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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That chimney is 1. nearly circular shaft rising upwards from the ceiling of a cave towards the surface of the ground; if it does not reach the surface it is termed a blind chimney. if the chimney is formed mainly by solution, it is related to a domepit; if formed mainly by collapse of the roof along bedding planes, it is related to cenote [20]. 2. a narrow vertical shaft in the roof of a cave, generally smaller than an aven; a dome pit [10]. synonyms: (french.) cheminee (aven); (german.) schlot, kamin; (greek.) kapnothochos; (italian.) camino; (russian.) truba; (spanish.) chimenea; (turkish.) baca; (yugoslavian.) dimnjak.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for bioerosion (Keyword) returned 6 results for the whole karstbase:
Littoral dripstone and flowstone-non spelean carbonate secondary deposits., 2003, Stafford Kevin, Taborosi Danko
Speleothem-like dripstone and flowstone deposits can form in the non-spelean environments of marine notches on tropical carbonate coastlines. Hereby termed "littoral dripstone" and "littoral flowstone" to distinguish them from genuine cave deposits, they reflect the basic speleothem types: draperies, stalactites, stalagmites, and columns. Nevertheless, these formations lack the luster and crystallinity of cave analogues, and are not nearly as well-developed, dense, and massive. They are composed of layered microcrystalline aragonite and calcite, are generally highly porous, and invariably overlie dissolutional and bioerosional karren. Because true speleothems, often found in the remnants of solution voids breached by coastal erosion, are also commonly present in the modern littoral environments on tropical carbonate islands, they could be confused with littoral dripstone and flowstone deposits. The distinction between the two is crucial, because the true speleothems are indicators of karst cave paleoenvironments, while littoral dripstone and flowstone are contemporary parts of the modern coastal landscape.

Patterns and controls of surface sediment distribution: west-central Florida inner shelf, 2003, Brooks Gr, Doyle Lj, Davis Ra, Dewitt Nt, Suthard Bc,
The west-central Florida inner shelf represents a transition between the quartz-dominated barrier-island system and the carbonate-dominated mid-outer shelf. Surface sediments exhibit a complex distribution pattern that can be attributed to multiple sediment sources and the ineffectiveness of physical processes for large-scale sediment redistribution. The west Florida shelf is the submerged extension of the Florida carbonate platform, consisting of a limestone karst surface veneered with a thin unconsolidated sediment cover. A total of 498 surface sediment samples were collected on the inner shelf and analyzed for texture and composition. Results show that sediment consists of a combination of fine quartz sand and coarse, biogenic carbonate sand and gravel, with variable but subordinate amounts of black, phosphorite-rich sand. The carbonate component consists primarily of molluskan fragments. The distribution is patchy and discontinuous with no discernible pattern, and the transition between sediment types is generally abrupt. Quartz-rich sediment dominates the inner 15 km north of the entrance into Tampa Bay, but south of the Bay is common only along the inner 3 km. Elsewhere, carbonate-rich sediment is the predominate sediment type, except where there is little sediment cover, in which cases black, phosphorite-rich sand dominates. Sediment sources are likely within, or around the periphery of the basin. Fine quartz sand is likely reworked from coastal units deposited during Pleistocene sea-level high stands. Carbonate sand and gravel is produced by marine organisms within the depositional basin. The black, phosphorite-rich sand likely originates from the bioerosion and reworking of the underlying strata that irregularly crop out within the study area. The distribution pattern contains elements of both storm- and tide-dominated siliciclastic shelves, but it is dictated primarily by the sediment source, similar to some carbonate systems. Other systems with similar sediment attributes include cool-water carbonate, sediment-starved, and mixed carbonate/siliciclastic systems. This study suggests a possible genetic link among the three systems. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

The role of aerial algae in the formation of the landscape of the Yunnan Stone Forest, Yunnan Province, China, 2004, Tian Y. P. , Zhang J. , Song L. H. , Bao H. S. ,
Aerial algae on the surface of carbonate rocks at the Stone Forest, Shilin County, Yunnan Province, China, and their bioerosion were investigated in the field and studied in the laboratory in detail. Through the observation, identification and statistics of more than one hundred algal samples and rock samples with the optical microscopes (stereomicroscope, biological microscope) and the scanning electronic microscope (SEM), the relationships between erosional forms on the surface of the Stone Forest and algae and/or algal communities and the genetic mechanism for the formation of erosional forms were analyzed. It is suggested that aerial algae play an active role in bioerosive processes that may affect the formation of karst erosional forms. These effects include both direct and indirect ones. The direct effect is the initiative control ('algal shape-controlling role') of algae on the formation of karst forms of various scales, mostly micro-scale (<10(-3) m) and minor-scale (10(-3)-10(-1) m) erosional forms. The algal shape-control ling roles can be divided into the algal individual shape-controlling role and the algal community shape-controlling role. The former mostly controls the formation of micro-scale erosional forms, while the latter mostly controls the formation of micro-scale and smaller minor-scale erosional forms. The indirect effect refers to the 'promoting role' of algae in the formation of karst forms, which may affect the formation of karst forms of all types and scales. The bioerosion of algae accelerates the weathering process of the whole Stone Forest karst landforms

Speleogenesis of the Mt. Elgon ?Elephant? Caves, Kenya., 2006, Lundberg, J. And Mcfarlane, D. A.

Shore grykes along the western Istrian coast, 2011, Furlani S. , Chersicla D. , Bressan G. , Biolchi S. , Cucchi F.

coast We provided new data on topography, morphology and physical/chemical parameters (pH, T, NO2-, Ca2+, PO43-, NaCl ) collected in several shore grykes along the Northwestern Istrian coast, between Savudrija and Zambratija. Six transects, each containing four to five pools, have been surveyed. Three morphological zones have been identified along the selected profiles. Morphological features of the shore grykes along the western Istrian coast are, in fact, closely related to the local tide. High-level pools are affected by karstic processes, and the surface is usually smooth. At their bottom, terrigenous deposits, mainly terra rossa, occur. Seaward, bioerosion prevails and at the bottom of the grykes, sand and rounded pebbles have been found. Chemical/physical parameters suggest that grykes located at lower altitudes are affected by seawater factors, while pools located at increasing altitudes are affected mainly by rainfall and consequentially freshwater or saltwater remaining from rainfalls or storm events. Shore gryke genesis is strongly controlled by geological weakness, along which they develop. Their origin is in fact due to local tectonics, while their development is related to the active vertical tectonic subsidence of the study area. Pools located at higher altitudes are mainly affected by solution karst processes, but due to the tectonic downdrop of the area, when the grykes come in contact with sea, they are gradually shaped by marine processes.


The influence of light attenuation on the biogeomorphology of a marine karst cave: A case study of Puerto Princesa Underground River, Palawan, the Philippines, 2015, Coombes Martin A. , La Marca Emanuela C. , Naylor Larissa A. , Piccini Leonardo, De Waele Jo, Sauro Francesco

Karst caves are unique biogeomorphological systems. Cave walls offer habitat for microorganisms which in-turn have a geomorphological role via their involvement in rock weathering, erosion and mineralisation. The attenuation of light with distance into caves is known to affect ecology, but the implications of this for biogeomorphological processes and forms have seldom been examined. Here we describe a semi-quantitative microscopy study comparing the extent, structure, and thickness of biocover and depth of endolithic penetration for samples of rock from the Puerto Princesa Underground River system in Palawan, the Philippines, which is a natural UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Organic growth at the entrance of the cave was abundant (100% occurrence) and complex, dominated by phototrophic organisms (green microalgae, diatoms, cyanobacteria, mosses and lichens). Thickness of this layer was 0.28 ± 0.18 mm with active endolith penetration into the limestone (mean depth = 0.13 ± 0.03 mm). In contrast, phototrophs were rare 50 m into the cave and biofilm cover was significantly thinner (0.01 ± 0.01 mm, p b 0.000) and spatially patchy (33% occurrence). Endolithic penetration here was also shallower (b0.01mm, p b 0.000) and non-uniform. Biofilm was found 250 m into the cave, but with a complete absence of phototrophs and no evidence of endolithic bioerosion.

We attribute these findings to light-induced stress gradients, showing that the influence of light on phototroph abundance has knock-on consequences for the development of limestone morphological features. In marine caves this includes notches, which were most well-developed at the sheltered cave entrance of our study site, and for which variability in formation rates between locations is currently poorly understood.


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