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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That dispersion, transverse is spreading of the solute in directions perpendicular to the bulk flow [22].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
Engineering challenges in Karst, Stevanović, Zoran; Milanović, Petar
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Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Exploration Spotlight. This page presents the latest discoveries and achievements in the areas of Karst and Cave Research as well as Sport Caving. The underground world is last black spot on the map of the Earth and these are the latest news from there:

Close Krubera (Voronja) Cave: the first 2000m+ cave on Earth

February-March 2005 expedition news

The next regular expedition of the Ukrainian Speleological Association to Krubera (Voronja) Cave has been carried out between February 9 – March 16, 2005. The expedition, led by Yury Kasjan and composed of cavers from Kiev (N. Solovjev and M.Bondarenko) and Novaja Kakhovka (D.Fedotov and E.Kononov), was the part of the ongoing "Call of the Abyss" project, run by the Ukr.S.A since the year of 2000.

The main goal of the expedition was to systematically explore the deepest section of the cave discovered during the previous Ukr.S.A. expeditions in August and October 2004. There were many open side leads left unchecked in the Windows Series between the Big Junction at –1790m and the Game Over Chamber, the deepest point at –2080m (see the cave profile by following this link).

The expedition has been brought to the cave by a helicopter on February 14.

The team have continuously worked in the cave during 19 days, since February 16. After return to the surface on March 6, the team had to wait out bad weather in the mountains during six days to be picked up by a helicopter.

During descend and ascent the team used established camps at –700, -1215, -1410 and –1640m. It took eight days to restore and improve all the rigging through the cave and to transport materials and supplies to the lowest camp set at the Big Junction at –1790m. Six days were spent for the work in the lower section, and it took five days to get back to the surface.

The results of current explorations in the lower section of the cave can be briefly summarized as follows:

1) Many windows and side leads have been checked within the –1700m - -2080m interval. Almost all of them have looped to the known passages and pits, while some ended by impenetrable squeezes. The only window in the bottom chamber (Game Over), visible in the wall at some ten meters above the floor, has been also checked (dead-ended).

2) The siphon ("Kvitochka") in a side passage at –1980m has been dived through by Nikolay Solovjev. The siphon 10m long and 4m deep gave a continuation explored to a next vertical pitch. This is now the main direction for the further exploration. The dive was the deepest diving operation ever made in caves.

3) Two siphons in side passages near the Big Junction (around –1800m) have been tested.

One of them has been dived for 7m in length and 3m in depth; it continues by an ascending leg. Another siphon (6m long, 2m deep) has connected to the known passage. The terminal siphon at –1840m, which stopped the exploration in August 2004, has not been attempted as it apparently connects to a known passage in the "Windows" series.

4) The temperature measurements have been carried out through the cave to study temperature gradients. The air temperature rises through the cave from 2.1 grad C at –90m to 7.7 grad C at –2080m, giving the overall gradient of 0.28 grad C/100m.

During 2005 the Ukrainian Speleological Association will continue systematic explorations in Krubera Cave and other caves of the Ortobalagan valley in Arabika in August and September-October. Another expedition of the "Call of the Abyss" project is planned for July to the Aladaglar massif in Turkey.

Alexander Klimchouk, Yury Kasjan and Nikolaj Solovjev
The "Call of the Abyss" Project coordinators,
Ukrainian Speleological Association