. Mylroie and J.L. Carew 32. Sulfuric Acid Speleogenesis of Carlsbad Cavern and Its Relationship to Hydrocarbons, Delaware Basin, New Mexico and Texas, C.A. Hill The Decade 1991 ? 2000 33. Origin and Morphology of Limestone Caves, A.N. Palmer 34. How Many Species of Troglobites Are There? D.C. Culver and J.R. Holsinger 35. Annual Growth Banding in a Cave Stalagmite, A. Baker, P.L. Smart, R.L. Edwards and D.A. Richards 36. Natural Environment Change in Karst: The Quaternary Record, S.-E. Lauritzen 37. Pattern and Process in the Biogeography of Subterranean Amphipods, J.R. Holsinger 38. A Chemoautotrophically Based Cave Ecosystem, S.M. Sarbu, T.C. Kane and B.K. Kinkle 39. Rhodopsin Evolution in the Dark, K.A. Crandall and D.M. Hillis 40. Climate and Vegetation History of the Midcontinent from 75 to 25 ka: A Speleothem Record from Crevice Cave, Missouri, USA, J.A. Dorale, R.L. Edwards, E. Ito and L.A. González


An “intrinsic vulnerability” (according to Zwahlen et al., 2004) to any contamination in general is considered using Malík´s extension (2005) of the Kullman´s method (2000), based on the assessment of the degree the rock disruption and karstifica­tion, affecting the shape of spring discharge recession curves. It is based on the presumption that the intensity of natural con­tamination attenuation processes depends on rock disruption/karstification. The method is applied on the Mesozoic rock en­vironment of the most important hydrogeological structure in the southern slopes of the Nízke Tatry Mountains. Hydrograph analyses of groundwater depletion in the gauged or exploited springs were used for assessment of groundwater vulnerability to human and/or natural pollution. Differences in character of individual depletion hydrographs enable assessment an extent of absorption and elimination processes during the groundwa­ter penetration through the rock environment from the infiltra­tion area to the outflow in the spring or exploited source. The depletion hydrographs reflect not only the character (effect) of outflow area but reflect the effects whole infiltration and accu­mulation area. In total, 68 individual recession curves from 9 gauged springs were analysed. Obtained degrees of groundwater vulnerability are evaluated by 10 degree range of the Kullman´s vulnerability scheme, adjusted by Malík. The reached vulner­ability values are consequently applied and assigned to the lith­ological types of discharge area of gauged springs. This study also describes an existence of individual laminar and turbulent sub-regimes that occur in the karts-fissure rock environment, the type of rock disruption from open micro– to macro fissures - to karst channels and subsequent estimation of the karstifica­tion degree.

Results 31 to 45 of 55
You probably didn't submit anything to search for