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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That pinnacle karst is 1. tropical karst characterized by vertical rock blades fretted sharped by dissolution. it is practically indistinguishable from arete karst and tsingi, and includes the varieties known as shilin. the pinnacles in the mulu karst of saraway have rock blades up to 50m high projecting through the rain forest canopy [9]. 2. a tropical landscape of bare reticulated saw-topped ridges having almost vertical slopes and a relief of as much as 120 meters. the ridges rise above forest-covered depressions and corridors. found in new guinea at elevations or around 2,000 meters [20]. synonyms: (french.) karst a pinacles; (german.) pinnacle karst; (greek.) karst koriphon; (italian.) carsismo a pinnacoli; (turkish.) sivritepeli karst. compare cone, cupola, tower karst.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for bark (Keyword) returned 15 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 15
__ber die Vergleichbarkeit von L_sungsformen auf Chlorid-, Sulfat- und Karbonatgestein _' __berlegungen zu Fragen der Nomenklatur und Methodik der Karstmorphologie, 1968, Priesnitz Kuno,

Isotopenphysikalische Analysenergebnisse von Kalksinter - berblick zum Stand ihrer Deutbarkeit., 1970, Franke H. W. , Geyh M. A.

Isotopenphysikalische Analysenergebnisse von Kalksinter - berblick zum Stand ihrer Deutbarkeit, 1970, Franke H. W. , Geyh M. A.

LATE-STAGE DOLOMITIZATION OF THE LOWER ORDOVICIAN ELLENBURGER GROUP, WEST TEXAS, 1991, Kupecz J. A. , Land L. S. ,
Petrography of the Lower Ordovician Ellenburger Group, both in deeply-buried subsurface cores and in outcrops which have never been deeply buried, documents five generations of dolomite, three generations of microquartz chert, and one generation of megaquartz. Regional periods of karstification serve to subdivide the dolomite into 'early-stage', which predates pre-Middle Ordovician karstification, and 'late-stage', which postdates pre-Middle Ordovician karstification and predates pre-Permian karstification. Approximately 10% of the dolomite in the Ellenburger Group is 'late-stage'. The earliest generation of late-stage dolomite, Dolomite-L1, is interpreted as a precursor to regional Dolomite-L2. L1 has been replaced by L2 and has similar trace element, O, C, and Sr isotopic signatures, and similar cathodoluminescence and backscattered electron images. It is possible to differentiate L1 from L2 only where cross-cutting relationships with chert are observed. Replacement Dolomite-L2 is associated with the grainstone, subarkose, and mixed carbonate-siliciclastic facies, and with karst breccias. The distribution of L2 is related to porosity and permeability which focused the flow of reactive fluids within the Ellenburger. Fluid inclusion data from megaquartz, interpreted to be cogenetic with Dolomite-L2, yield a mean temperature of homogenization of 85 6-degrees-C. On the basis of temperature/delta-O-18-water plots, temperatures of dolomitization ranged from approximately 60 to 110-degrees-C. Given estimates of maximum burial of the Ellenburger Group, these temperatures cannot be due to burial alone and are interpreted to be the result of migration of hot fluids into the area. A contour map of delta-O-18 from replacement Dolomite-L2 suggests a regional trend consistent with derivation of fluids from the Ouachita Orogenic Belt. The timing and direction of fluid migration associated with the Ouachita Orogeny are consistent with the timing and distribution of late-stage dolomite. Post-dating Dolomite-L2 are two generations of dolomite cement (C1 and C2) that are most abundant in karst breccias and are also associated with fractures, subarkoses and grainstones. Sr-87/Sr-86 data from L2, C1, and C2 suggest rock-buffering relative to Sr within Dolomite-L2 (and a retention of a Lower Ordovician seawater signature), while cements C1 and C2 became increasingly radiogenic. It is hypothesized that reactive fluids were Pennsylvanian pore fluids derived from basinal siliciclastics. The precipitating fluid evolved relative to Sr-87/Sr-86 from an initial Pennsylvanian seawater signature to radiogenic values; this evolution is due to increasing temperature and a concomitant evolution in pore-water geochemistry in the dominantly siliciclastic Pennsylvanian section. A possible source of Mg for late-stage dolomite is interpreted to be from the dissolution of early-stage dolomite by reactive basinal fluids

GEOMORPHOLOGY, STRATIGRAPHY AND C-14 CHRONOLOGY OF ANCIENT TUFAS AT LOUIE-CREEK, NORTHWEST QUEENSLAND, AUSTRALIA, 1994, Drysdale R, Head J,
Louie Creek is a karst springfed stream situated in the seasonally humid tropics of northwest Queensland, Australia. It rises as a series of small exsurgences along the eastern edge of the Barkly Tableland. As it enters the lowlands of the Carpentaria plain, the creek deposits tufa which produces a series of cascades. This modern tufa extends discontinuously for about 1.5 km. A series of ancient tufas, in places lying adjacent to sites of modern deposition, extends discontinously for about 8 km downstream. At least two ancient tufa units are preserved at one location, Little Indarri site. The older unit comprises a sequence of well-preserved barrages with an orientation transverse to present-day stream flow. In places, erosion has reduced these barrages to their calcrete substrate. The older tufa is overlain in places by sediment which has become cemented to form a second calcrete unit. This sediment is in turn succeeded by the younger ancient tufa. Subsequent river incision has removed part of the sediment from the older unit and exposed several contact points between the ancient tufa and calcrete units. Radiocarbon dating of the Little Indarri site tufas, as well as other ancient Louie Creek units, yielded apparent ages ranging from approximately 30 to approximately 14 ka BP, suggesting that conditions were sufficiently wet during the period immediately preceding and throughout the Last Glacial Maximum for tufa deposition to occur. However, ancient tufa formation occurred during a phase of net river aggradation. There is geomorphic evidence that such aggradation was a result of an increased sediment supply to the fluvial system, most likely in response to conditions drier than present. Results from studies elsewhere in the region support such a Late Pleistocene trend. Incision of Louie Creek, which postdates the youngest of the dated ancient tufas, is most likely to have resulted from a shift to wetter conditions during the early Holocene

The Indarri Falls travertine dam, Lawn Hill Creek, northwest Queensland, Australia, 1997, Drysdale Rn, Gale Sj,
Indarri Falls is a spectacular travertine dam which impounds Lawn Hill Creek, a perennial karst stream draining the Barkly Tableland in northwest Queensland, Australia. The dam is at least 13.5m high, making it the largest feature of its kind known in Australia. Carbonate precipitation at the Falls is favoured by downstream changes in the bulk chemistry of the karst spring waters which feed the Creek, although deposition at the microenvironmental level may be encouraged by biological factors. The dam has dramatically altered the hydrology and geomorphology of the area, transforming the middle reaches of Lawn Hill Creek from a fluvial to a lacustrine environment. (C) 1997 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

Factors controlling the chemical evolution of travertine-depositing rivers of the Barkly karst, northern Australia, 2002, Drysdale Rn, Taylor Mp, Ihlenfeld C,
Groundwaters feeding travertine-depositing rivers of the northeastern segment of the Barkly karst (NW Queensland, Australia) are of comparable chemical composition, allowing a detailed investigation of how the rate of downstream chemical evolution varies from river to river. The discharge, pH, temperature, conductivity and major-ion concentrations of five rivers were determined by standard field and laboratory techniques. The results show that each river experiences similar patterns of downstream chemical evolution, with CO2 outgassing driving the waters to high levels of calcite supersaturation, which in turn leads to widespread calcium carbonate deposition. However, the rate at which the waters evolve, measured as the loss of CaCO3 per kilometre, varies from river to river, and depends primarily upon discharge at the time of sampling and stream gradient. For example, Louie Creek (Q = 0.11 m(3) s(-1)) and Carl Creek (Q = 0.50 m(3) s(-1)) have identical stream gradients, but the loss of CaCO3 per kilometre for Louie Creek is twice that of Carl Creek. The Gregory River (Q = 3.07 m(3) s(-1)), O'Shanassy River (Q = 0.57 m(3) s(-1)) and Lawn Hill Creek (Q = 0.72 m(3) s(-1)) have very similar gradients, but the rate of hydrochemical evolution of the Gregory River is significantly less than either of the other two systems. The results have major implications for travertine deposition: the stream reach required for waters to evolve to critical levels of calcite supersaturation will, all others things being equal, increase with increasing discharge, and the length of reach over which travertine is deposited will also increase with increasing discharge. This implies that fossil travertine deposits preserved well downstream of modern deposition limits are likely to have been formed under higher discharge regimes. Copyright (C) 2002 John Wiley Sons, Ltd

Dissolved organic carbon in precipitation, throughfall, stemflow, soil solution, and stream water at the Guandaushi subtropical forest in Taiwan, 2003, Liu C. P. , Sheu B. H. ,
The concentration and flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were measured in precipitation, throughfall, stemflow, soil solution, and stream water for three types of subtropical forest stands, a Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantation, a secondary hardwood, and a natural hardwood stand in Guandaushi forest in central Taiwan from January 1998 to December 1998. The mean DOC concentration in precipitation was 4.7 mg l(-1). However, in the rain passing through the tree canopies and barks as throughfall and stemflow, the mean concentrations were 7.0 and 30.8, 9.9 and 10.0, and 8.3 and 7.2 mg l(-1) in the Chinese fir plantation, the secondary hardwood, and the natural hardwood, respectively. Mean DOC concentrations in soil solution were lower in the Chinese fir plantation than both hardwoods, and decreased with depth of soil profiles. Stemflow DOC flux (132.4 kg ha(-1)) in the Chinese fir plantation was much higher than the other hardwood stands (15.3 and 6.7 kg ha(-1) in secondary and natural hardwood, respectively). The monthly variations of DOC concentrations were very similar in throughfall and stemflow at the three stands, showing an increase in the beginning of the growing season in April. No clear monthly variations in soil solution DOC concentrations (mean from 3.2 to 21.3 mg l(-1) in different stands and for different depths) were found in our study. DOC concentrations (mean 2.7 mg l(-1)) in the stream draining the watershed were higher in spring and in winter. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Der Naturzustand der sterreichischen Hhlen - Vollerhebung in den Testgebieten Hochtor, Brgeralpe und Anninger., 2005, Herrmann, E.
The first part of a study concerning the status of naturalness (virginity) of Austrian caves comprises overall statistics of three cave regions in Styria and Lower Austria differing in geomorphology and land use. Except in high alpine areas nearly no cave was kept free of human influence if not transformation. Regarding the different motives, the influence of tourism is widespread but never destructive to caves while extraction of raw materials especially in quarries damaged a considerable part of all registered caves. Other cave uses are only of historic interest (like housing, defence) or were never of great importance (like traffic). This paper demonstrates that each karst region shows the effects of its specific human stress on caves. Unfortunately those caves held most important as well as those with large entrances are at the same time most endangered regarding all important aspects: their morphological integrity, their ecological functionality and their aesthetic attractiveness. The rather uniform legislation of cave protection that we have at present is quite unsuitable to guard against the manifold threats caves are facing today. So there is an urgent need for much more diversified strategies and provisions to conserve at least a few remarkable caves in their originality.[Vollerhebung von 120 Hhlen zeigt erhebliche Differenzen im Ausma der menschlichen Einflussnahme auf den unterirdischen Naturraum; Auswertung nach Eingriffsursachen, Hufigkeit der Eingriffe, Eingriffscharakteristik und Regenerierbarkeit auch im Hinblick auf Lage und Erreichbarkeit der Eingnge]

An environmental model of fluvial tufas in the monsoonal tropics, Barkly karst, northern Australia, 2006, Carthew Kd, Taylor Mp, Drysdale Rn,
Spring-fed streams that deposit tufa (ambient temperature freshwater calcium carbonate deposits) in the tropics of northern Australia are influenced strongly by perennially warm water temperatures, high evaporation rates, and monsoon driven high-magnitude floods. This paper presents an environmental model that will aid interpretation of fossil fluvial tufas throughout monsoonal Australia. In the Barkly karst, northern Australia, tufas form in dam, cascade and pool/waterhole geomorphic environments. Each environment is represented in the morphostratigraphical record by a specific combination of tufa geomorphic units and facies associations. A diverse array of tufa facies is present, including microphytic, larval, calcite raft, macrophytic and allochthonous types. Preservation of particular Barkly karst tufa facies is thought to reflect the strength of monsoonal floods. A strong monsoon is represented by an abundance of flood indicators such as the allochthonous phytoclastic, lithoclastic and intraclastic tufa facies. Conversely, evidence of weak monsoons or a prolonged absence of floods may include oncoids, calcite rafts and thick accumulations of fine carbonate sediments. The history of the Australian monsoon is not fully understood. However, fossil tufa deposits, which record terrestrial climate information, have been preserved throughout northern Australia and hold great potential for reconstructing the region's climate history. Fossil tufa sequences at two Barkly karst sites have been interpreted using the new model. It can be applied to other Barkly karst fossil tufas as well as those in similar environments elsewhere in the world. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Barka depression, a denuded shaft in the area of Snez?nik Mountain, southwest Slovenia, 2007, Zupan Hajna N.
On the southern slope of Dedna gora, Slovenia, at an elevation of 1147 m, an interesting large closed depression referred to as Barka (Barge) is developed. It is about 40 m long, 25 m wide and 20 m deep, with smooth, almost polished precipitous walls. It is developed in Upper Cretaceous limestones and affected by several faults and fissure zones. The feature lies within a large karren field (about 104 m2) with many closed depressions of various dimensions. In the winter time, snow accumulates in the bottoms giving the appearance of snow-kettles, such as those found in the Alps. The size and especially the shape of the walls suggests that these features are the remains of shafts. After their primary genesis as the inner vadose shafts of one or more caves, their upper parts would have been denuded. Walls and bottoms were subsequently remodeled by snow and ice action during the last glaciations, and this continues today as winter snow accumulates at their bottoms. This is indicated by silt fragments (gelifraction) and frost rubble accumulated in portions of the depression, and the development of sorted and nonsorted polygons. Shafts that have been exposed at the surface are a potentially important morphological element of karst topography. They can represent a significant portion of closed depressions of different sizes, including many snow-kettles.

Guanophilic fungi in three caves of southwestern Puerto Rico, 2009, Nievesrivera . M. , Santosflores C. J. , Dugan F. M. , Miller T. E.
Fifty species of guanophilic (bat guano-loving) fungi were isolated from field-collected samples within three caves in southwestern Puerto Rico; most were mitosporic fungi (23 species). The caves studied were Cueva La Tuna (Cabo Rojo), Cueva de Malano (Sistema de Los Chorros, San Germn), and Cueva Viento (El Convento Cave-Spring System, Guayanilla-Peuelas). The most conspicuous fungus by far was the zygomycete Circinella umbellata (Mucorales). Circinella umbellata dominated the bat guano incubation chambers (Petri dishes lined with sterile filter paper moistened with sterile water) at ambient laboratory conditions. Nineteen species of basidiomycetes (e.g., Ganoderma cf. resinaceum, Geastrum cf. minimum, Lepiota sp., Polyporus sp., Ramaria sp.) and three species of ascomycetes (Hypoxylon sp., Xylaria anisopleura, and X. kegeliana) were also recorded. They were found on soil, rotting leaves, bark and rotting wood, buried in bat guano located below natural skylights or sinkholes

Guanophilic fungi in three caves of southwestern Puerto Rico, 2009, Nievesrivera . M. , Santosflores C. J. , Dugan F. M. , Miller T. E.

Fifty species of guanophilic (bat guano-loving) fungi were isolated from field-collected samples within three caves in southwestern Puerto Rico; most were mitosporic fungi (23 species). The caves studied were Cueva La Tuna (Cabo Rojo), Cueva de Malano (Sistema de Los Chorros, San Germán), and Cueva Viento (El Convento Cave-Spring System, Guayanilla-Peñuelas). The most conspicuous fungus by far was the zygomycete Circinella umbellata (Mucorales). Circinella umbellata dominated the bat guano incubation chambers (Petri dishes lined with sterile filter paper moistened with sterile water) at ambient laboratory conditions. Nineteen species of basidiomycetes (e.g., Ganoderma cf. resinaceum, Geastrum cf. minimum, Lepiota sp., Polyporus sp., Ramaria sp.) and three species of ascomycetes (Hypoxylon sp., Xylaria anisopleura, and X. kegeliana) were also recorded. They were found on soil, rotting leaves, bark and rotting wood, buried in bat guano located below natural skylights or sinkholes.


Guanophilic fungi in three caves of southwestern Puerto Rico, 2009, Nievesrivera . M. , Santosflores C. J. , Dugan F. M. , Miller T. E.

Fifty species of guanophilic (bat guano-loving) fungi were isolated from field-collected samples within three caves in southwestern Puerto Rico; most were mitosporic fungi (23 species). The caves studied were Cueva La Tuna (Cabo Rojo), Cueva de Malano (Sistema de Los Chorros, San Germán), and Cueva Viento (El Convento Cave-Spring System, Guayanilla-Peñuelas). The most conspicuous fungus by far was the zygomycete Circinella umbellata (Mucorales). Circinella umbellata dominated the bat guano incubation chambers (Petri dishes lined with sterile filter paper moistened with sterile water) at ambient laboratory conditions. Nineteen species of basidiomycetes (e.g., Ganoderma cf. resinaceum, Geastrum cf. minimum, Lepiota sp., Polyporus sp., Ramaria sp.) and three species of ascomycetes (Hypoxylon sp., Xylaria anisopleura, and X. kegeliana) were also recorded. They were found on soil, rotting leaves, bark and rotting wood, buried in bat guano located below natural skylights or sinkholes.


Mapping and monitoring geological hazards using optical, LiDAR, and synthetic aperture RADAR image data, 2014, Joyce K. E. , Samsonov S. V. , Levick S. R. , Engelbrecht J. , Belliss S.

Geological hazards and their effects are often geographically widespread. Consequently, their effective mapping and monitoring is best conducted using satellite and airborne imaging platforms to obtain broad scale, synoptic coverage. With a multitude of hazards and effects, potential data types, and processing techniques, it can be challenging to determine the best approach for mapping and monitoring. It is therefore critical to understand the spatial and temporal effects of any particular hazard on the environment before selecting the most appropriate data type/s and processing techniques to apply. This review is designed to assist the decision-making and selection process when embarking on a hazard mapping or monitoring exercise. It focuses on the application of optical, LiDAR, and synthetic aperture RADAR technologies for the assessment of pre-event risk and postevent damage. Geological hazards of global interest summarized here are landslides and erosion; seismic and tectonic hazards; ground subsidence; and flooding and tsunami


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