Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That cave fill is transported materials such as silt, clay, sand and gravel which cover the bedrock floor or partially or wholly block some part of a cave [25].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

Darrel Tremaine (United States)

Contact by email Contact by email
Affiliation: Florida State University
Position: PhD Student
Interests: Paleoclimate, low temperature geochemistry, speleothem trace element and isotope composition
Member of since 2012-01-01

CV of Darrel Tremaine

Darrel Mathew Tremaine

Personal Data

Born: July 5, 1979, Sandusky, Ohio



Bachelor of Science: Mechanical Engineering 2002 University of Cincinnati                

Master of Science: Chemical Oceanography 2010   Florida State University

PhD Candidate: Chemical Oceanography Present Florida State University


Research Interests

Cave calcite deposits, or speleothems, incorporate and preserve climate signals into their crystal matrix by way of stable isotopes (δ18O and δ13C) and trace element ratios.  My work monitoring physical cave parameters such as cave-air pCO2, drip rate, isotopic and elemental composition of drip waters, and ventilation dynamics is a necessary first step in deciphering the paleoclimate signal in ancient speleothems. My research is comprised of a continuous time series of micrometeorological (in situ) cave data, in conjunction with aqueous chemistry and isotope geochemistry of both modern calcite (farmed in situ) and natural waters collected throughout Hollow Ridge Cave (HRC).  Modern day isotope and trace element proxy calibrations have been established and will inform my interpretations of two Holocene HRC speleothems as I construct the paleoclimate and rainfall history of North Florida

  • Carbonate trace element chemistry; class 100 clean-room preparation; analyses using an Agilent Quadrupole 7500cs
  • Carbonate stable isotope analyses using both a Finnigan Deltaplus XP IR-MS and a Finnigan MAT V Delta IR-MS
  • Gas chromatography (Dionex GC): anion concentration ratio analyses of natural waters
  • Spectrophotometry (UV-Visible): determination of DOC concentration in natural waters

Under Development

  • Strontium isotope characterization of carbonates using a Finnigan MAT 262 TIMS
  • High resolution cave calcite trace element composition using a Thermo Element XR LA-ICP-MS
  • Electromechanical automation of continuously powered cave atmosphere and hydrochemical monitoring equipment in a condensing atmosphere
  • Heat exchange effects on dynamic ventilation of cave air CO2 and 222Rn



Spring 2012 Introduction to Paleoclimatology

Fall, Spr & Sum 2008 - 09  Introduction to Oceanography



  • Gordon Conference Student Travel Grant (2011)
  • Osher Lifelong Learning Institute Scholarship (2012)
  • V.M. Goldschmidt Student Travel Grant (2012)


Outreach & Activities

  • Member: American Society of Mechanical Engineers; National Speleological Society; American Geophysical Union; Geochemical Society; European Geophysical Union (2000 – present)
  • External Reviewer: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Chemical Geology, Climate of Past Discussions  (2010 – present)
  • Instructor: Osher Lifelong Learning Institute – Continuing education for retired persons (2012-present)
  • Graduate Student Representative (2010)
  • Judge: Capital Regional Science & Engineering Fair (2012 – present)
  • Mentor: High-school and undergraduate students in the laboratory to perform high-precision chemical analyses of natural samples
  • Mentor: Florida Center for Autism and Related Diseases (CARD)



  • Tremaine, D.M., Froelich, P.N., 2012.  Speleothem trace element signatures: A modern hydrologic geochemical study of cave drip waters and farmed calcite.  Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta Under Review
  • Tremaine, D.M., Khazmutdinova, K., Nof, D., 2012. Estimating limestone porosity and conductivity from continuously monitored rainfall and in-cave drip rates, Hollow Ridge Cave, Marianna, Florida, 2012.  In Preparation.
  • Tremaine, D.M., Froelich, P.N., Wang, Y., 2011. Cave speleothem calcite farmed in situ:  Modern calibrations of δ18O and δ13C paleoproxies in a continuously-monitored natural cave system.  Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75, 4929-4950
  • Tremaine, D.M., 2010.  Speleothem Paleoclimatology and Modern Speleochemistry Proxies: Calcite Farming in a Continuously Monitored Cave, Florida State University, Department of Oceanography, M.S. Thesis

Conference Presentations

  • Tremaine, D.M., Kilgore, B.P., Froelich, P.N., 2012. Calcite farming in Florida caves: Calibrating modern calcite δ18O and δ13C to ventilation and in situ air temperature. V.M. Goldschmidt Conference, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (awaiting print reference)
  • Tremaine, D.M., Kilgore, B.P., Froelich, P.N., 2012. Calcite Farming at Hollow Ridge Cave: Calibrating Net Rainfall and Cave Microclimate to Dripwater and Calcite Chemical Variability. European Geophysical Union General Assembly, Geophys. Res. Abs. 14, EGU2012-6704
  • Tremaine, D.M., 2012. Cave microclimate monitoring methods and instrumentation. Second International Cave Monitoring Workshop. Innsbruck, Austria.
  • Tremaine, D.M., 2012. “Farmed” Cave Calcite Chemistry: A Guide to Speleothem Paleoclimate Interpretations. Southeastern Geological Society Annual Meeting, Marianna, FL
  • Tremaine, D.M., 2010. Trace Elements in Modern Cave Calcite:  Wet/Dry Calibrations for Paleoclimate Investigations. Florida State University Student Symposium
  • Tremaine, D.M., 2009. Air Grab Sample Transect In Hollow Ridge Cave:  [CO2] and δ13C Reveal Inverse Mixing and Sites of Atmospheric Air Ingress.  Florida State University Student Symposium
  • Dial, A., Ridgewell, C., Kilgore, B.P., Tremaine, D.M., Misra, S., Salters, V.J.M., 2012.  Improved analytical method for determination of Mg Isotopes: Application to seawater and natural carbonates. Goldschmidt, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (awaiting print reference)


Posters and Abstracts

  • Tremaine, D.M., Kilgore, B.P., Froelich, P.N., 2011.  Calcite farming in Florida caves: Modern isotope (δ18O and δ13C) and trace element paleoproxy calibrations. Gordon Conference, Andover, NH
  • Froelich, P.N., Tremaine, D.M., Kowalczk, A.J., 2010.  Radon-222, CO2, δ13C, δ18O and drip water monitoring of a Florida cave: How fast do caves breathe and precipitate calcite speleothems? EOS Trans. AGU, 91(26), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract PP24A-02
  • Tremaine, D.M., Kilgore, B.P., Froelich, P.N., 2010.  Paleoproxy farming in Florida caves: Calibrating present-day calcite to past speleothems. V.M. Goldschmidt Conference, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74 (11), A1054, Suppl. Abstract 12g-200
  • Tremaine, D.M., Froelich, P.N., Kowalczk, A.J., and Kilgore, B.P., 2009.  Speleothem Paleoclimatology and Modern Proxies: Calcite Farming in a Continuously Monitored Cave. EOS Trans. AGU, 90(54), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract PP41B-1513
  • Kowalczk, A., Froelich, P.N., Gaffka, C., Tremaine, D.M., 2008.  High Resolution Time Series Cave Ventilation Processes and the Effects on Cave Air Chemistry and Drip Waters: Speleoclimatology and Proxy Calibration.  EOS Trans. AGU, 89(53), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract PP51C-1521


Profile of Previous Professional Experience

Experienced high-energy and goal oriented professional, with 6 years manufacturing and process engineering experience in the automotive industry.  Proven leader trained in Swiss, Japanese and German environments with involvement in TQM, Kaizen events, 5s implementation, choko-tei, JIT/Kanban, changeover Poke Yoke, development of process flow diagrams, PFMEA’s and control plans, process and efficiency improvement, development of preventive maintenance programs, PPAP requirements, problem solving with root cause analysis, gauging and machine tool design, developing vendor relations, technical staff and hourly staff training.  Computer skills include AutoCAD, Solidworks, Minitab 14, MS Office and Project, Kaleidagraph. CNC programming w/ Fuji, Okuma, Mori-Seiki, and Mazak Machines as well as Fuji, Kuka, Nachi Robots.


August 2007 to June 2008       

Cost Center Planner / Mfg. Engineer                               

Hirschvogel Incorporated – Columbus, OH

Global supplier of forgings and close-tolerance machined automotive components such as transmission and output shafts, injector bodies, and wheel bearings.  Tier 1 to automotive industry.  Reported to President of American Operations.


  • Co-management of high volume machining operation cost center, including production and labor planning, meeting customer demand in a JIT environment, ordering raw material, meeting annual operating budget, establishing world class quality and delivery metrics.   
  • Tooling and process design and troubleshooting.  Cycle time reduction and efficiency improvement.  Capital expenditure and new product launch including customer relations, meeting milestones, machine installation, and new product process PPAP verification. 
  • Training and advancement of various technical capacities including maintenance, technical leads, and associates in the areas of change-over, preventive maintenance, and downtime reduction. 


October 2006 to May 2007      

Senior Manufacturing Engineer (Contract)                                   

General Products Corporation – Columbus, OH

Supplier of highly engineered machined automotive components such as pistons, transmission housings, clutch housings, and axles. Tier 1 to automotive industry.  Reported to Plant Manager.


  • Installation and production ramp up of a new concept automated manufacturing cell including eight Mazak 4-Axis machining centers and six Nachi 6-Axis robots.  Develop prototype and production CNC machining programs and tooling.  Meet customer milestones such as phased PPAPs, process capability, and production launch.  Develop autonomous maintenance systems.  Creation and implementation of part measurement methods, manning requirements, Control Plan and quality procedures. Project budget $6.5M.
  • Long-term process improvement activities including workflow analysis, plant layout optimization, introduction of value added methodology, investigation and implementation of industry best practices, tooling and gauging improvements, and advancement of work force manufacturing skills.


June 2002 to October 2006         

Business Unit Leader & Manufacturing Engineer                            

NSK Corporation – Liberty, IN

Global supplier of machined and heat treated wheel bearing components, Tier 1 to automotive industry.  Reported to Engineering Manager with 2 direct reports and 25 hourly personnel.


  • Direct management of all technical aspects of high volume machining operation, including scrap reduction, customer quality achievement, repair and maintenance, tooling and process design, as well as changeover training and support.  5S implementation.  Meet customer Kanban in a JIT environment.  Cycle time reduction.  Time studies and efficiency improvements.  Co-management of production staff and daily direction of team member activities.  Business Unit yearly sales of approximately $10.4 Million.
  • Training and advancement of various technical capacities including setup, technician, and technical specialists in the areas of change-over, machine troubleshooting, process improvement, preventive maintenance, and downtime reduction (choko-tei).  Design and installation of over twenty new machines in business unit.  Direct involvement in supplier quality improvement projects.
  • Management of capital expenditure projects including project budget and BOM, meeting milestones, machine purchase and installation, new product process PPAP verification, as well as the training of team members and technical staff.  Management of up to 9 contractors and 12 technical staff / engineers per project.  Project budgets range from $50k to $1.8M.


June 1999 to December 2001                            

Intern Manufacturing Engineer                    

Feintool Corporation – Cincinnati, OH

Global supplier of stamped automotive components, Tier 2 to automotive industry.  Reported to Engineering Manager.


  • AutoCAD Design and fabrication of conveyance machines (e.g., belt conveyors, chain conveyors, electromotive and vibrational conveyors), including material sourcing and purchasing, machining (e.g., vertical mill, grinder, lathe), welding (GTAW, SMAW, GMAW), electrical routing, assembly and installation.

Design and fabrication of automated value added machinery, including fabrication, PLC programming, and runoff of parts-washer, insertion, separation, and magnetic conveyance