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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That biphosphammite is a cave mineral - nh4h2po4 [11].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for cold (Keyword) returned 132 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 46 to 60 of 132
PIXE study of Cuban quaternary paleoclimate geological samples and speleothems, 2000, Montero M. E. , Aspiazu J. , Pajon J. , Miranda S. , Moreno E. ,
PIXE elemental analysis of sediments, speleothems, and other geological formations related to the karst of the Sierra de San Carlos is presented, The similarity of the elemental composition of the sediments studied, as well as the alluvial regime which created them, indicate their common origin at each location, The Sr/Ca concentration ratio of a stalactite indicates that the average atmospheric temperature 12,000 and 18,000 years B.P, was colder than that of 6000 years B.P, (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved

Quantification of thermo-erosion in pro-glacial areas - examples from Svalbard, 2000, Etzelmuller B,
Surface changes in recently deglaciated terrain are calculated by comparing air-photo derived digital elevation models (DEMs) from four pro-glacial areas on Svalbard. The paper quantifies the amount of material mobilised due to thermo-karst processes and discusses the influence of the process on the sediment budget of terrestrial arctic glacier basins underlain by permafrost. The study shows that thermo-erosion in deglaciated terrain is an important process which falls within the concept of paraglacial activity. The average annual material mobilisation due to thermo-erosion can be in the same order of magnitude as field-measured total annual suspended sediment transfer out of the catchments. The study implies further that ice-cored moraines are important sediment magazines, which release more material during warmer periods than during colder periods

Pollution by seawater intrusion into a karst system: new research in the case of the Almyros source (Heraklio, Crete, Greece), 2000, Arfib Bruno, De Marsily Ghislain, Ganoulis Jacques

Saline intrusion in karstic coastal aquifers is a common phenomenon which affects the quantity and quality of the freshwater resource. This paper examines the case of the Almyros system at Heraklio in Crete (Greece), characterized by a vast recharge area (300 km2) and a single brackish spring. Data from the Almyros spring and the surrounding wells are analyzed and a specific configuration of the karstic system is proposed. The evolution in time and space of the water temperature and chloride content is shown to be conditioned by the complex structure of this system and the heterogeneity of the karstic formations. These two parameters are analyzed and two storage zones are identified which generate different types of saline pollution. The water in the Almyros spring is not directly connected to the surrounding water-table aquifer. An inland reservoir far from the coast stores the cold, freshwater recharged in the mountains and supplies the Almyros spring. The pollution occurs during the transfer of the water toward the spring, through karstic conduits. Moreover, the local coastal aquifer is polluted by a generalized saline intrusion into the fractured matrix of the limestone, increased by withdrawals. Furthermore, the wells are contaminated by preferential saltwater flow through karstic channels reaching the seawater intrusion zone. The case of the Almyros system shows: (a) that a karstic coastal spring is not necessarily indicative of saline intrusion into the system; (b) that in optimal groundwater resource management, the whole hydrogeological system should be taken into account.


Lne de Buridan, le principe de Curie et leffet chemine : courants dair dans les cavits en forme de U, 2001, Lismonde, Baudouin
In a U-shaped cave there is airflow in winter. This phenomenon is a beautiful example of physical broken symmetry. In summer, it is possible to observe a pendulum oscillation of cold air in a U-shaped cavity.

Palaeowaters in European coastal aquifers -- the goals and main conclusions of the PALAEAUX project, 2001, Edmunds Wm,
The PALAEAUX project has brought together up-to-date geochemical, isotopic and hydrogeological information on coastal groundwaters across Europe in a transect from the Baltic to the Canary Islands. These data have been interpreted in relation to past climatic and environmental conditions, as well as extending and challenging concepts about the evolution of groundwater near the present day coastlines. Groundwater movement beyond the present coastline as well as emplacement on shore to greater depths (up to 500 m) than allowed by the present-day flow regime has occurred, hence offshore freshwater reserves are inferred in some coastal areas. The main attributes of palaeowaters, in terms of water quality, are their high bacterial purity, total mineralization that is often less than that of modern waters and being demonstrably free of anthropogenic chemicals. However, in the Mediterranean coastal areas, lower recharge leads to higher salinity conditions in both palaeo- and modern waters. Freshwater of high quality originating from different climatic conditions to the present day, when the sea level was much lower, is found at depth beneath the present-day coastline in several countries. Recharge is shown to have been more or less continuous during the past 100 ka, even beneath the ice, as demonstrated by groundwaters from Estonia, having {delta}O values of c. -22%o. However, elsewhere (UK and Belgium) an age gap can be recognized indicating that no recharge took place at the time of the last glacial maximum. Devensian recharge temperatures (soil air temperatures) were some 6{degrees}C colder across Europe than at the present day. The development of aquifers in Europe during the past 50-100 a, by abstraction from boreholes, has generally disturbed flow systems that have evolved over varying geological timescales, especially those derived from the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. Hydrogeophysical logging has demonstrated time and quality stratified aquifers resulting in mixed waters being produced on pumping. A range of specific indicators, including 3H, 3H/3He, 85Kr, chlorofluoro-carbons and pollutants, have been used to recognize the extent to which waters from the modern (industrial) era have penetrated into the aquifers, often replacing the natural palaeogroundwaters. In the coastal regions, many problems for management are identified, including issues relating to quantity and quality of water, seasonal demand, pollution risks and ecosystem damage, requiring a new look at legislation

Weichselian palaeoclimate and palaeoenvironment in Europe: background for palaeogroundwater formation, 2001, Vaikmae R. , Edmunds W. M. , Manzano M. ,
A review is given of palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental evidence across Europe for the Weichselian period relevant to interpreting the emplacement and circulation of groundwaters. In addition, this provides the background against which the evidence of past climates and environments contained in groundwaters in coastal areas of Europe, from the Baltic to the Atlantic Ocean may be compared. For much of the Weichselian, although significantly colder than at present, conditions were favourable for the recharge of groundwater, as shown, for example, by periods of speleothem growth. During the last glacial maximum (LGM) recharge is likely to have ceased over much of permafrost-covered Europe, although shallow groundwater recharge from meltwater (generated by the geothermal gradients) could have taken place beneath the ice where pressure relief through tunnel valleys may have occurred. Modern recharge could have started as early as 13 14C ka BP, but probably interrupted by the Younger Dryas between 11 and 10 14C ka BP. In the Baltic areas, ice-dammed lakes inhibited the start of the modern hydrogeological regimes until c. 10.3 14C ka BP. Tundra conditions prevailed over most of ice-free southern Europe at the time of the LGM. At this time the area south of the Portuguese-Spanish border retained a generally warm and relatively humid climate due to the maintenance of warmer sea-surface temperatures derived from Atlantic Ocean circulation. For most of coastal Europe, however, the most significant impact on groundwater circulation is likely to have been the lowering of sea levels that drained large areas of the shelf, such as the North Sea and the English Channel, and also had a significant impact on the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula where the maximum lowering of up to 130 m would have been experienced. This, together with the general changes in climate, would also have reorganized the atmospheric chemistry over sites in Europe that is likely to be recorded in the groundwater's chemical and isotopic signatures

Molluscan assemblages from deposits filling small karst forms in the Tatra Mountains (Southern Poland), 2001, Alexandrowicz, Witold Pawel

Numerous shells of molluscs were found in loamy sediments rich in limestone and dolomite scree filling small karst forms and forming debris fans. They have been analysed from several logs in the Tatra Mountains. Woodland and open-country snails are the main components of fauna. Relations between two mentioned ecological groups of molluscs indicate climatic changes and moving the timberline. Three phases of warming separated by two stages of the colder climate were recognised. They can be related to following ages: XIII and first half of XIV centuries AD (warm phase), second half of XIV - XVII centuries AD (cold phase), XVIII and the first half of XIX centuries (warm phase), second half of the XIX century (cold phase) and finally to XX century (warm phase).


The genesis of the Tennengebirge karst and caves (Salzburg, Austria), 2002, Audra, Ph. , Quinif, Y. , Rochette, P.
Research has been carried out in the Tennengebirge Massif (Salzburg, Austria) with specific attention to karst morphology, cave systems, and sediments. This study reveals the genesis of the karst and the underground systems of the Tennengebirge, since the Oligocene. Large horizontal systems, which date back to the Miocene, were studied through the example of the caves Hornhhle and Eisriesenwelt, which respectively represent Ruinenhhlen (cave ruins) and Riesenhhlen (giant caves). The Cosa-Nostra - Bergerhhle System is typical of a mostly vertical, large, high-relief, alpine cave. The main characteristic of this network is major development in the vadose zone. Shaft morphology is in stairs beneath a faulted roof. At greater depth, they connect to a perched epiphreatic zone, which is typical of a dammed karst. The main underground sediments are of paleoclimatic and hydrodynamic significance, corresponding to hot, stable, or unstable environments (flowstones, reworked weathered rocks) and cold environments (carbonate varves, glacial pebbles). A preliminary study of the Tennengebirge sediments reveals significant information about its evolution throughout Pliocene-Quaternary time. Hhlen- und Karstgenese im Tennengebirge (Salzburg, sterreich) Es handelt sich um Erforschungen des unterirdischen Hhlensystems im Tennengebirge mit Hilfe der Erforschung der Karstsedimente. Durch die Beobachtung der Morphologie und der Ausfllungen kann die Geschichte der verschiedenen Hhlenorganisationen nachgezeichnet werden. Wir haben die groen horizontalen Hhlensysteme des Miozns anhand der Hornhhle und der Eisriesenwelt studiert, die wiederum ein Beispiel fr Ruinen- und Riesenhhlen sind. Das Cosa-Nostra - Bergerhhle System ist ein Beispiel fr die groen vertikalen Alpenschchten, das an seiner ausgeprgten Entwicklung der vadosen Zone erkenntlichist. Die Schchte haben die Morphologie von Treppen unter einem Kluftdach. Sie sind tief unten mit einer gestuften phreatischen Zone verbunden, die einen abgedmmter Karst enthllen. Die wichtigsten unterirdischen Sedimente haben eine Bedeutung auf dem Gebiet der Paloklimatologie und der hydrodynamik. Sie entsprechen entweder warmen und bestndigen oder kalten Umgebungen oder einer Umbegung in der das natrliche Gleichgewicht unterbrochen wurde (Sinterformation, vernderte Sedimente aus Alteriten, Karbonatwarven, glazial Schotter). Die Erforschung der Sedimenten in der Bergerhhle bringt wichtige Informationen ber die Entwicklung der Hhlensysteme im Plio-Quartr. Durch die gesamte Erforschung kann die Entstehung der Hhlen- und Karstgenese im Tennengebirge seit dem Oligozn nachgezeichnet werden.

Climatic conditions during marine oxygen isotope stage 6 in the eastern Mediterranean region from the isotopic composition of speleothems of Soreq Cave, Israel, 2002, Ayalon A, Barmatthews M, Kaufman A,
At several times during marine oxygen isotope stage 6, the eastern Mediterranean region was influenced by two extreme climatic systems: the large ice sheet over northern Europe and the wet tropics associated with African monsoons. During this interval, two major climatic events occurred in the region; the sapropel S6 layer formed ca. 176 ka in the eastern Mediterranean basin owing to the increase in the African monsoon, and another event, although not large enough to form sapropel, occurred ca. 151 ka. The isotopic composition of Soreq Cave speleothems seems to record these events as very low {delta}18O-{delta}13C values dated as ca. 178 and 152 ka. The very low {delta}18O-{delta}13C values of -6{per thousand} and -11{per thousand} to -12{per thousand}, respectively, are typical of interglacial intervals, but here they were recorded during a glacial interval. Such low peaks indicate that in this part of the eastern Mediterranean region, i.e., Israel, the rainfall amount increased dramatically. Moreover, the isotopic record of the speleothems also shows that during the entire stage 6, although the climate was as cold as much of the last glacial, the conditions were never as dry

Constraints on Black Sea outflow to the Sea of Marmara during the last glacial-interglacial transition, 2002, Major Candace, Ryan William, Lericolais Gilles, Hajdas Irka,
New cores from the upper continental slope off Romania in the western Black Sea provide a continuous, high-resolution record of sedimentation rates, clay mineralogy, calcium carbonate content, and stable isotopes of oxygen and carbon over the last 20[punctuation space]000 yr in the western Black Sea. These records all indicate major changes occurring at 15[punctuation space]000, 12[punctuation space]800, 8400, and 7100 yr before present. These results are interpreted to reflect an evolving balance between water supplied by melting glacial ice and other river runoff and water removed by evaporation and outflow. The marked retreat of the Fennoscandian and Alpine ice between 15[punctuation space]000 and 14[punctuation space]000 yr is recorded by an increase in clays indicative of northern provenance in Black Sea sediments. A short return toward glacial values in all the measured series occurs during the Younger Dryas cold period. The timing of the first marine inflow to the Black Sea is dependent on the sill depths of the Bosporus and Dardanelles channels. The depth of the latter is known to be -805 m, which is consistent with first evidence of marine inundation in the Sea of Marmara around 12[punctuation space]000 yr. The bedrock gorge of the Bosporus reaches depths in excess of -100 m (relative to present sea level), though it is now filled with sediments to depths as shallow as -32 m. Two scenarios are developed for the connection of the Black Sea with the Sea of Marmara. One is based on a deep Bosporus sill depth (effectively equivalent to the Dardanelles), and the other is based on a shallow Bosporus sill (less than -35 m). In the deep sill scenario the Black Sea's surface rises in tandem with the Sea of Marmara once the latter connected with the Aegean Sea, and Black Sea outflow remains continuous with inflowing marine water gradually displacing the freshwater in the deep basin. The increase in the [delta]18O of mollusk shells at 12[punctuation space]800 yr and the simultaneous appearance of inorganic calcite with low [delta]18O is compatible with such an early marine water influx causing periodic weak stratification of the water column. In the shallow sill scenario the Black Sea level is decoupled from world sea level and experiences rise and fall depending on the regional water budget until water from the rising Sea of Marmara breaches the shallow sill. In this case the oxygen isotope trend and the inorganic calcite precipitation is caused by increased evaporation in the basin, and the other changes in sediment properties reflect climate-driven river runoff variations within the Black Sea watershed. The presence of saline ponds on the Black Sea shelf circa 9600 yr support such evaporative draw-down, but a sensitive geochemical indicator of marine water, one that is not subject to temperature, salinity, or biological fractionation, is required to resolve whether the sill was deep or shallow

Structure of the 8200-Year Cold Event Revealed by a Speleothem Trace Element Record, 2002, Baldini Jul, Mcdermott F, Fairchild Ij,

Assessing Humidity in an Upper Pleistocene Karst Environment: Palaeoclimates and Palaeomicroenvironments at the cave Divje babe I, Slovenia, 2002, Turk Ivan, Skaberne Dragomir, Blackwell Bonnie A. B. , Dirjec Janez

The article presents a new sedimentary-climatic model for explaining autochthonous clastic sediment in the Upper Pleistocene site, Divje babe I, Slovenia. The sediment analysed here was deposited during Oxygen Isotope Stages 1, 3 and 5 (OIS, OIS 3, OIS 5). The stress is on precipitation, which we explained on the basis of the quantity of authigenic structural aggregates in the sediment. We supported the results with quantitative analysis of clasts with etched surface, which represent corrosion of the cave ceiling, and etched bones, which represent corrosion on the cave ground. We also analysed the relation between climate and cave bears, and Neanderthals and climate, on the basis of mass fossil remains and finds of artefacts. All analyses were made on the basis of three-dimensional sampling, i.e., in horizontal and vertical directions. We sampled 65 profiles over an area of 65 m2. Each profile had 35 arbitrary stratigraphic units (splits) with data on aggregates, etched bones, fossil remains and artefacts. In explaining the sediment characteristics that point to climatic parameters, we consistently took into account the Holocene standards for the site. We found that the climate in OIS 3 was colder and damper than in OIS 1 and OIS 5. People and animals responded to the climatic changes in OIS 3 with more visits to the cave, but not at the same time. The climatic change was presumably reflected in the microlocation of the cave mainly by the longer duration of snow cover.


Elments de rflexion sur la morphogense des plateaux de Vaucluse (France) : les apports du karst superficiel, 2003, Depambour Christophe, Guendon Jeanlouis
ABOUT THE GENESIS OF VAUCLUSE PLATEAUX: THE LESSONS FROM KARSTIC LANDFORMS - The study of the principal forms of the surface karst gives a first diagram of evolution of the plates of Vaucluse. Paleo-surfaces now perched and/or deformed are witnesses old major phases of flattening, in regional matter, undoubtedly of ante-Miocene age. The whole of intermediate surfaces (850 m) seems to cut the Miocene deposits (Burdigalian) of the ditch of Aurel-Sault. It thus reveals a major phase of post-miocene flattening. These surfaces of karstic flattening were to be in relation to the vastpo1jes of the sectors of Saint-Christol and the ditch of Sault. Their genesis, dependent on dysfunction of the endokarstic drainage, could be related to the Pliocene transgression. Canyon of Nesque, structuring elements major landscape, present, on both sides Rocher du Cire, two distinct parts, having own morphologies. The downstream part, wide open, would have grown hollow by headwater erosion from a karstic steephead perhaps since the end of Miocene. The narrow upstream part would have incised itself, after capture of the polje of Sault, undoubtedly at the time of the cold phases of the Quaternary one.

The genesis of the Tennengebirge karst and caves (Salzburg, Austria), 2003, Audra Ph, Quinif Y. , Rochette P.

Research has been carried out in the Tennengebirge Massif (Salzburg, Austria) with specific attention to karst morphology, cave systems, and sediments. This study reveals the genesis of the karst and the underground systems of the Tennengebirge, since the Oligocene. Large horizontal systems, which date back to the Miocene, were studied through the example of the caves Hornhohle and Eisriesenwelt, which respectively represent Ruinenhohlen (“cave ruins”) and Riesenhohlen (“giant caves”). The Cosa-Nostra - Bergerhohle System is typical of a mostly vertical large high-relief, alpine cave. The main characteristic of this network is major development in the vadose zone. The shafts' morphology is in “stairs beneath a faulted roof.” At greater depth, they connect to a perched epiphreatic zone, which is typical of a dammed karst. The main underground sediments are of paleoclimatic and hydrodynamic significance, corresponding to hot, stable, or unstable environments (flowstones, reworked weathered rocks) and cold environments (carbonate varves, glacial pebbles). A preliminary study of the Tennengebirge sediments reveals significant information about its evolution throughout Pliocene-Quaternary time.


Apports des mthodes hydrologiques dans la comprhension des coulements en pays calcaire : exemple des bas plateaux jurassiques du haut bassin de la Marne (France), 2004, Lejeune Olivier, Devos Alain
Hydrological methods for the study of river flows in limestone areas: the Marne basin in the Jurassic low plateaux (NE France) - We investigated the geographical heterogeneity of river flows in limestone areas in the upper Marne valley (interfluves of Marne-Aube and Marne-Meuse) by using the low water profiles, the modelling of discharges and the study of physicochemical parameters. We studied five basin-slopes belonging to the Marne-basin (4500 km2) and the measures were realised between 2001 and 2003 at the time of low water periods. We used an instrument (perche intgration type Pire) in order to measure the stream flows of river water. We also measured temperature and electrical conductivity in order to identify the origin of the water. The measures allowed us to identify low water profiles of the river and we also can map the discharge in low water periods. The methods show the water flow inside a basin-slope and also hydrogeological connections to the adjacent basin-slopes. Thus, they revealed that the divergence or the concentration of discharges depends on the limits of the aquifers sections related to their morphological structure and on the differential incision of the valleys. We obtained a hydrogeological pattern of interfluves and we can distinguish between areas of water lost and areas with an increasing of water volume. We confirmed this process of water transfers, called the active stream piracy, which is often approved by hydrogeologic tracers. This active stream piracy revealed by these methods in warm or interglacial period, prepare future stream piracy of surface, collectively recognised in the beginning of cold phase.

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