Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That torricellian chamber is a submerged air-- filled chamber of a cave at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, sealed by water, having an air-water surface above that of adjacent free air-water surfaces [10].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

What is Karstbase?

Search KARSTBASE:

keyword
author

Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for water levels (Keyword) returned 58 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 46 to 58 of 58
DYNAMIC TOPOGRAPHY, PRESSURIZED SANDSTONES AND HYPOGENE SPELEOGENESIS IN THE OZARKS, 2010,

Large-scale crustal subsidence proposed for the New Madrid region (Forte et al., 2007) can explain the upwelling of saline groundwater in the Northern Mississippi Embayment and parts of the adjacent Ozarks. As rock moves downward, deep groundwater is displaced upward. Raising the Ozarks relative to the Mississippi Embayment increases hydraulic pressure in sandstone aquifers and stresses the interlayered, low-conductivity, telogenetic, carbonates. In response to the increased pressure, groundwater finds new pathways to exit freshwater confined aquifers. Upward cross-formational discharge of deep groundwater can produce cave passages that do not correlate with joints as well as huge spring flows that do not correlate with catchment areas. Recognition of the widespread regional discharge regime in the Ozark region has been hampered by the unfounded assumption of unconfined conditions based on water levels from wells open to large intervals. Recent studies, using techniques such as flow meters, reveal relatively thin, pressurized sandstones at surprisingly high elevations in areas that were once thought to be recharge zones. The pressurized aquifers limit downward infiltration of meteoric recharge and create a complex flow field: a topography-driven meteoric regime perched above an overpressured regime driven by neotectonics. The boundary between the two competing regimes shifts continuously as valleys entrench and karstification changes the hydraulic function of carbonates. As denudation progresses, different parts of the Ozark stratigraphic column are in different karstification zones at the same time. Beneath uplands, groundwater is confined by relatively shallow unfractured carbonates. Ubiquitously ascending waters move upward into sandstone layers and then laterally toward the valleys. Mixing creates large conduits beneath sandstones and eventually unroofing opens fractures in the carbonates, allowing epigenic processes to become dominant. Wells that seal off or miss the upper pressurized sandstone can produce low water levels, a condition the USGS refers to as ‘mature karst’. In epigenic zones near deep valleys, sandstones that extend back into the uplands can continue to supply deep groundwater to perennial cave streams.


Honshu, Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011 9.0 Magnitude recorded in the Edwards Aquifer, San Antonio, Texas, 2011, Schindel, Geary M.

The Edwards Aquifer is a large karst aquifer located in south-central Texas USA. The Index Well J-17, in which water levels in the aquifer are continuously monitored since 1934, detected distinctly the March 11, 2011 Honshu, Japan earthquake (9.0 magnitude). The Edwards Aquifer fluctuated approximately 0.3 meters (1 foot) during the initial response and continued to oscillate for approximately two hours after the event.


Deep confined karst detection, analysis and paleohydrology reconstruction at a basin-wide scale using new geophysical interpretation of borehole logs, 2011, Laskow M. , Gendler M. , Goldberg I. , Gvirtzman H. , Frumkin A.

Deep karst voids can be identified by a new geophysical interpretation method of commonly used borehole logs at deeply confined carbonate aquifers. We show that deep, buried karst voids can be characterized by combining this geophysical interpretation together with geological and hydrological data, and known speleological constraints. We demonstrate how this characterization can reveal past hydrological regimes and allow mapping of karst distribution on a basin-wide scale.

A combined analysis of geophysical, geological, hydrological and speleological data in the confined Yarkon-Taninim aquifer, Israel, led us to reconstruct past groundwater levels at different sea levels and reliefs, with the karst voids as a marker for long-term flow close to the water table. Paleo-canyons along the Mediterranean Sea shoreline strongly affected the region’s paleohydrology, by serving as major outlets of the aquifer during most of the Cenozoic. We conclude that intensive karstification was promoted by flow periods of longer duration and/or higher flux and flow velocities close to the aquifer’s past and present outlets. In addition, we suggest that karst voids found under shallow confinement was developed by renewed aggressivity achieved by hypogene water rising in cross-formational flow, mixed with fresh lateral water flow from the east.


Iron Oxide and Calcite Associated with Leptothrix sp. Biofilms within an Estavelle in the Upper Floridan Aquifer, 2011, Florea Lee J. , Stinson Chasity L. , Brewer Josh, Fowler Rick, Kearns B Joe, Greco Anthony M.

In Thornton’s Cave, an estavelle in west-central Florida, SEM, EDS, and XRD data reveal biofilms that are predominantly comprised of FeOOH-encrusted hollow sheaths that are overgrown and intercalated with calcite. Fragments of this crystalline biofilm adhere to the walls and ceiling as water levels vary within the cave. Those on the wall have a ‘cornflake’ appearance and those affixed to the ceiling hang as fibrous membranes. PCR of DNA in the active biofilm, combined with morphologic data from the tubes in SEM micrographs, point to Leptothrix sp., a common Fe-oxidizing bacteria, as the primary organism in the biofilm. Recent discoveries of ‘rusticles’ in other Florida caves suggest that Fe-oxidizing bacteria may reside elsewhere in Florida groundwater and may play a role in the mobility of trace metals in the Upper Florida aquifer.
SEM micrographs from two marble tablets submerged for five months, one exposed to microbial activity and a second isolated from microbial action, revealed no visible etchings or borings and very limited loss of mass. EDS data from the electron micrographs of the unfiltered tablet document the same FeOOH-encrusted hollow sheaths and similar deposits of calcite as seen in the ‘cornflakes’. These results, combined with water chemistry data imply that the biofilm may focus or even promote calcite precipitation during low-water level conditions when CO2 degasses from the cave pools.


Aqueous Geochemical Evidence of Volcanogenic Karstification: Sistema Zacaton, Mexico, 2011, Gary M. O. , Doctor D. H. , Sharp J. M.

The Sistema Zacatón karst area in northeastern Mexico (Tamaulipas state) is limited to a relatively focused area (20 km2) in a carbonate setting not prone to extensive karstification. The unique features found here are characteristic of hydrothermal karstification processes, represent some of the largest phreatic voids in the world, and are hypothesized to have formed from interaction of a local Pleistocene magmatic event with the regional groundwater system. Aqueous geochemical data collected from five cenotes of Sistema Zacatón between 2000 and 2009 include temperature (spatial, temporal, and depth profiles), geochemical depth profiles, major and trace ion geochemistry, stable and radiogenic isotopes, and dissolved gases. Interpretation of these data indicates four major discoveries: 1) rock-water interaction occurs between groundwater, the limestone matrix, and local volcanic rocks; 2) varying degrees of hydrogeological connection exist among cenotes in the system as observed from geochemical signatures; 3) microbially-mediated geochemical reactions control sulfur and carbon cycling and influence redox geochemistry; and 4) dissolved gases are indicative of a deep volcanic source. Dissolved 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios (mean 0.70719) are lower than those of the surrounding Cretaceous limestone (0.70730-0.70745), providing evidence of groundwater interaction with volcanic rock, which has a 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio of 0.7050. Discrete hydraulic barriers between cenotes formed in response to sinkhole formation, hydrothermal travertine precipitation, and shifts in the local water table, creating relatively isolated water bodies. The isolation of the cenotes is reflected in distinct water chemistries among them. This is observed most clearly in the cenote Verde where a water level 4-5 meters lower than the adjacent cenotes is maintained, seasonal water temperature variations occur, thermoclines and chemoclines exist, and the water is oxic at all depths. The surrounding cenotes of El Zacatón, Caracol, and La Pilita show constant water temperatures both in depth profile and in time, have similar water levels, and are almost entirely anoxic. A sulfur (H2S) isotope value of δ34S = -1.8 ‰ (CDT) in deep water of cenote Caracol, contrasted with two lower sulfur isotopic values of sulfide in the water near the surface of the cenote (δ34S = -7 ‰ and -8 ‰ CDT). These δ34S values are characteristic of complex biological sulfur cycling where sulfur oxidation in the photic zone results in oxidation of H2S to colloidal sulfur near the surface in diurnal cycles. This is hypothesized to result from changes in microbial community structure with depth as phototropic, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria become less abundant below 20 m. Unique microbial communities exist in the anoxic, hydrothermal cenotes that strongly mediate sulfur cycling and likely influence mineralization along the walls of these cenotes. Dissolved CO2 gas concentrations ranged from 61-173 mg/L and total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) δ13C values measured at cenote surfaces ranged from -10.9 ‰ to -11.8 ‰ (PDB), reflecting mixed sources of carbon from carbonate rock dissolution, biogenic CO2 and possibly dissolved CO2 from volcanic sources. Surface measurements of dissolved helium gas concentrations range from 50 nmol/kg to 213 nmol/kg. These elevated helium concentrations likely indicate existence of a subsurface volcanic source; however, helium isotope data are needed to test this hypothesis. The results of these data reflect a speleogenetic history that is inherently linked to volcanic activity, and support the hypothesis that the extreme karst development of Sistema Zacatón would likely not have progressed without groundwater interaction with the local igneous rocks 


Deep confined karst detection, analysis and paleo-hydrology reconstruction at a basin-wide scale using new geophysical interpretation of borehole logs, 2011, Laskow M. , Gendler M. , Goldberg I. , Gvirtzman H. , Frumkin A.

Deep karst voids can be identified by a new method of geophysical interpretation of commonly used borehole logs in deeply confined carbonate aquifers. We show that deep, buried karst voids can be characterized by combining this geophysical interpretation together with geological and hydrological data, and with known speleological constraints. We demonstrate how this characterization can reveal past hydrological regimes and allow mapping of karst distribution on a basin-wide scale.

A combined analysis of geophysical, geological, hydrological, and speleological data in the confined Yarkon–Taninim aquifer, Israel, led us to reconstruct past groundwater levels at different relief and sea levels, with the karst voids as a marker for long-term flow close to the water table. Paleo-canyons along the Mediterranean Sea shoreline strongly affected the region’s paleo-hydrology, by serving as major outlets of the aquifer during most of the Cenozoic. We conclude that intensive karstification was promoted by flow periods of longer duration and/or higher flux and flow velocities close to the aquifer’s past and present outlets. In addition, we suggest that karst voids found under shallow confinement were developed by renewed aggressivity due to hypogene water rising in cross-formational flow becoming mixed with fresh lateral water flow from the east.

Deep confined karst detection, analysis and paleo-hydrology reconstruction at a basin-wide scale using new geophysical interpretation of borehole logs, 2011, Laskow M. , Gendler M. , Goldberg I. , Gvirtzman H. , Frumkin A.

Deep karst voids can be identified by a new method of geophysical interpretation of commonly used borehole logs in deeply confined carbonate aquifers. We show that deep, buried karst voids can be characterized by combining this geophysical interpretation together with geological and hydrological data, and with known speleological constraints. We demonstrate how this characterization can reveal past hydrological regimes and allow mapping of karst distribution on a basin-wide scale. A combined analysis of geophysical, geological, hydrological, and speleological data in the confined Yarkon–Taninim aquifer, Israel, led us to reconstruct past groundwater levels at different relief and sea levels, with the karst voids as a marker for long-term flow close to the water table. Paleo-canyons along the Mediterranean Sea shoreline strongly affected the region’s paleo-hydrology, by serving as major outlets of the aquifer during most of the Cenozoic. We conclude that intensive karstification was promoted by flow periods of longer duration and/or higher flux and flow velocities close to the aquifer’s past and present outlets. In addition, we suggest that karst voids found under shallow confinement were developed by renewed aggressivity due to hypogene water rising in cross-formational flow becoming mixed with fresh lateral water flow from the east.


Groundwater recharge and exploitative potential zone mapping using GIS and GOD techniques, 2012, Huang C. C. , Yeh H. F. , Lin H. I. , Lee S. T. , Hsu K. C. , Lee C. H.

Two-thirds of the total area of Taiwan is mountainous terrain, which is the main groundwater recharge source of the plains region. This study assesses groundwater recharge and exploitative potential zone in the central division of the mountain areas of Taiwan (the middle reaches of the Jhuoshuei River Basin). Basic information from remote sensing and a satellite phantom is collected to set up the basic data maps using elevation, Formosa-II images, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, drainage distribution, slope, aspect ratio, lineament distribution, and land cover. A geographical information system is used to integrate five contributing factors, namely lithology, land cover/land use, drainage, slope, and lineaments. The criteria for the recharge potential assessment are established to demarcate the potential groundwater recharge zone. Finally, the GOD rating system is adopted to evaluate the potential exploitation zone. Three main parameters are considered: the groundwater occurrence, the lithology of the overlying layers, and the depth to groundwater. The results show that the middle reaches of the Chenyuland River have large potential exploitation zones due to its high rainfall recharge capacity. Regions west of the Jhuoshuei River and the downstream regions of the Chingshui River are medium potential exploitation zones because of their high infiltration rates and shallow groundwater levels


Differences in aquatic microcrustacean assemblages between temporary and perennial springs of an alpine karstic aquifer, 2013, Mori N. , Brancelj A.

Microcrustacean (Copepoda, Ostracoda) assemblages were investigated at the interface of the vadose and phreatic zones in the alpine karstic aquifer from the Julian Alps in Slovenia (SE Europe). Two temporary and one perennial karstic outlets were sampled by filtering the water several times over 2 years. Concurrently, benthos from the mouth of a perennial spring and from an adjacent spring brook were collected. Altogether 24 microcrustacean species were recorded. The spatial and temporal variation in drift densities and species composition was high indicating complex groundwater hydrological pathways being dependent on precipitation regime. Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) clearly separated drift samples from temporary springs and other sample groups (drift in perennial spring, spring mouth and spring brook benthos). ANOSIM revealed statistically significant differences between all sample groups (Diacyclops zschokkei, Elaphoidella phreatica and Mixtacandona sp. B contributed over 50 % to the observed differences among sample groups. Three species (Nitocrella sp., Speocyclops infernus, Lessinocamptus pivai), known to be typical epikarst species, were collected only in the drift from one temporary spring (T2). Mao Tau species accumulation curves did not reach asymptote for the drift from temporary springs, but did for the drift from perennial spring, and for the spring mouth and the spring brook benthos. The results on drift composition indicated the variation in the origin of the water discharging at the interface of vadoze and phreatic zones depending greatly on water level conditions, while the drift densities were higher in the water presumably discharging from phreatic zone (perennial spring and temporary springs during low water levels).


Investigating Groundwater Flow Between Edwards and Trinity Aquifers in Central Texas, 2013, Wong C. I. , Kromann J. S. , Hunt B. B. , Smith B. A. , Banner J. L.

Understanding the nature of communication between aquifers can be challenging when using traditional physical and geochemical groundwater sampling approaches. This study uses two multiport wells completed within Edwards and Trinity aquifers in central Texas to determine the degree of groundwater inter-flow between adjacent aquifers. Potentiometric surfaces, hydraulic conductivities, and groundwater major ion concentrations and Sr isotope values were measured from multiple zones within three hydrostratigraphic units (Edwards and Upper and Middle Trinity aquifers). Physical and geochemical data from the multiport wells were combined with historical measurements of groundwater levels and geochemical compositions from the region to characterize groundwater flow and identify controls on the geochemical compositions of the Edwards and Trinity aquifers. Our results suggest that vertical groundwater flow between Edwards and Middle Trinity aquifers is likely limited by low permeability, evaporite-rich units within the Upper and Middle Trinity. Potentiometric surface levels in both aquifers vary with changes in wet vs. dry conditions, indicating that recharge to both aquifers occurs through distinct recharge areas. Geochemical compositions in the Edwards, Upper, and Middle Trinity aquifers are distinct and likely reflect groundwater interaction with different lithologies (e.g., carbonates, evaporites, and siliceous sediments) as opposed to mixing of groundwater between the aquifers. These results have implications for the management of these aquifers as they indicate that, under current conditions, pumping of either aquifer will likely not induce vertical cross-formational flow between the aquifers. Inter-flow between the Trinity and the Edwards aquifers, however, should be reevaluated as pumping patterns and hydrogeologic conditions change.


CONCEPTUALIZATION OF GROUNDWATER FLOW IN THE EDWARDS AQUIFER THROUGH THE KNIPPA GAP HYDROGEOLOGIC CONSTRICTION, UVALDE COUNTY, TEXAS, 2013, Adkins, J.

The Balcones Fault Zone Edwards aquifer (Edwards aquifer) is one of the major regional karst aquifers in the United States, with an average withdrawal of 950 million liters per day (L/d). This study focuses on the connection between the Uvalde pool and the San Antonio pool of the Edwards aquifer, west of the San Antonio metropolitan area in Uvalde County, Texas. This area is known as the Knippa Gap and is located north of the community of Knippa. The Knippa Gap is a major zone controlling the flow from the Uvalde pool to the San Antonio pool. The San Antonio pool is the primary source of water for the greater San Antonio water supply. The Knippa Gap is a restriction where the aquifer narrows to a width estimated to be approximately 4 km, is bounded by northeast trending faults of the Balcones Fault Zone on the north, and uplift from the Uvalde salient and igneous intrusive plugs to the south. (Green et al., 2006). The hydrogeology in the Knippa Gap has been a topic of major interest among researchers in this area for numerous years, yet the exact location, nature of boundaries, and karst hydrogeology are not well defined, and the flow through this area is in need of refinement to improve the aquifer water balance.
This study integrates recent research by other scientists with field studies conducted during the summer of 2012 as part of an M.S. thesis. This paper is limited to a discussion of the water quality as it relates to the southern flow boundary of the Knippa Gap near the Devils River Trend of the Uvalde salient. Water-quality data constrain a revised conceptual model of the flow and karstification in this critical area of recharge to the San Antonio pool, and provide specific lateral boundaries and vertical karstification zones which are being tested in the more comprehensive M.S. thesis. Although current interpretations are tentative, it appears this conceptual model will be readily convertible into a digital model that can test 2hypotheses relating a much broader suite of calibration data, including water levels, water budgets, and spring discharges.


Hydrological role of karst in the Chalk aquifer of Upper Normandy, France, 2014, Janyani S. El, Dupont J. P. , Massei N. , Slimani S. , Dörfliger N.

The role of karst on large-scale groundwater flow is defined for the Chalk aquifer of Upper Normandy (western Paris Basin), France. In the regional context, chalk plateaus occupy the greater part of watersheds and are the main sites of groundwater recharge. Previous studies focused on karstic output systems in the valleys and less on water-level variations in the recharge zones upstream. This study assesses the relevant hydrogeological processes using time-series data (boreholes and springs) recorded along a down-gradient hydrologeological cross-section in two selected watersheds. These hydrological data are interpreted in the framework of previous descriptions of the morphological organization of the study area’s karst network. The results highlight the hydrological role of (1) the input karst (vertical conduits) which drains recharging water, (2) the output karst (sub-horizontal conduits widely developed in the vicinity of valleys in the surface watersheds) which drains the output flows, and (3) the connections between these two (input and output) networks, which control the upstream water levels and allow quick transfer to springs, particularly after strong rainfall events. A conceptual model of the hydrological functioning of this covered karst aquifer is established, which should serve for the structuring and parameterization of a numerical model


CO2 emission response to different water conditions under simulated karst environment, 2015,

Habitat degradation has been proven to result associated with drought in karst region in south China. However, how this drought condition relates to CO2 efflux is not clear. In this study, we designed a simulated epikarst water–rock (limestone)–soil–plant columns, under varying water levels (treatment), and monitored CO2 concentration and efflux in soil in different seasons during 2011. The results showed that increased soil water greatly enhanced CO2 concentrations. With which treatment with epikarst water (WEW) had higher CO2 concentration than without epikarst water (WOEW). This was particularly high in low soil water treatment and during high temperature in the summer season. Under 30–40 % relative soil water content (RSWC), CO2 concentration in WEW treatment was 1.44 times of WOEW; however, under 90–100 % RSWC, this value was smaller. Comparatively, soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration) was 1.29–1.94 lmol m-2 s-1 in WEW and 1.35–2.04 lmol m-2 s-1 in WOEW treatment, respectively. CO2 efflux increased with increasing RSWC, but it was not as sensitive to epikarst water supply as CO2 concentration. WEW tended to weakly influence CO2 efflux under very dry or very wet soil condition and under low temperature. High CO2 efflux in WEW occurred under 50–80 % RSWC during summer. Both CO2 concentrations and CO2 efflux were very sensitive to temperature increase. As a result, at degraded karst environment, increased temperature may enhance CO2 concentration and CO2 emission; meanwhile, the loss of epikarst and soil water deficiency may decrease soil CO2 concentration and CO2 emission, which in turn may decrease karst corrosion.


Results 46 to 58 of 58
You probably didn't submit anything to search for