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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That scavenger is an animal that eats the dead remains and wastes of other animals and plants [23]. see also predator.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for aeration (Keyword) returned 6 results for the whole karstbase:
Laboratory and field evidence for a vadose origin of foibe (domepits)., 1965, Reams Max W.
Foiba (plural, foibe) is a term derived from the northeastern Italian karst region. The word is here suggested for use in preference to other terms referring to vertical cavities in soluble rocks. Foiba is defined as a cavity in relatively soluble rock which is natural, solutional, tends toward a cylindrical shape, and possesses walls which normally approach verticality. In laboratory experiments, limestone blocks were treated with dilute hydrochloric acid, and cavities resembling foibe were produced. Vertical walls developed only when a less soluble layer capped the limestone block or when the acid source was stationary, allowing acid to drip to the area directly below. Water analyses from foibe in central Kentucky and Missouri indicate that the water has had less residence time in the zone of aeration than other waters percolating through the rocks and entering the caves. In central Kentucky, foibe seem to be developed by migrating underground waterfalls held up by less soluble layers or by water moving directly down joints below less soluble layers. In Missouri, foibe are formed by joint enlargement below chert layers. Those foibe in the ceilings of caves are complicated by the enlargement of the lower part of the joints by cave streams during fluctuating water table conditions. In limestone caves of Kansas, foibe are formed in a similar manner as in Missouri. The foibe of the gypsum caves of Kansas are formed mainly on the sides of steep collapse sinkholes and lack joint control although they form beneath less soluble layers in the gypsum. Dripping water is necessary for the development of vertical walls by solution. Less soluble layers seem to be the unique feature which allows water to drip and pour into foibe. The floors of foibe are formed by less soluble layers or near the water table. If foibe intersect previously formed cave passages, no floors may develop.

Sedimentary Development of the Walli Caves, New South Wales, 1974, Frank, R.

The sedimentary history of the Walli Caves began with the deposition of finely laminated clay during the latter part of bedrock development in the phreatic zone. After aeration and entrance development, entrance facies accumulated, and this was followed by the deposition of large amounts of fluvial and lacustrine deposits. Episodic fluvial erosion of these deposits then took place, and flowstone was formed extensively during periods between each active erosion phase to produce a striking sequence of suspended flowstone sheets.


Studies and regulations in the southwestern Illinois karat, 1999, Bade J, Moss P,
Ground water quality in the Southwest Illinois Karst has deteriorated greatly over the past decade. This change correlates with increased development and the increased use of aeration systems for private sewage treatment and disposal. The Mississippi Karst Resource Planning Committee was formed by concerned citizens to address the problem. The committee is now engaged in both education and research in the sinkhole plain. Some of these activities are supported by a US EPA Section 319 Grant. The data generated and conclusions drawn should allow for improvement of ground water quality in the region through education and, possibly, regulation on the state or local level. Some local karst regulations have been adopted, in part, due to the efforts of the committee. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Natural water softening processes by waterfall effects in karst areas, 2000, Zhang D. D. , Peart M. , Zhang Y. J. , Zhu A. , Cheng X. ,
The reduction of water hardness, which occurs at waterfalls on rivers in karst areas, is considered to be a result of the waterfall effects. These consist of aeration, jet-flow and low-pressure effects. Waterfall effects bring about two physical changes in river water: an increase in the air-water interface and turbulence. A series of experiments was designed and implemented in order to investigate whether these effects and associated physical changes may cause a reduction of water hardness. From an experiment involving the enlargement of interface area, the plot of air-water interface areas against conductivity revealed that the higher the air-water interface, the more rapidly conductance declines (and Ca2 is precipitated). A bubble producer was designed and used to simulate bubbles that are produced by aeration and low-pressure effects and a faster decline of water hardness was observed at the location with bubbles in this experiment. When a supersaturated solution was passed through a jet-stream producer, a rapid reduction of water hardness and an increase of pH appeared. Field measurements were used to support the laboratory experiments. Work on the Ya He River and at the Dishuiyan Waterfalls revealed that places with aeration had the quickest hardness reduction and the highest average rate of calcite deposition

Physical Mechanisms of River Waterfall Tufa (Travertine) Formation, 2001, Zhang David Dian, Zhang Yingjun, Zhu An, Cheng Xing,
Waterfall tufa is widely distributed around the world, especially in tropical and subtropical karst areas. In these areas river water is generally supersaturated with respect to calcite, and the precipitation occurs mainly at waterfall and cascade sites. Development of waterfall tufa has been described as simply being the result of water turbulence. We believe, however, that three physical effects can lead to tufa deposition at waterfall sites: aeration, jet-flow, and low-pressure effects. The three physical effects are induced by two basic changes in the water: an accelerated flow velocity, and enlargement of the air-water interface area. These two changes increase the rate of CO2 outgassing and the SIc, so that a high degree of supersaturation is achieved, which then induces calcite precipitation. These 'waterfall effects' have been simulated in laboratory and field experiments, and each of them can accelerate, or trigger, calcite precipitation. Field measurements of river water chemistry also show that tufa deposition occurred only at waterfall sites. In these experiments and observations, waterfall effects play the most important role in triggering and accelerating CO2 outgassing rates. Field and laboratory observations indicate that plants and evaporation also play important roles in tufa formation. Growth of algae and mosses on tufa surfaces can provide substrates for calcite nucleation and can trap detrital calcite, accelerating tufa deposition. However, the prerequisite for such deposition at waterfall sites is a high degree of supersaturation in river water, which is mainly caused by waterfall effects. Evaporation can lead to supersaturation in sprays and thin water films at a waterfall site and cause the precipitation of dissolved CaCO3, but the amount of such deposition is relatively small

A rare landform: Yerkopru travertine bridges in the Taurids Karst Range, Turkey, 2002, Bayari Cs,
Two examples of travertine bridges are observed at 8 to 15 in above stream level in the Lower Zamanti Basin, Eastern Taurids, Turkey. Yerkopu-1 and Yerkopru-2 bridges are currently being deposited front cool karstic groundwaters with log P-CO2 > 10(-2) atm. The surface area and the total volume of travertine in Yerkopru-1 bridge are 4350 m(2) and 40 000 m(3), whereas the values for Yerkopru-2 are 2250 m(2) and 20000 m(3), respectively. The interplay of hydrogeological Structure, local topography, calcite-saturated hanging springs, algal activity and rapid downcutting in the streambed appear to have led to the formation of travertine bridges. Aeration through cascades and algal uptake causes efficient carbon dioxide evasion that enhances travertine formation. Algal curtains aid lateral development of travertine rims across the stream. Model calculations based on a hypothetical deposit in the form of a half-pyramid implied that lateral development should have occurred from both banks of the stream in the Yerkopru-1 bridge, whereas one-sided growth has been sufficient for Yerkopru-2. The height difference between travertine springs and the main strearn appears to be a result of Pleistocene glaciation during which karstic base-level lowering was either stopped or slowed down while downcutting in the main strearn continued. Copyright (C) 2002 John Wiley Sons, Ltd

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