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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That limestone pavement is 1. a level, or gently inclined, bare limestone surface scored and fretted by karren. the stripping of soil or cover rocks to expose the bare rock pavement is a glacial process, and the development of the karren - both the dissolutional enlargement of the joints and also the dissolutional carving of runnels - is largely post-glacial. limestone pavements are characteristic features of glaciokarst and occur extensively in the north of england, in the burren of county clare in ireland and on many high alpine limestones [9]. 2. a bare plane surface of limestone, parallel to the bedding, commonly divided into blocks (clints, flachkarren) by solutionally widened joints (grikes, kluftkarren), and pitted by solution pans [10]. 3. a glaciokarstic landform, produced on a glacially planed limestone surface which has subsequently become dissected into blocks (clints or dalles) by solutionenlargement of vertical joints [19]. 3. horizontal or sloping platforms of bare limestone whose surface usually coincides with bedding-plane partings of the rock; often eroded into clint and grikes rock forms [20]. synonyms: (french.) plateforme calcaire; (german.) kalk plattform, limestone pavement; (greek.) karstikon lithostroton; (spanish.) lapiaz entrecruzado; (turkish.) kirectasi dosemesi. see also clints; grikes; karrenfeld.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
Engineering challenges in Karst, Stevanović, Zoran; Milanović, Petar
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Exploration Spotlight. This page presents the latest discoveries and achievements in the areas of Karst and Cave Research as well as Sport Caving. The underground world is last black spot on the map of the Earth and these are the latest news from there:

Close Krubera (Voronja) Cave: the first 2000m+ cave on Earth

August-September 2007 expedition news

In the period August 5 September 15, 2007 the Ukrainian Speleological Association (Ukr.S.A.) have conducted the regular expedition of the "Call of the Abyss" Project to Krubera (Voronja) Cave in Arabika Massif, Abkhazia. A scientific program of the expedition and cave surveying has been supervised by the Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology (UISK).

The expedition, led by Yury Kasjan, consisted of 41 members including 29 cavers from Ukraine (Kiev 9; Simferopol 6; Poltava 5; Kharkiv 4; Sevastopol 2; Ivan-Frankivsk 1; Khmelnitsky 1; Kamenetz-Podilsky 1), 10 cavers from Russia (Moscow 5; Ufa 2; Kazan 2; Novokuznetsk 1; 1 caver from Belorussia and 1 caver from Great Britain. Some other cavers from Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine) and Moldova, which have been working in the area as separate groups, also helped in Krubera operations.

There were three main exploration fronts pursued during the expedition:

1) The bottom sifon "Two Captains", explored by the previous Ukr.S.A. expedition in August 2006 to a squeeze at -14 m (-2158 m of total depth). In this expedition divers Gennadiy Samokhin and Yury Evdokimov made several dives pushing the sifon further on. The farthest (140 m) and deepest (-45.5 m) point has been reached by G.Samokhin, which gave a new depth for the cave at -2191 m. The sifon continues down as a steeply inclined passage.

2) The Nekujbyshevskaya branch, a distinct branch diverging from the main one at -250 m and stretching to the north-west, the direction opposite to the overall trend of the main branch. Following the major breakthrough made by the previous Ukr.S.A. expedition, the team led by Kyrylo Markovskoy explored many new passages and pits there to the depth of -1293 .

3) Side passages and sifons at various depths in the main branch between the bottom and -1775 m. G.Samokhin and Y.Evdokimov made 75 exploration dives in various sifons (not counting free dives in sifons on the main trail during regular transport operations). The main results were achieved in a side branch previously ended at -1775 m by the "Blue Lake" sifon. Behind the "Blue Lake", a series of air-filled passages has been explored, separated by 6 sifons. The farthest sifon "Yantarny" has been explored for 130 m in length and 19.5 m in depth and continues. The deepest point in this branch has been reached at -1841 m.

Altogether, 2510.5 m of new passages has been surveyed during this expedition.

The updated 3D model of Krubera Cave (VRML) can be viewed here

New total figures for Krubera Cave:
- Total depth: 2191m
- Total length: 13 232m

The scientific program performed during the expedition included temperature measurements, geological observations, microbiological sampling and sampling of clastic sediments (for mineralogical analyses) and speleothems (for dating and isotope analyses).

During 29 days of underground operations in this expedition five underground camps were in use. The expedition has removed all camp wastes to the surface and further from the mountains, including those from the deepest camps (including camps at -1960m and -1640m).

Yury Kasjan and Alexander Klimchouk, the CA Project co-ordinators