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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology

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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That stalagmite, capillary is see capillary stalagmite.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

What is Karstbase?



Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

"Hypogene Karst & Speleogenesis: Nature, Processes, Mechanisms, Manifestations and  Applications"

A draft outline of the HypoKarst Project website to be launched soon


The HypoKarst project is an informal international effort to coordinate and promote hypogene karst and speleogenesis research. The main objective is to advance our understanding of solution conduit and void development in those parts of the sedimentary cover that lie below the domain of shallow unconfined groundwater flow systems. This is important in order to better apprehend karst evolution, improve general karst paradigm and its applicability and effectiveness for solving related practical problems.

Initiated in 2007, HypoKarst has been shaped recently as a coherent project proposal to be one of core projects of the UIS Karst Hydrogeology and Speleogenesis Commission. Also, the Hypokarst Project succeeds the UIS Working Group on Hydrothermal Karst, which is suggested recently to merge with the KHS Commission.

Through cooperation of interested researchers and use of collaborative platform and tools of the Speleogenesis Network, HypoKarst will assist in more efficient implementation of existing funded projects, generate new research initiativies and seek for additional funding to promote studies in Hypokarst Subject Areas.


Objectives and Activities

The main HypoKarst objective is to advance our understanding of solution conduit and void development in those parts of the sedimentary cover that lie below the domain of shallow unconfined groundwater flow systems.

Other objectives include:

  • Identify and develop common international science Subject Areas to ensure that important scientific questions in studying hypogene karst are addressed in a coherent manner; to promote researches in the identified areas.
  • Develop and strengthen international scientific cooperation in hypogene karst studies.
  •  Promote an interaction between karst researchers and other geoscience scholars and industry specialists in hypogene karst studies and applications.
  • Channel and disseminate information and research outcomes relevant to hypogene karst.

In pursuing its objectives, HypoKarst seeks to perform the following activities:

  • Sponsor and organize thematic scientific meetings, including topical sessions and symposia within geoscience and karst conferences of broader scopes;
  • Sponsor and organize thematic publications, such as collections of papers, special issues of journals, etc.;
  • Maintain hypogene karst bibliography within the KarstBase bibliography system;
  • Support and assist in other activities that match the HypoKarst objectives.


Coordination and Management

The HypoKarst initiators and suggested coordinators are

  • Dr. Alexander Klimchouk (Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology, Simferopol, Ukraine), and
  • Dr. Yury Dublyansky (Innsbruck Quaternary Research Group, Innsbruck University, Innsbruck, Austria)

We suggest selecting a third coordinator from researchers active in the field, willing to contribute specific efforts to pursuing the HypoKarst objectives. Please, send nominations (self-nominations are welcome) to klim[at]

The project will be overseen by the UIS KHS Commission Bureau. More formal management schemes and leadership selection procedures may be established in the future if necessary.


Subject Areas

(identified as specific important research topics for the HypoKarst studies) (a draft outline)

The HypoKarst Project identifies and recognizes the following specific topics as important areas for the further development of hypogene karst studies (a draft outline):

  • Nature of hypogenic speleogenesis: processes, mechanisms, environments, conceptual models;
  • Hypogene speleogenesis in various geological, tectonic and hydrogeological settings;
  • Specific hydrogeochemical processes and mechanisms of hypogene speleogenesis and their interaction (hydrothermal, sulfuric acid, mixing corrosion, dissolution of evaporites, dissolution in mixed sulfate-carbonate sequences, dedolomitization, etc.);
  • Hydrodynamics of heterogeneous (layered, fractured) confined systems containing soluble beds;
  • Karst hydrogeology of artesian basins: regional and intermediary systems, groundwater resources, methods of study;
  • Numerical modeling of hypogene speleogenesis;
  • Speleomorphogenesis of hypogene caves: conceptual, physical and numerical models for particular speleomorphs;
  • Geochemical and mineralogical indicators of hypogene speleogenesis;
  • Evolution of karstogenetic settings, evolutionary types of karst, landscapes of covered karst;
  • Geoenvironmental problems and hazards associated with hypogene karst;
  • Deep-seated karst features: distinguishing between hypogene speleogenesis and epigenic paleokarst;
  • Role of hypogene speleogenesis in the formation of reservoirs in carbonate rocks and oil and gas deposits;
  • Role of hypogene speleogenesis in the formation of ore deposits;
  • Hypogene speleogenesis, hydrothermal karst studies and geothermal resources.


HypoKarst Community

The HypoKarst Community consists of research groups and individuals interested in promoting the project’s objectives and advancement of hypogene karst studies. All members are encouraged to contribute to the HypoKarst Subject Areas and identification of new ones, participate in the project activities and publish to Speleogenesis and HypoKarst-relevant products.

Groups and Institutions

Groups and institutions that conduct hypogene karst studies or interested in their promotion and development are welcome to join the list below. Please, send your information (group’s title and affiliation, country, link to a website) to klim[at]

Department of Geomorphology, University of Silesia, Poland 

Geodynamics Group, Geophysics Section, Free University of Berlin, Germany

Hydrogeology and Geothermics Group, Department of Physical and Applied Geology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary

Innsbruck Quaternary Research Group 

National Cave and Karst Research Institute (NCKRI), USA 

Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology (UISK), Ukraine  

Individual Researchers

Everyone interested is welcome to join the project. To officially join the HypoKarst Project you have to register with the Speleogenesis website and check the HypoKarst box in the “Projects” field of the registration form.
 For those who had already registered with the site, please login under your credentials, go to “My Profile” or “Personal Details” in the Member Area and check the HypoKarst box in the Projects field of the Personal Details Manager. 

This will include your name to the official listing of the project members.

Registration with the project will be open starting from July 1st, 2011, after completion of necessary changes in the Speleogenesis website.

Below is a preliminary (unofficial) list of supposed core members, based on interests and activities of colleagues known to the coordinators (to be confirmed through personal registration). It will be substituted by a list based on the actual registration in the end of September, 2011.

  • Alexander, K.; USA
  • Andreychouk, W.; Poland
  • Audra, Ph.; France
  • Auler, A.; Brasil
  • Bayari, S.; Turkey
  • Boston, P.; USA
  • Cunningham, K.; USA
  • De Waele, Jo; Italy
  • Doctor, D.; USA
  • Dublyansky, Yu.; Austria-Russia
  • Erőss, Anita; Hungary
  • Ford, D.; Canada
  • Forti, P.; Italy
  • Frumkin, A.; Izrael
  • Galdenzi, M.; Italy
  • Gary, M.; USA
  • Gines, J.; Spain
  • Glazer, S.; Germany 
  • Hill, C.; USA
  • Kaufmann, G., Germany
  • Kambesis, P.; USA
  • Kempe, S.; Germany
  • Klimchouk, A.; Ukraine
  • Land, L.; USA
  • Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit; Hungary 
  • Macalady, Jenn; USA
  • Menichetti M.; Italy
  • Mylroie, J.; USA
  • Onac, B.; USA-Romania
  • Osborn, A.; Australia
  • Otonicar, B.; Slovenia
  • Palmer, A.; USA
  • Parise, M.; Italy
  • Plan, L.; Austria
  • Rosales-Lagarde, L.; USA-Mexico
  • Schindel, G.; USA
  • Shwartz, B.; USA
  • Spötl, C.; Austria
  • Stafford, K.; USA
  • Suchy, V; Czech Republic
  • Tyc, A.; Poland
  • Tymokhina, E; Ukraine
  • Vigna, B.; Italy


Current Projects

Information about projects on hypogene karst being conducted by research groups and individual researchers. Please, send the information about ongoing projects not listed below to klim[at] So far, the coordinators are aware of the following projects:

Title: Hypogene water-rock interaction and speleogenesis
Details: FWF, P213660, duration 2009-2012
Leading Group: Innsbruck Quaternary Research Group
PI & Co-PIs.: C. Spötl, Y. Dublyansky

Title: Hypogene Karst in the Crimean Piedmont and Plain Crimea regions, Ukraine
Details: Ukr. R&D, duration 2009-2012
Leading Group: Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology (UISK)
PI & Co-PIs.: A.Klimchouk, G.Amelichev, E.Tymokhina et al.

Title: Hypogene Caves Morphology - Europe/Australia Comparison
Details: HYPOCAVE project of the EU FP7-PEOPLE-2009-IRSES programme (Marie Curie International Research Staff Exchange Scheme), duration 2010-2013.
Leading Group: Department of Geomorphology, University of Silesia, in co-operation with the Karst Research Institute ZRC SAZU and the University of Sydney
PI & Co PIs: A.Tyc, B.Otonicar, A.Osborne

Title: Evaluation of hypogenic karstification, focusing on microbially mediated processes
Details: Hungarian Research Foundation (OTKA) (101356), duration 03.2012 – 02.2016
Leading group: Department of Physical and Applied Geology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest
PI & Co-PIs: Judit Mádl-Szőnyi, Anita Erőss

Title: Hypogenic caves in Slovakia: speleogenesis and morphological types
Details: Ministry of Education of Slovak Republic and Slovak Academy of Science (1/0030/12)
Leading group: 
PI & Co-PIs: Pavel Bella

Title: Faults, fractures, facies and fluid flow in karst systems: prediction of secondary porosity-permeability in carbonate rocks (porocarste)
Details: Funded by Petrobras, duration 2013 – 2015
Leading group: Departamento de Geologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte
PI & Co-PIs: Francisco Hilario Bezerra - UFRN, Caroline Cazarin – Petrobras

Special Events

Title: Hypogenic Karst: Shedding light on once poorly understood hydrologic and morphologic features (a topical session T146 at GSA 2008 Annual Convention)
Place: Houston, Texas, USA
Dates: October 05-09, 2008
Details: click 
Proceedings: click 

Title: International Conference "Hypogene Speleogenesis and Karst Hydrogeology of Artesian Basins"
Place: Chernivtsy, Ukraine
Dates: May 12-17, 2009
Details: click 
Proceedings: click

Title: Interaction between Shallow and Deep Karst: Geologic, Hydrologic, Geochemical, and Biologic Indicators (a session at GSA Northeast/Southeast sectional meeting)
Place: Baltimore, MD, USA
Dates: March 14-16, 2010
Details: click

Title: Workshop on Hypogene Caves Morphology and Speleogenesis in Deformed Strata and Postgraduate Training on Hypogene Caves Morphology
Place: Olsztyn, Poland
Dates: May 25-28, 2011
Details: click

Title: International Symposium on Hierarchical Flow Systems in Karst Regions
Place: Budapest, Hungary
Dates: September 2-7, 2013
Details: click
Proceedings: click

Title: International Field Conference "Hypogene Cave Morphologies"
Place: San-Salvador, Bahamas
Dates: February 2-7, 2014
Details: click
Proceedings: click

Title: International Conference "DeepKarst 2016"
Place: Carlsbad, New Mexico, USA
Dates: April 11-14, 2016
Details: click



Major publications (monographs and proceedings)

Klimchouk, A.B. (2007) Hypogene Speleogenesis: Hydrogeological and Morphogenetic Perspective. Natl. Cave and Karst Research Institute, Carlsbad, 1-106.  

Klimchouk, A.B., and Ford, D.C.(Eds.) (2009) Hypogene Speleogenesis and Karst Hydrogeology of Artesian Basins. 

Stafford, K.W., Land L. and Veni, G. (Eds.) (2009). Advances in Hypogene Karst Studies. National Cave and Karst Research Institute Symposium 1, 2009, 182 pp.

Andreychouk V., Dublyansky Y., Yezhov Y., and Lysenin G. (2009) Karst in Earth's Crust: distribution and the main types.  University of Silesia - Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology, Sosnowiec - Simferopol, 1-72.

Klimchouk, A.; Sasowsky, I; Mylroie, J.; Engel, S.A.; Engel A.S. (Eds.)  (2014) Hypogene Cave Morphologies. Selected papers and abstracts of the symposium held February 2 through 7, 2014, San Salvador Island, Bahamas. 
Karst Water Institute. 1-111.


A selection of articles on hypogene karst/speleogenesis from the KarstBase (simple search with keyword=hypogen) currently contains 346 items (as for October 2014). Click here to see the search results


News a nd Announcements

“News & Announcements” section will be established on a Project web-pages, where project members could post their respective items.

Prepared and posted by Alexander Klimchouk and Yury Dublyansky, May 2011

Last updated: June 30, 2015