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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That piezometer is a devise used to measure ground-water pressure head at a point in the subsurface [22].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for land-use (Keyword) returned 50 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 46 to 50 of 50
Effectiveness and adequacy of well sampling using baited traps for monitoring the distribution and abundance of an aquatic subterranean isopod, 2009, Hutchins B. And Orndorff W.
Land-use practices in karst can threaten aquatic subterranean species (stygobionts). However, since their habitat is mostly inaccessible, baseline ecological data such as distribution and population size are not known, making monitoring and risk assessment difficult. Wells provide easy and inexpensive access for sampling subterranean aquatic habitats. Over three years, including a two-month period of intensive sampling, the authors sampled sixteen wells (ten repeatedly) in Jefferson County, West Virginia, USA, for a threatened stygobiont, the isopod crustacean Antrolana lira Bowman, in two areas where the species was known to occur. A. lira was collected during 21 of 54 sampling events. A. lira was collected from 6 wells in which a total of 31 of the sampling events took place. Borehole logs suggest that only these 6 wells intersected appropriate habitat. Using the binomial approximation, the authors conclude that a random well has a 29% to 91% chance of intersecting appropriate habitat. In a well that intersects appropriate habitat, a single sampling event has a 51% to 85% chance of successful capture. The species occurs heterogeneously throughout the aquifer both in space and time, and thus, repeated sampling of multiple wells is needed to confidently establish presence or absence. In a contiguous block of phreatic carbonate- aquifer habitat analogous to that in the study area, at least 6 wells need to be sampled at least one time each to determine absence or presence of A. lira with 95% confidence. Additional studies with larger sample size would better constrain confidence intervals and facilitate refinement of minimum sampling requirements. In one well that consistently yielded from 8 to 19 animals, the population was estimated by mark- recapture methods. The limited data only allowed a very rough result of 112.3 6 110 (95% CI) individuals. Successful recapture suggests that animals are largely stationary when a food source is present. Animals were collected at depths below the water surface from ,1m (hand-dug well and cave) to , 30 meters in drilled wells. No migration of animals between wells was observed.

Karst Groundwater Management through Science and Education, 2011, Guo Fang, Jiang Guanghui

In Southwestern China, karst covers an area of 540,000 km2, and supports a population of approximately 100 million people. This groundwater can easily become highly polluted without effective management. Sound management of karst areas requires the conscientious participation of citizens including homeowners, planners, government officials, farmers and other land-use decision makers. Lingshui Spring was a good example. A series of educational materials were developed and delivered to the local government, residents, and students. A groundwater polluted accident was tracked as a natural tracer test in a spring to increase understanding of the vulnerability of the area’s karst aquifer. More than 200 people attended the communication and training course on groundwater protection and environmental justice law. Several efforts have appeared as a result, such as a proposal for Lingshui water resources protection that was put forward for the first time by Wuming county political consultative conference

Contaminant Transport in Two Central Missouri Karst Recharge Areas, 2011, Lerch, R. N.

Karst watersheds with significant losing streams represent a particularly
vulnerable setting for groundwater contamination because of the direct connection to surface water. Because of the existing agricultural land-use and future likelihood of urbanization, two losing-stream karst basins were chosen for intensive monitoring in Boone County, Missouri: Hunters Cave and Devils Icebox. Both caves were formed in Burlington Limestone and have similar recharge areas (33 to 34 km2) and land uses. Year-round monitoring was conducted from April 1999 through March 2002 to characterize the water quality of the main cave streams relative to herbicide, nutrient, and sediment contamination. Water sampling entailed grab samples at regular intervals and runoff-event samples collected using automated sampling equipment. Total nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment concentrations and loads were consistently higher in the Devils Icebox stream compared to Hunters Cave. Median total N fluxes were 96 g km22 d21 at Devils Icebox and 30 g km22 d21 at Hunters Cave, while median total P fluxes were 8.5 g km22 d21 at Devils Icebox and 3.3 g km22 d21 at Hunters Cave. Herbicides or their metabolites were detected in more than 80% of the samples from both cave streams, and herbicide concentrations and areal loss rates were generally similar between the sites. Overall, the greater loads and mass flux of contaminants in the Devils Icebox recharge area compared to Hunters Cave was a result of both greater stream discharge and the occurrence of more cropped fields (94%) on claypan soils with high runoff potential. These claypan soils are known to be especially problematic with respect to surface transport of contaminants. Prevailing land use has significantly degraded the water quality in both recharge areas, but a watershed plan has been developed for the Bonne Femme watershed, which encompasses these two recharge areas. With the baseline data collected in this study, the impact of changing land uses and the implementation of management practices or new ordinances designed to improve water quality can be documented.

Floristic and Functional comparision of karst pastures and karst meadows from the North Adriatic Karst , 2011, Pipenbaher Nataa, Kaligarič, Mitja, kornik Sonja
In the present study, we compared the species richness and the floristic and functional composition of two types of extensively managed, species rich dry grasslands (class Festuco-Brometea) from the North Adriatic Karst: karst pastures (alliance Satureion subspicatae) and karst meadows (alliance Scorzonerion villose). Karst pastures are characterized by shallow rocky soils, high pH, and dry, warm conditions, whereas karst meadows have developed on deeper soil, with more humus and moisture and neutral to alkaline pH. The data set included a table with 100 phytosociological relevés of the studied grasslands and a matrix with 15 functional traits determined for 180 plant species. we found high species richness in these grasslands but no statistically significant differences in species richness between karst pastures and meadows. Differences in floristic composition were analysed with Detrended Correspondence Analysis, which supported a clear division between the two vegetation types and indicated that species composition could best be explained in terms of soil humidity and nutrient availability. We also detected several differences in plant functional traits between meadows and pastures. Some of the traits indicate greater resource availability on karst meadows (in particular, high SLA, low LDMC). In contrast, karst pastures have more slow-growing species with a combination of traits that can be interpreted as an avoidance strategy in relation to disturbance (e.g., grazing) in low productive habitats (e.g., low SLA, high LDMC, early flowering species and plants with rosette). A lower relative proportion of competitors (C) and ruderals (R), and a higher relative proportion of stress-tolerators (S) in karst pastures also suggested that these grasslands generally experience higher intensities of stress when compared to karst meadows, presumably owing to lower resource availability on stony, shallow soil. we could conclude that karst meadows and pastures differ significantly in both floristic composition and functional trait means, owing to their distinctive land-use (disturbance) and environmental conditions.

An electrical resistivity imaging-based strategy to enable site-scale planning over covered palaeokarst features in the Tournaisis area (Belgium), 2012, Kaufmann O. , Deceuster J. , Quinif Y.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, more than 150 sinkhole occurrences, mainly dropout (or covercollapse)sinkholes, have been reported in the Tournaisis area (south-eastern Belgium). Land-use planning in such a context has to take into account hazards linked with sinkhole subsidence and collapse. Management maps, drawn at a regional scale, point out zones where karstic risks have to be taken into account when dealing with infrastructure or building projects. However, karst hazard is highly variable in three dimensions at the local scale. Therefore, for such purposes, an accurate methodology is needed to detect and delineate covered karst features, especially when located in urbanized areas. As geophysical investigations are sensitive to contrasts in physical properties of soils, these methods can be useful to detect such targets. The specific karstic context encountered in the Tournaisis area strongly guides the choice of investigation techniques. Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) methods were tested on a wellknown site where dropout sinkholes occurred formerly. This site was also studied using static cone penetration tests (CPT) and boreholes. A 3D inverted resistivity model was computed based on the 2D ERI models obtained after inversion. Resistivity profiles were extracted at each CPT location and compared to geotechnical results to determine an empirical and site-specific resistivity law that allows discrimination between weathered zones and sound limestone. Performance tests were conducted to evaluate the potential of the proposed methodology for two typical engineering problems based on two current hypotheses. Borehole data were used as ground truth. Similar performance tests were also computed using the CPT depth to bedrock model. The results of these performance tests are compared and discussed. Finally, an ERI-based investigation strategy is proposed to assess karst hazard in palaeokarstic context, such as encountered in the Tournaisis area, at the scale needed for building and infrastructure purposes. 

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