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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That grout is a fluid mixture of cement and water (neat cement) of a consistency that can be forced through a pipe and placed where required. various additives, such as sand, bentonite, and hydrated lime may be included in the mixture to meet certain requirements. bentonite and water are sometimes used for grout [6].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for china (Keyword) returned 313 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 301 to 313 of 313
Quartz sandstone peak forest landforms of Zhangjiajie Geopark, northwest Hunan Province, China: pattern, constraints and comparison, 2012, Yang Guifang, Tian Mingzhong, Zhang Xujiao, Chen Zhenghong, Wray Robert A. L. , Ge Zhiliang, Ping Yamin, Ni Zhiyun, Yang Zhen

The Zhangjiajie Sandstone Peak Forest Geopark in northwest Hunan Province, China, is a comprehensive geopark containing many spectacular quartz sandstone landforms, limestone karst landscapes and various other important geoheritage resources. It is listed as a UNESCO World Geopark and is also part of the World Heritage Wulingyuan Scenic and Historic Interest Area for its important landscape features. Many of the sandstone landforms, particularly the vast number of thin pillars or spires, are very unusual and serve as the core landscapes of the geopark. But Zhangjiajie displays a diverse range of landform types, exhibiting spectacular patterns and regular distributions. In this paper, the geomorphic traits, distribution pattern and constraints of the sandstone landforms of the Zhangjiajie Geopark are examined. Our study indicates that in the outcropping areas, the sandstones display four distinctive levels from 300 to 1,000 m above sea level, and these extend clearly from the highest sandstone plateau platform to the center of the valleys. The high sandstone platforms developed close to a flat high-level erosional surface, and subsequent erosion into this plateau has resulted in successively lower levels of landforms that transition gradually from peak walls, peak clusters, peak forests and peak pillars to remnant peaks in the lower valley bottoms. The form and distribution of the Zhangjiajie sandstone landforms are primarily dominated by the geological setting, particularly the presence of brittle structures (fractures and joint sets) trending NNW, ENE and NE. Triggered by the episodic tectonic movements, major streams and escarpments frequently occur along these structural directions, while some of the peak walls, peak clusters and peak forests have their longer elongated axes corresponding to NE or NNW directions, with an increased density of peak forms at the intersection of these fractures and joints. The geometry of the diverse sandstone landforms is also influenced to a certain degree by the climatic, water system distribution, lithologic properties, biological process, meteorological features and denudation processes. The suite of quartz sandstone landforms in Zhangjiajie can be compared with other sandstone landscapes regionally, and our interpretation of the sandstone peak forest formation processes offers a significant contribution to the study of topographic features and the geomorphic evolution of sandstone landscapes

Differences in karst processes between northern and southern China, 2012, Hao Y. , Cao B. , Zhang P. , Wang Q. , Li Z. , Jim Yeh T. C.

The east–west trending Tsinling Mountains in central China were uplifted at the end of the Middle Jurassic [176–161 million years ago (Ma)] in Yanshanian, thus effectively and geographically defining the northern climate as cold and dry, and the southern climate as warm and humid. Influenced by paleoenvironmental variation, the karst process shows differences between northern and southern China. Using the systems approach, the authors integrated the geologic history, climate, and hydrological conditions to analyze the causes of the karst differences in northern and southern China, as well as in the Tibetan Plateau. Carbonate rock deposition began in the Mesoproterozoic Era (1,600–1,000 Ma) in north China, and in the Sinian Sub-Era (825–570 Ma) in south China. In north China, the rock formation ended in the Mid-Ordovician (466 Ma), while in South China the deposition continued to the Triassic (250–200 Ma). Tibetan Plateau was deposited in the Late Permian (257–250 Ma). The different depositional environment caused different lithologies: the limestones are largely micritic in the north, but are massive and sparry in the south. The modern karst features were formed mainly in the Tertiary (53–2.6 Ma) and the Quaternary. In the Quaternary, the Tibetan Plateau arose sharply, which formed the monsoon system of East Asia, and loess started to deposit in north China, which partly delayed or prevented karstification in north China, and differentiated the karst features from those in south China. Thus, the karst process in north China is mainly hypogene, while the south is epigene in the Quaternary.

Tower karst and cone karst, 2013, Zhu X. , Zhu D. , Zhang Y. , Lynch E. M.

Cone karst and tower karst are spectacular types of tropical/subtropical karst formed under conditions of intense karstification, and occurring primarily in China, Vietnam, Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and Java. The cone-tower karst system is classified into two basic types: fengcong-fenglin karst developed in hard, fissure-porosity rocks, and cockpit-mogotes karst in soft, high primary porosity carbonates. Key factors in the development of cone-tower karst include tropical or subtropical climate with abundant precipitation, tectonic uplift and base-level lowering, relatively pure and thick carbonate lithology, gentle anticline/syncline structures, allogenic input and through rivers. Differentiation into the cone (fengcong/cockpit) or tower (fenglin/mogotes) subtypes is strongly influenced by surface flow and the thickness of the vadose zone. Basic features of cone-tower karst, formation, and global distribution are discussed, with special emphasis on fengcongfenglin karst and the role of point infiltration, linear infiltration, and surface flow. The simultaneous (as opposed to sequential) evolution of fengcong karst and fenglin karst is explained by systematically analyzing the karst development, as well as the formation rate and age of fengcong-fenglin karst

Microsculpturing of solutional rocky landforms., 2013, Lundberg, J.

Karren (small-scale dissolutional features) have a great variety of forms and are known by a huge suite of terms. Bare rock forms are sharper and more gravitomorphic than subcutaneous forms, where rock-fracture control may dominate. Four controls operate: (1) physical properties of the solvent (fluid flow, surface tension, and percolation); (2) chemical properties of the solvent (unmodified rainwater, enhanced aggressivity, and reduced aggressivity); (3) chemical properties of the solute (rock solubility); and (4) physical properties of the solute (fractures and rock texture). Large expanses of bare rock karren are called karren fields, the more famous including China’s ‘Stone Forest’, Madagascar’s ‘Tsingy’, and Mulu’s ‘Pinnacles’. in caves

Variations of karst geomorphology over geoclimatic gradients, 2013, Daoxian, Y.

The methodologies based on the ideas of a karst dynamic system, which links the climate, geology, biosphere and karst formation, and the karst feature complex (KFC) that facilitates overcoming the confusion of isomorphism in establishing a geoclimatic gradient of karst landforms, are first introduced in this chapter. The karst in mainland China is selected as a training area to establish the climatic gradient of KFC. The reason to make such a choice is its having prerequisites such as karst developed on hard, compact carbonate rocks to facilitate preservation of landforms; karst that enjoys a clear climatic gradient in the late geological history; and an area without the scouring process of a continental ice sheet during the last glaciation. Then, the geological impacts from factors such as lithology, structure, paleography, and tectonism on climatic gradient are discussed. Finally, a global perspective is given as an attempt at a summary. 

In-situ observations of seven enigmatic cave loaches and one cave barbel from Guangxi, China, with notes on conservation status, 2013, Fenolio Dante, Zhao Yahui, Niemiller Matthew L, Stout Jim F

Molecular divergence and evolutionary relationships among Aemodogryllinae from Southern China, Laos and Thailand (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae), 2013, Valerio Ketmaier, Claudio Di Russo, Mauro Rampini, Nadine Bernhardt, Ralph Tiedemann, Marina Cobolli

In this study we screened for sequence polymorphisms at one mitochondrial (Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I) and one nuclear (Internal Transcribed Spacer 1) gene 33 populations of the cave cricket generaDiestrammena, ParadiestrammenaEutachycines and Paratachycines from Southern China (three Provinces: Jiangxi, Guangdong and Guizhou), Laos and Thailand. Twenty-five of these populations were assigned to the genusDiestrammena, subgenus Gymnaeta, while the remaining eight belonged to the genera Paradiestrammena (3), Eutachycines (3) and Paratachycines(2). The degree of troglomorphosis varies among them; some populations are blind and depigmented, some have fully developed eyes, while some others show intermediate characteristics. Phylogenetic searches carried out on the two gene partitions separately revealed multiple cases of incongruence but only three of them were statistically significant and were hence removed from the subsequent analyses based on the combined data set. Our data do not support Diestrammena as monophyletic while representatives of ParadiestrammenaEutachycines and Paratachycineswere clustered together; the validity of some nominal species was confirmed molecularly but we also revealed a large number of deeply divergent lineages. Populations with the same degree of troglomorphosis do not cluster together. We identified five major clades; divergence among them (and in a few circumstances also within them) is always higher than the DNA barcode threshold for intraspecific comparisons in insects. In two circumstances, the same clades (III and V) are co-distributed in geographically distinct areas (Provinces). This geographical distribution might be explained by envisioning an evolutionary scenario based on zones of secondary admixture following epigean dispersal among lineages that diverged in allopatry.


With increase in mining depth of the Carboniferous-Permian coal seams in North China, it is particularly important to study the heterogeneity of karst development in the underlying Middle Ordovician limestone and determine any impermeable strata that may prevent the pressurized karst water from bursting into coal mines. Detailed analysis of the exploratory borehole data suggests presence of a paleokarst crust at the top of Middle Ordovician Fengfeng Formation. Because of its mechanical strength and low permeability to water, the paleokarst crust can function as an additional water-resisting layer. This paper takes Sihe Mine of Shanxi Province as an example to study the geotechnical and hydrogeological characteristics of the paleokarst crust. Incorporation of this additional hydrological barrier led to more minable coal seams in the coalmine.

INVESTIGATIONS OF LARGE SCALE SINKHOLE COLLAPSES, LAIBIN, GUANGXI, CHINA, 2013, Gao Yongli, Luo Weiquan, Jiang Xiaozhen, Lei Mingtang, Dai Jianling

A series of sinkholes collapsed at Jili village and Shanbei village, Laibin Guangxi, China in June 2010. A large underground stream exists in the north-south transect of the study area and passes the collapse site. Preliminary investigations revealed that extremely heavy rainfall between May 31 and June 1 2010 may have triggered this collapse event. The precipitation, as high as 469.8 mm within one day, was a record high in the study area. A long period of drought in 2009 followed by extremely heavy rainfall along with cave roof collapse may have caused the collapse event on June 3 2010. The “water hammer” effect and collapse-triggered earthquakes caused severe ground failure and fractures in residential houses and Jili Dam. Several collapse events were caused by extreme weather conditions in Guangxi over the past few years. Further studies of the relationship between extreme weather events and sinkhole collapses will help minimize the damage or impact to human infrastructure by avoiding areas susceptible to collapse or by designing infrastructure to better withstand subsidence

Occurrence of troglobitic clivinines in China (Insect: Coleoptera: Carabidae), 2013, Tian, M.

A new genus, Guiodytes gen. nov., and two new species, G. cavicola sp. nov. and G. bedosae sp. nov., of the ground beetle tribe Clivinini (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are described from two caves of Guangxi, southern China. Guiodytes gen. nov. is characterized. It is the first genus of troglobitic clivinines discovered in Asia, and its relationships with other clivinines remain unclear. 

Characteristics of gas disaster in the Huaibei coalfield and its control and development technologies, 2014, Wang L. , Cheng Y. , An F, Zhou H. , Kong S. , Wang W.

The Huaibei coalfield is in the East China Economic Area, which is rich in coal and gas resources. However, hundreds of coal and gas outburst accidents have occurred because of the complex geological structures of the coalfield. Based on theoretical analysis and field statistics, the characteristics of regional geological structures and the coal measure strata evolution in the Huaibei coalfield were researched, and gas resource distribution and gas parameters were statistically analyzed to determine the dominant controlling factors of gas occurrence and gas dynamic disaster. The results indicated that the Huaibei coalfield has undergone complex tectonic evolution, causing obvious differences in gas storage in different blocks of different mining areas, which exhibits a pattern of high amounts of gas in the south and east, and low amounts of gas in the north and west. The coal seam and gas occurrence have a bipolar distribution in the coalfield caused by multiple tectonic movements, and they are deeply buried. Horizontal tectonic stress plays a dominant role in gas outburst, and the thermal evolution and trap effects of magma intrusion increase the possibility and extent of gas outburst. Considering coal seam and gas occurrence characteristics in the coalfield, we propose a new technology for deep coal reservoir reconstruction which combined present underground regional gas control methods and surface well extraction methods. The technology has three effects: developing gas resources, improving coal mining safety level and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, which has been practiced to be effective in coal mines in the Huaibei coalfield.

The fate of CO2 derived from thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) and effect of TSR on carbonate porosity and permeability, Sichuan Basin, China, 2015, Hao Fang, Zhang Xuefeng, Wang Cunwu, Li Pingping, Guo Tonglou, Zou Huayao, Zhu Yangming, Liu Jianzhang, Cai Zhongxian

This article discusses the role ofmethane in thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR), the fate of TSR-derived CO2 and the effect of TSR on reservoir porosity and permeability, and the causes of the anomalously high porosity and permeability in the Lower Triassic soured carbonate gas reservoirs in the northeast Sichuan Basin, southwest China. The Lower Triassic carbonate reservoirs were buried to a depth of about 7000 m and experienced maximum temperatures up to 220 °C before having been uplifted to the present-day depths of 4800 to 5500 m, but they still possess porosities up to 28.9% and permeabilities up to 3360 md. The present-day dry gas reservoirs evolved from a paleo-oil accumulation and experienced varying degrees of TSR alteration as evidenced from the abundant sulfur-rich solid bitumens and varying H2S and CO2 concentrations. TSR occurred mainly within the oil and condensate/wet gas windows, with liquid hydrocarbons and wet hydrocarbon gases acting as the dominant reducing agents responsible for sulfate reduction, sulfur-rich solid bitumen and H2S generation, and calcite precipitation. Methane-dominated TSR was a rather late event and had played a less significant role in altering the reservoirs. Intensive H2S and CO2 generation during TSR resulted in calcite cementation rather than carbonate dissolution, which implies that the amount of water generated during TSR was volumetrically insignificant. 13C-depleted CO2 derived from hydrocarbon oxidation preferentially reacted with Ca2+ to form isotopically light calcite cements, and the remaining CO2 re-equilibrated with the 13C-enriched water–rock systems with its δ13C rapidly approaching the values for the host rocks, which accounted for the observed heavy and relatively constant CO2 δ13C values. The carbonate reservoirs suffered from differential porosity loss by TSR-involved solid bitumen generation and TSR-induced calcite and pyrite precipitation. Intensive TSR significantly reduced the porosity and permeability of the intervals expected to have relatively high sulfate contents (the evaporative-platform dolostones and the platform-margin shoal dolostones immediately underlying the evaporative facies). Early oil charge and limited intensity of TSR alteration, together with very low phyllosilicate content and early dolomitization, accounted for the preservation of anomalously high porosities in the reservoirs above the paleo-oil/water contact. A closed system seems to have played a special role in preserving the high porosity in the gas zone reservoirs below the paleo-oil/water contact. The closed system, which is unfavorable for deep burial carbonate dissolution and secondary porosity generation, was favorable for the preservation of early-formed porosity in deeply buried carbonates. Especially sucrosic and vuggy dolostones have a high potential to preserve such porosity.

CO2 emission response to different water conditions under simulated karst environment, 2015,

Habitat degradation has been proven to result associated with drought in karst region in south China. However, how this drought condition relates to CO2 efflux is not clear. In this study, we designed a simulated epikarst water–rock (limestone)–soil–plant columns, under varying water levels (treatment), and monitored CO2 concentration and efflux in soil in different seasons during 2011. The results showed that increased soil water greatly enhanced CO2 concentrations. With which treatment with epikarst water (WEW) had higher CO2 concentration than without epikarst water (WOEW). This was particularly high in low soil water treatment and during high temperature in the summer season. Under 30–40 % relative soil water content (RSWC), CO2 concentration in WEW treatment was 1.44 times of WOEW; however, under 90–100 % RSWC, this value was smaller. Comparatively, soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration) was 1.29–1.94 lmol m-2 s-1 in WEW and 1.35–2.04 lmol m-2 s-1 in WOEW treatment, respectively. CO2 efflux increased with increasing RSWC, but it was not as sensitive to epikarst water supply as CO2 concentration. WEW tended to weakly influence CO2 efflux under very dry or very wet soil condition and under low temperature. High CO2 efflux in WEW occurred under 50–80 % RSWC during summer. Both CO2 concentrations and CO2 efflux were very sensitive to temperature increase. As a result, at degraded karst environment, increased temperature may enhance CO2 concentration and CO2 emission; meanwhile, the loss of epikarst and soil water deficiency may decrease soil CO2 concentration and CO2 emission, which in turn may decrease karst corrosion.

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