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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That quagmire is a wet unstable land area [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for carbonate aquifers (Keyword) returned 89 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 31 to 45 of 89
Exploration techniques for karst groundwater resources., 2001, Bakalowicz M.
Porous and fissure aquifers display statistical homogeneity of their physical and hydraulic characteristics on a scale ranging from tens to several hundreds of meters. Such homogeneity is a product of the relatively small spatial variability of these characteristics and creates conditions of general hydraulic continuity throughout the entire saturated zone. Their groundwater resources can be explored by a simple approach, i.e. defining the aquifer geometry from geological data, and determining local hydraulic parameters from pumping tests; finally, the local data are extended to characterise the entire aquifer through regionalizing techniques. However, within the infiltration and saturated zones of carbonate aquifers, karst processes create a peculiar void heterogeneity : voids may reach several meters in diameter and several kilometers in length. These voids are organized in a hierarchic network from the input surface often to a single spring: this is the conduit or drainage network. Therefore the network should be fully characterized prior to assessing the groundwater resources of a karst aquifer and its possible storage capacity, i.e. the network's transmissive or drainage function and its links with storage components (its storage function). Traditionally, speleological exploration is considered the best technique for directly characterizing a drainage network. Unfortunately, this usually gives an incorrect view of the karst aquifer because only a few parts (or none at all) are known when there is no access to the saturated zone. The classical hydrogeological approach is thus unsuitable for assessing karst aquifers. In this context, karst hydrogeologists must adopt the classical approach of physicians and biologists examining living bodies, by characterizing a karst aquifer, its resources and storage by accurate description of the void organization and an analysis of its overall behavior (or functioning) and that of its different parts or organs. With such an approach, a karst aquifer is considered as a living organism composed of different types of organs interlinked by functional relationships. Unlike physicians, hydrogeologists generally have to discover the extent of the body they wish to study (the karst system as a drainage unit, its limits and the boundary conditions). Therefore, as in the field of medicine^ techniques are used for describing the aquifer in bi- or tri-dimensional space (geology, geophysics) and for characterizing its functioning (hydrodynamics, natural tracing, hydrological balance). Moreover, data from these techniques are interpreted in order to propose a diagnosis, i.e. for building a conceptual model of the studied aquifer. In the next step, as in medicine, the conceptual model can be assessed with localized tests, such as artificial tracing and diver exploration for borehole positioning and pumping tests. Methods for interpreting tracing and pumping tests must obviously be adapted to the specific nature of karst, i.e. they cannot be based on classical models whose basic assumptions are never verified in the karstic medium. Finally, karst hydrogeologists have to set up and implement a complex set of techniques for describing the extent and limits of a karst system, exploring its drainage pattern, and analyzing its behaviour. All geoscience disciplines are ultimately required for the comprehensive exploration of groundwater resources in karst aquifers.

Characteristics of porosity and permeability enhancement in unconfined carbonate aquifers due to the development of dissolutional channel systems., 2001, Worthington S. R. H. , Ford D. C. , Beddows P. A.
Dissolution processes in unconfmed carbonate aquifers result in the creation of networks of channels. We examine four contrasting carbonate aquifers, in Paleozoic dolostone, Paleozoic limestone, Mesozoic chalk, and Cenozoic limestone, to characterize the enhancement of porosity and permeability produced by this dissolution. In all four cases the channels are found to add little to the porosity, but enhance the permeability of the fractured rock by one to three orders of magnitude. Similar porosity and permeability changes are predicted for all unconfmed carbonate aquifers, in both dolostones and limestones, in both allogenic and autogenic settings, and in carbonates of all ages.

Hydrogeologic Characterization of a Transitional Karst Aquifer, South-Central Louisville, Kentucky, 2001, Taylor, . J.

Carbonate aquifers typically exhibit a continuum in ground-water flow that ranges between quick flow through solution conduits and solution-enlarged fractures and slow flow through fine fractures and intergranular pores. Hydraulic properties and water quality often change at different locations in carbonate aquifers depending on the degree of solutional (karst) modification—that is, the relative proportion between quick flow and slow flow. Either end member can present special difficulties to hydrogeologic and contaminant transport characterization. The transition between a quick-flow dominated karst aquifer and a slow-flow dominated fractured-carbonate aquifer is examined in this study. 


Geological Controls on the Distribution and Origin of Selected Inorganic Ions in Ohio Groundwater, 2002, Levine Norman S. , Roberts Sheila J. , Aring Jennifer L. ,
Contour maps showing the concentration of selected inorganic ions across the state of Ohio illustrate that high concentrations of some ions visually correlate with the location of major geologic features, whereas other ions are randomly distributed. Strontium and sulfate have high concentrations over the Cincinnati, Findlay, and Kankakee arches, where carbonate aquifers containing gypsum and celestite are located. The highest concentrations of potassium and beryllium are located along the Cambridge fault zone, a major structural feature in eastern Ohio. High concentrations of iron and nitrate are found adjacent to single wells. Nitrate highs may be related to anthropogenic contamination, whereas some iron anomalies are located where sulfate is high. The maps produced in this study indicate that statewide contour maps of ion concentrations are useful for correlating aquifer chemistry with the regional geology of an area and determining the background level of ions on a state-wide scale

Use of hydrodynamic and hydrochemistry to characterise carbonate aquifers. Case study of the Blanca-Mijas unit (Malaga, southern Spain), 2002, Andreo A. , Carrasco F. , Bakalowicz M. Et Al.

KARSTIC: a sensitivity method for carbonate aquifers in karst terrain, 2002, Davis Ad, Long Aj, Wireman M,
Groundwater in karstic aquifers can be dangerously sensitive to contamination. Many cities in the western USA rely on karstic carbonate aquifers for municipal water supplies. For example, Rapid City, South Dakota, pumps more than half of its drinking water from wells in the Madison Limestone. This work examined the sensitivity of karstic aquifers to surface contamination in mountainous terrain. Where karstic carbonate aquifers are exposed at their outcrop areas, they are particularly susceptible to the introduction of contamination through diffuse recharge or through point recharge at swallow holes along streams. Residential developments in mountainous regions of the western USA are encroaching on the recharge areas of karstic aquifers. Many of these residential developments are served by onsite wastewater disposal systems such as septic tanks and drain fields, with the attendant danger of introduction of pathogens from malfunctioning treatment systems above fractured limestone which offers little filtering. Where streams disappear into karstic aquifers at swallow holes, microbial contaminants such as Giardia or Cryptosporidium are a concern, as well as potential spills, leaks, or accidents along roads near these streams. The KARSTIC method developed and modified in this work puts greater emphasis on karst features than previous sensitivity procedures such as the US Environmental Protection Agency's DRASTIC method. The modified method gives increased attention to highly sensitive areas of karstic carbonate aquifers by weighting the synergistic effects of fracturing, karst development, and swallow holes of recharging streams. In a field application, hydrogeologic maps of a watershed in the Black Hills, USA, were digitized into a geographic information system. The resulting sensitivity map and report can be used by planners, managers, and the public as a screening tool for assessing groundwater sensitivity in regions which include karstic aquifers

Assessments of the sensitivity to climate change of flow and natural water quality in four major carbonate aquifers of Europe, 2002, Younger P. L. , Teutsch G. , Custodio E. , Elliot T. , Manzano M. , Sauter M. ,
A numerical modelling approach has been developed to predict the vulnerability of aquifers to future climate change. This approach encompasses changes in recharge regime, dynamics of flow and storage patterns within aquifers, and natural hydrochemical changes. An application of the approach has been made to four hypothetical spring catchments representative of major carbonate aquifers in three European climatic zones. Since prolific carbonate aquifers typically combine a high transmissivity with a low specific yield, they can be expected to be more sensitive than clastic aquifers to changes in recharge patterns. Simulations of the study systems to the middle of the 21st century predict different outcomes in the three different climate zones: (1) in the northern maritime zone (UK) recharge (and therefore discharge) is predicted to increase by as much as 21 0n response to anticipated increases in precipitation; (2) in the continental zone (Germany) recharge in winter is predicted to remain approximately the same as at present, but summer recharge will decline dramatically (by as much as 32%), so that a net decrease in aquifer discharge is predicted; and (3) in the Mediterranean zone (Spain) recharge is predicted to decrease by as much as 160f the present-day values. For all three systems, increases in water hardness in response to rising CO2 are predicted, but are expected to be negligible in water resources terms

Depth of conduit flow in unconfined carbonate aquifers: comment., 2002, Ford D. C.

Depth of conduit flow in unconfined carbonate aquifers: Comment and Reply: COMMENT, 2002, Ford D,

Interpretation of spring recession curves, 2002, Amit H, Lyakhovsky V, Katz A, Starinsky A, Burg A,
Recession curves contain information on storage properties and different types of media such as porous, fractured, cracked lithologies and karst. Recession curve analysis provides a function that quantitatively describes the temporal discharge decay and expresses the drained volume between specific time limits (Hall 1968). This analysis also allows estimating the hydrological significance of the discharge function parameters and the hydrological properties of the aquifer. In this study, we analyze data from perennial springs in the Judean Mountains and from others in the Galilee Mountains, northern Israel. All the springs drain perched carbonate aquifers. Eight of the studied springs discharge from a karst dolomite sequence, whereas one flows out from a fractured, slumped block of chalk. We show that all the recession curves can be well fitted by a function that consists of two exponential terms with exponential coefficients alpha(1) and alpha(2). These coefficients are approximately constant for each spring, reflecting the hydraulic conductivity of different media through which the ground water flows to the spring. The highest coefficient represents the fast flow, probably through cracks, or quickflow, whereas the lower one reflects the slow flow through the porous medium, or baseflow. The comparison of recession curves from different springs and different years leads to the conclusion that the main factors that affect the recession curve exponential coefficients are the aquifer lithology and the geometry of the water conduits therein. In normal years of rainy winter and dry summer, (Xi is constant in time. However, when the dry period is longer than usual because of a dry winter, (X, slightly decreases with time

Identifying the flow systems in a karstic-fissured-porous aquifer, the Schneealpe, Austria, by modelling of environmental O-18 and H-3 isotopes, 2002, Maloszewski P. , Stichler W. , Zuber A. , Rank D. ,
The Schneealpe karst massif of Triassic limestones and dolomites with the altitude up to 1800 m a.s.l., situated 100 km SW of Vienna in Kalkalpen, is the main drinking water resource for the city. The catchment area of about 23 km(2) is drained by two springs: the Wasseralmquelle (196 Vs) and the Siebenquellen (310 1/s). This karstic aquifer is approximated by two interconnected parallel flow systems of: (a) a fissured-porous aquifer, and (b) karstic channels. The fissured-porous aquifer is of a high storage capacity and contains mobile water in the fissures and stagnant water in the porous matrix. The water enters this system at the surface and flows through it to drainage channels, which are regarded as a separate flow system, finally drained by both springs. The channels are also connected with sinkholes, which introduce additional water directly from the surface, Measurements of O-18 and tritium in precipitation and springs were modelled by a combined application of lumped-parameter models. Modelling yielded information on the mean values of the following hydraulic parameters: (1) The volume of water in the whole catchment area is 255 X 10(6) m(3), of which about 1.8 X 10(6) m(3) are in channels and 253 X 10(6) m(3) in the fissured-porous aquifer. (2) The total volumetric flow rate is 506 1/s, of which 77 1/s comprises direct flow from sinkholes to springs and 429 1/s are contributed to fissured-porous aquifer. (3) As the volume of the massif is 16.6 x 10 m(3), the total water saturated porosity (fissures and micropores of the matrix) is 1.5% and the channel porosity is about 0.01%. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Karst flow systems in young carbonate islands,, 2002, Mylroie J. E. , Jenson J. W.

Subaqueous and subaerial speleogenesis in a sulfidic cave, 2002, Stern L. , Engel A. S. , Bennet P. C. , Porter M. L.

Hydrogeology and Biology of Post-Paleozoic Carbonate Aquifers. Proceedings of the Symposium on Karst Frontiers: Florida and Related Environments., 2002,

Speleogenesis in carbonate rocks, 2003, Palmer, A. N.

This paper outlines the current views on cave origin in carbonate rocks, combining ideas from a variety of sources. A typical dissolution cave develops in several stages that grade smoothly from one to the next: (1) Initial openings are slowly enlarged by water that is nearly at solutional equilibrium with the local bedrock. (2) As the early routes enlarge, those with the greatest amount of flow grow fastest. (3) These favoured routes eventually become wide enough that groundwater is able to retain most of its solutional aggressiveness throughout the entire distance to the spring outlets. This breakthrough time usually requires times on the order of 104 to 105 years and ends the inception phase of speleogenesis. (4) Discharge along these selected routes increases rapidly, allowing them to enlarge into cave passages rather uniformly over their entire length. Maximum enlargement rates are roughly 0.001-0.1 cm/yr, depending on the local water chemistry and lithology. (5) The cave acquires a distinct passage pattern that depends on the nature of groundwater recharge, the geologic setting, and the erosional history of the region. Branchwork patterns dominate in most carbonate aquifers. Maze caves are produced by any of the following: steep hydraulic gradients (e.g. during floods), short flow paths, uniform recharge to many openings, and mixing of waters that contrast in chemistry. (6) Enlargement rate usually decreases as passages become air-filled, owing to loss of aggressiveness as carbon dioxide escapes through openings to the surface. (7) The cave typically evolves by diversion of water to new and lower routes as the fluvial base level drops. (8) The cave is eventually destroyed by roof collapse and by intersection of passages by surface erosion. At any given time, different parts of the same cave may be experiencing different stages in this sequence.


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