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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That land-use is a particular utilization of a land surface especially with respect to its influence on the hydrologic cycle [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for mammoth cave (Keyword) returned 86 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 76 to 86 of 86
The Hydrochemistry of Surface Water Backflooding into a Karst Spring and into Cave Stream Passages in Mammoth Cave, KY USA, 2009, Amy Edwards

Estimating the Timing of Cave Level Development with GIS, 2011, Jacoby B. S. , Peterson E. W. , Dogwiler T. , Kostelnick J C.

Identifying cave levels provides insight into cave development and climatic changes that have affected a karst system over time. Cosmogenic dating has been used to interpret levels in Mammoth Cave and the Cumberland Plateau. This absolute dating technique has proven successful in determining cave paleoclimates and regional geomorphic history, but is expensive. The study presented here is a preliminary method to cosmogenic dating that can outline a region’s speleogenesis using a Geographic Information System (GIS) and published denudation rates. The Carter Cave system in northeastern Kentucky is within the karst landscape found along the western edge of the Appalachians and contains multiple daylighted caves at various elevations along valley walls. These characteristics make the Carter Caves an ideal location to apply GIS to cave level identification and evolution as described by Jacoby et al. (in review), who identified the cave levels within the area. The authors concluded that an argument can be made for either four or five cave levels in the Carter Cave system; however, studies identified four levels in both Mammoth Cave and the Cumberland Plateau. Further analysis indicated that the fifth level formed as a result of a change in lithology rather than an event that influenced the local base level. This research is an extension of the conclusions presented by Jacoby et al. (in review). The GIS was used to calculate the volume of surficial material lost within each level as a result of degradational geomorphic processes. Then, level thickness lost and published denudation rates were used to calculate the relative time required to form each level. There was not one denudation rate applicable to each level within the cave system, but the rates varied between 12 m/Ma and 40 m/Ma. This study concludes that the cave system took between 3.4 and 5.7 Ma to form. This study did not perform an absolute dating of cave sediments or assess any detailed stratigraphic influence.


Development of a Specific Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assay to Monitor Chlorella DNA: A Case Study from Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky, USA , 2011, Fowler, Richard F.

Estimates of phytoplankton abundance are important parameters
watched by stewards of water quality and freshwater ecology in rivers, streams, and reservoirs. A targeted phytoplankton assay
for Chlorella DNA was developed to estimate the abundance of the predominant species of green algae in surface waters of Mammoth Cave National Park (MACA) in Kentucky, USA. The phytoplankton community in the Green River in MACA has been shown to consist of 95% Chlorella sp. (Wullschlegger et al., 2003). Chlorella 18S rRNA gene sequences were amplified and quantified using Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qPCR) with primers
specific for the family Chlorellaceae in the class Trebouxiophyceae,
order Chlorellales. Concentrations of Chlorella DNA in river water samples were measured by comparison to a standard curve generated by DNA extracted from a live laboratory culture of C. vulgaris. DNA isolated from other sources including bacteria,
amoebae, fungi, decapods, insects, cave sediment, and a different
green alga, Chlamydomonas, produced no PCR products and thus did not interfere with the detection and quantification of Chlorella DNA. The assay proved quantitative over more than four orders of magnitude with a method detection limit (MDL) of approximately 2.3 x104 cells/L. Presence or absence of Chlorella
DNA could be demonstrated at concentrations ten to 100 times lower than the calculated MDL. Chlorella was detected in lampenflora samples from three tourist trails, and Chlorella was absent from sediment samples off tourist trails that were known to contain high concentrations of bacterial DNA. Demonstration of the utility of the technique was illustrated by a case study in Mammoth Cave National Park to determine Chlorella concentrations
at various sampling sites of karst surface streams where invasive zebra mussels are a threat to native species.


Structure des rseaux karstiques: les contrles de la splogense pigne, 2011, Audra P. , Palmer A. N.

Cave development is related to the geomorphic evolution. Their morphology, preserved far longer than correlative surface features allows reconstructing the regional history of the surrounding landscape. Modeling shows that initial cave development occurs along the water table with loops in the phreatic zone along fractures. Consequently, cave profiles and levels reflect the local base level and its changes. Cave profile is controlled by timing, geological structure, and recharge. In first exposed rocks, juvenile pattern displays steep vadose passages. In perched aquifers, vadose erosion produces large passage along aquiclude. In dammed aquifers, the main drain is established at the water table when recharge is fairly regular. But when irregular recharge causes backflooding, looping profiles develop throughout the epiphreatic zone. Interconnected cave levels correspond to some of the largest cave systems in the world. The oldest abandoned highest levels have been dated beyond 3.5 Ma (Mammoth Cave). However, when base level rises, the deepest parts of the karst are flooded; the flow rises along phreatic lifts, and discharges at vauclusian springs. In the epiphreatic zone, floodwater produces looping tubes above the low-flow water table. In such a case of baselevel rise, per ascensum speleogenesis can produce higher-elevation passages that are younger than passages at lower elevations. base-level rises occur after tectonic subsidence, filling of valleys, or sea-level rise, as for instance around the Mediterranean in response to the Messinian Crisis. Deep-phreatic karst, if not hypogenic, can generally be attributed to flooding by a base-level rise. 


Using Geographic Information System to Identify Cave Levels and Discern the Speleogenesis of the Carter Caves Karst Area, Kentucky, 2011, Peterson E. , Dogwiler T. , Harlan L.

Cave level delineation often yields important insight into the speleogenetic history of a karst system. Various workers in the Mammoth Cave System (MCS) and in the caves of the Cumberland Plateau Karst (CPK) have linked cave level development in those karst systems with the Pleistocene evolution of the Ohio River. This research has shown that speleogenesis was closely related to the base level changes driven by changes in global climate. The Carter Caves Karst (CCK) in northeastern Kentucky has been poorly studied relative to the MCS to the west and the CPK karst to the east. Previously, no attempt had been made to delineate speleogenetic levels in the CCK and relate them to the evolution of the Ohio River. In an attempt to understand cave level development in CCK we compiled cave entrance elevations and locations. The CCK system is a fluviokarst typical of many karst systems formed in the Paleozoic carbonates of the temperate mid-continent of North America. The CCK discharges into Tygarts Creek, which ultimately flows north to join the Ohio River. The lithostratigraphic context of the karst is the Mississippian Age carbonates of the Slade Formation. Karst development is influenced by both bedding and structural controls. We hypothesize that cave level development is controlled by base level changes in the Ohio River, similar to the relationships documented in MCS and the karst of the Cumberland Plateau The location and elevation of cave entrances in the CCK was analyzed using a GIS and digital elevation models (DEMs). Our analysis segregated the cave entrances into four distinct elevation bands that we are interpreting as distinct cave levels. The four cave levels have mean elevations (relative to sea level) of 228 m (L1), 242 m (L2), 261 m (L3), and 276 m (L4). The highest level—L4—has an average elevation 72 m above the modern surface stream channel. The lowest level—L1—is an average of 24 m above the modern base level stream, Tygarts Creek. The simplest model for interpreting the cave levels is as a response to an incremental incision of the surface streams in the area and concomitant adjustment of the water table elevation. The number of levels we have identified in the CCK area is consistent with the number delineated in the MCS and CPK. We suggest that this points toward the climatically-driven evolution of the Ohio River drainage as controlling the speleogenesis of the CCK area 


Observations on the biology of the endangered stygobiotic shrimp Palaemonias alabamae, with notes on P. ganteri (Decapoda: Atyidae), 2011, Martha Cooper, John Cooper

Palaemonias alabamae is endemic to subterranean waters in northern Alabama. Its type locality is Shelta Cave, Madison County, and ostensibly conspecifi c shrimps have been found in Bobcat and two other caves. Pollution and other factors may have extirpated the shrimp from the type locality. In Shelta Cave the species is smaller than the shrimp in Bobcat Cave and P. ganteri in Mammoth Cave, Kentucky. Adult female P. alabamae(s.s.) and P. ganteri are larger than males. Female P. alabamae with visible oocytes or, rarely, attached ova, were observed from July through January in Shelta Cave. Each female there produces 8 to 12 large ova, whereas females of the population in Bobcat Cave produce 20 to 24 ova, and P. ganteri produces 14 to 33 ova. Plankton samples taken in Shelta and Mammoth caves yielded nothing identifi able as zoea or postlarvae.Palaemonias alabamae and P. ganteri usually feed by fi ltering bottom sediments through their mouthparts, but both sometimes feed upside down at the water’s surface. Although there is some overlap, the compositions of the aquatic communities in Shelta and Mammoth caves differ, and there are some major differences among the Alabama shrimp caves. The stygobiotic fi sh, Typhlichthys subterraneus, is a known predator on P. alabamae in Shelta Cave.


Cosmogenic Isotope Dating of Cave Sediments, 2012, Granger Darryl E. , Fabel Derek

The decay of cosmic ray-induced 26Al and 10Be in quartz sediments allows the calculation of sediment emplacement ages back to about five million years. Two examples are given: Mammoth Cave (Kentucky) and Atapuerca Cave (Spain). The sediments in the Mammoth Cave System were an integral part of how the cave was formed. The sediments reveal the evolution of the cave system, and how cave development is tightly coupled to river incision and aggradation. In this case, Mammoth Cave was ideal because it was a water-table cave that carried quartz from local bedrock. In contrast, Atapuerca is a sedimentary infill where sediment (and animals) fell into a preexisting cavity. Such cave infills are the norm in archaeology and paleoanthropology because they collect bones and artifacts over long periods of time. In this case, the cosmogenic nuclides dated the sedimentary infill rather than the cave itself.


Mammoth Cave System, Kentucky, 2012, Brucker, Roger W.

Mammoth Cave System is located about 160 km (100 miles) south of Louisville, Kentucky and about 56 km (35 miles) northeast of Bowling Green, Kentucky. Most of the cave lies within Mammoth Cave National Park, a World Heritage Site and a part of the United Nations program of International Biosphere Reserves. It is the longest cave in the world by a factor of 3, with about 631 km (392 miles) of surveyed passage. Mammoth Cave consists of active and abandoned conduits carrying water from the recharge area to the south to discharge as springs along the deeply incised Green River. Development of the cave has spanned a time period from the Pliocene to the present. The exceptional length has been preserved by the protective sandstone caprock. Mammoth Cave contains a variety of carbonate and sulfate minerals, the latter preserved by the dry environment beneath the caprock. Mammoth Cave also supports an exceptional biological diversity.


Solution Caves in Regions of Moderate Relief, 2012, Palmer, Arthur N.

Caves in regions of moderate relief are widely regarded as the standard to which all others are compared. Tectonic stability is their most significant characteristic. The presence of moderate relief implies that uplift of the land is slow and erosional processes are able to keep pace. As a result, rivers easily erode to their local base levels, and base-level control is reflected in cave passages. The relation between caves and regional geomorphic history is stronger than in any other setting. Examples are given from the Illinois Basin (Kentucky and Indiana), the Ozark Plateau (Missouri), and the Appalachians.


Reconstructing landscape evolution by dating speleogenetic processes, 2013, Polyak V. J. , Hill C. A.

Speleology and karst geomorphology are making important contributions to evolution of landscapes, thanks to more refined dating techniques, more specialized and advanced instruments, and intensive studies of caves and karst terrains. This chapter provides eight cases where cave and karst studies have made, or are making, new strides in the reconstruction of landscape evolution by dating cave deposits. Some of these study areas include world renowned caves such as Carlsbad Cavern and Lechuguilla Cave in the Guadalupe Mountains of New Mexico, Jewel and Wind caves in the Black Hills of South Dakota, and Mammoth Cave in Kentucky. The authors offer added detail on the caves of the Guadalupe Mountains and Grand Canyon


The vertical dimension of karst: controls of vertical cave pattern, 2013, Audra P. , Palmer A. N.

The vertical development of karst is related to the geomorphic evolution of the surrounding landscape. Cave profiles and levels reflect the local fluvial base level and its changes through time. These cave features tend to be preserved far longer than correlative surface features, which are more susceptible to weathering and erosion. As a result, cave morphology offers abundant clues that are helpful in reconstructing the regional geomorphic history. In the vadose zone, water is drawn downward by gravity along vertical fractures. In the phreatic zone, water follows the hydraulic gradient along the most efficient paths to available outlets in nearby valleys. Phreatic passages tend to have gentler gradients close to the water table, generally with some vertical sinuosity. Responding to irregular recharge rates, fluctuations in the water table define a transition zone, the epiphreatic zone, in which passages develop by floodwater flow. Free-surface flow in the vadose zone and full pipe flow in the phreatic zone produce distinctive passage morphologies. Identification of former vadose–phreatic transition zones makes it possible to reconstruct the position of former water tables that represent past static fluvial base levels. Early conceptual models considered cave origin mainly in relation to its position relative to the water table. Later, analytical and digital models showed that dramatic enlargement occurs when dissolutional enlargement of initial fissures is sufficient to allow rapid dissolution and turbulent flow to take place throughout the entire conduit length. Cave development is favored by the widest initial openings, and less importantly by the steepest hydraulic gradients and shortest flow distances. Consequently, most phreatic cave development takes place at or near the water table, but the presence of relatively wide fractures can lead to phreatic loops. Cave levels record successive base-level positions as valleys deepen. The oldest levels in Mammoth Cave (USA) and Clearwater Cave (Malaysia) have been dated beyond 3.5 Ma. However, when base level rises, the deepest parts of the karst are flooded and the flow follows phreatic lifts. In the epiphreatic zone, floodwater produces looping tubes above the low-flow water table. In these last two situations, high-level passages with large vertical loops are not necessarily the oldest. The juvenile pattern, composed of steep vadose passages, is common when soluble rock is first exposed. In perched aquifers, vadose erosion can produce very large cross sections. In dammed aquifers, the main drain is established at the water table. Irregular recharge causes backflooding, and passages develop throughout the epiphreatic zone, with looping profiles; however, when recharge is fairly regular, the passages develop along the stable water table. Interconnected cave levels correspond to some of the largest cave systems in the world. When base level rises, the karst is flooded; water rises through phreatic lifts and discharges at vauclusian springs. A per ascensum speleogenesis can produce higher-elevation passages that are younger than passages at lower elevations. Base-level rises occur after tectonic subsidence, filling of valleys, or sea-level rise, especially around the Mediterranean in response to the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Deep-phreatic karst, if not hypogenic, can generally be attributed to flooding by a base-level rise. 


Results 76 to 86 of 86
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