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Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That artesian is synonymous with confined.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for biota (Keyword) returned 35 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 35
The birth of Biospeleology., 1964,
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Motas Constantin
Modern biospeleology dates from May 15, 1907, with the publication of Racovitza's "Essai sur les problmes biospologiques." In this paper he posed; if he did not answer; every question raised by life in the subterranean world. He outlined a program of biospeological research, made an analysis of the conditions of existence in the subterranean domain and their influence upon cavernicoles, discussed the evolution of subterranean biota, their geographical distribution, etc. Racovitza modified Schiner's (1854) classification, dividing cavernicoles into troglobites, troglophiles and trogloxenes, terms later adopted by a great number of biospeologists. The "Essai", called "Racovitza's famous manifest" by Vandel, was considered the birth certificate of biospeology by Antipa (1927) and by Jeannel (1948), its fundamental statute. Jeannel also made major contributions to the young science through his extensive and detailed studies. The names of Racovitza and Jeannel will always be linked as the uncontested masters of biospeology, the founders of Biospeologica, and the authors of Enumration des grottes visites. Apart from Schiner, whose ecological classification of cavernicoles was utilized and modified by Racovitza, they had another forerunner in Vir, a passionate speleologist who often accompanied Martel in his subterranean explorations, once meeting with a serious accident in which he was on the brink of death. Vir (1897, 1899) studied subterranean faunas, establishing the world's first underground laboratory, where he carried on unsuccessful or ill-interpreted experiments. We consider Racovitza and Jeannel's criticism of him too severe. Let us be more lenient with our forerunners, since their mistakes have also contributed to the progress of science, as well as exempting us from repeating them.

Ecological studies in the Mamoth Cave System of Kentucky. I. The Biota., 1968,
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Barr Thomas C.
The Mammoth Cave system includes more than 175 kilometers of explored passages in Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky. Although biologists have explored the caves intermittently since 1822, the inventory of living organisms in the system is still incomplete. The present study lists approximately 200 species of animals, 67 species of algae, 27 species of fungi, and 7 species of twilight-zone bryophytes. The fauna is composed of 22% troglobites, 36% troglophiles, 22% trogloxenes, and 20% accidentals, and includes protozoans, sponges, triclads, nematodes, nematomorphs, rotifers, oligochaetes, gastropods, cladocerans, copepods, ostracods, isopods, amphipods, decapods, pseudoscorpions, opilionids, spiders, mites and ticks, tardigrades, millipedes, centipedes, collembolans, diplurans, thysanurans, cave crickets, hemipterans, psocids, moths, flies, fleas, beetles, fishes, amphibians, birds, and mammals. The Mammoth Cave community has evolved throughout the Pleistocene concomitantly with development of the cave system. The troglobitic fauna is derived from 4 sources: (1) troglobite speciation in situ in the system itself; (2) dispersal along a north Pennyroyal plateau corridor; (3) dispersal along a south Pennyroyal plateau corridor; and (4) dispersal across the southwest slope of the Cumberland saddle merokarst.

Ecological studies in the Mamoth Cave System of Kentucky. I. The Biota., 1968,
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Barr Thomas C.
The Mammoth Cave system includes more than 175 kilometers of explored passages in Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky. Although biologists have explored the caves intermittently since 1822, the inventory of living organisms in the system is still incomplete. The present study lists approximately 200 species of animals, 67 species of algae, 27 species of fungi, and 7 species of twilight-zone bryophytes. The fauna is composed of 22% troglobites, 36% troglophiles, 22% trogloxenes, and 20% accidentals, and includes protozoans, sponges, triclads, nematodes, nematomorphs, rotifers, oligochaetes, gastropods, cladocerans, copepods, ostracods, isopods, amphipods, decapods, pseudoscorpions, opilionids, spiders, mites and ticks, tardigrades, millipedes, centipedes, collembolans, diplurans, thysanurans, cave crickets, hemipterans, psocids, moths, flies, fleas, beetles, fishes, amphibians, birds, and mammals. The Mammoth Cave community has evolved throughout the Pleistocene concomitantly with development of the cave system. The troglobitic fauna is derived from 4 sources: (1) troglobite speciation in situ in the system itself; (2) dispersal along a north Pennyroyal plateau corridor; (3) dispersal along a south Pennyroyal plateau corridor; and (4) dispersal across the southwest slope of the Cumberland saddle merokarst.

Effect of late Pleistocene karst topography on Holocene sedimentation and biota, lower Florida Keys, 1971,
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Dodd Jr, Siemers Ct,

The Biota in the Marine Blue Holes of Andros Island, Bahamas, 1986,
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Trott R. J. , Warner G. F.

PALUSTRINE CARBONATES AND THE FLORIDA EVERGLADES - TOWARDS AN EXPOSURE INDEX FOR THE FRESH-WATER ENVIRONMENT, 1992,
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Platt N. H. , Wright V. P. ,
Palustrine carbonates are shallow fresh-water deposits showing evidence of subaqueous deposition and subaerial exposure. These facies are common in the geological record. The intensity of modification is highly variable depending on the climate and the length of emergence. Palustrine limestones have previously been interpreted as marginal lacustrine deposits from fluctuating, low-salinity carbonate lakes, but several problems remain with existing facies models: 1) palustrine carbonates possess a lacustrine biota but commonly display fabrics similar to those of calcretes and peritidal carbonates; 2) the co-occurrence of calcrete horizons and karst-like cavities is somewhat unusual and appears to indicate contemporaneous carbonate precipitation and dissolution in the vadose zone; 3) the dominance of gray colors indicates water-saturation, apparently inconsistent with the evidence for strong desiccation overprint; 4) profundal lake deposits are generally absent from palustrine sequences, and sublittoral facies commonly make up only a small proportion of total thicknesses; 5) no good modem analogue has been identified for the palustrine environment. Analogy with the Florida Everglades suggests a re-interpretation of palustrine limestones, not as pedogenically modified lake margin facies but as the deposits of extensive, very shallow carbonate marshes. The distribution of environments in the Everglades is determined by the local hydrology, reflecting the control of seasonal water-level fluctuations and topography. Climate and topography were the main controls on deposition of ancient palustrine carbonates. As in peritidal sequences, aggradational cycles are capped by a range of lithologies (evaporites, desiccation and microkarst breccias, calcretes, lignite or coal horizons etc.), permitting interpretation of the climate. Careful analysis of lateral facies variations may permit reconstruction of subtle topography. Consideration of the Florida Everglades as a modem analogue for the palustrine environment has suggested the development of an exposure index for fresh-water carbonates

ORIGIN OF ENDOGENETIC MICRITE IN KARST TERRAINS - A CASE-STUDY FROM THE CAYMAN ISLANDS, 1995,
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Jones B. , Kahle C. F. ,
Cavities in the dolostones of the Cayman Formation (Miocene) on Grand Cayman and Cayman Brac commonly contain spar calcite cements and/or a variety of exogenetic (derived from sources external to the bedrock) and endogenetic (derived from sources in the bedrock) internal sediments. Micrite is a common component in many of these internal sediments. The exogenetic micrite, which is typically laminated and commonly contains fragments of marine biota, originated from the nearby shallow lagoons. The endogenetic micrite formed as a residue from the breakdown of spar calcite crystals by etching, as constructive and destructive envelopes developed around spar calcite crystals, by calcification of microbes, by breakdown of calcified filamentous microbes, and by precipitation from pore waters. Once produced, the endogenetic micrite may be transported from its place of origin by water flowing through the cavities. Endogenetic micrite can become mixed with the exogenetic micrite. Subsequently, it is impossible to recognize the origin of individual particles because the particles in endogenetic micrite are morphologically like the particles in exogenetic micrite. Formation of endogenetic micrite is controlled by numerous extrinsic and intrinsic parameters. In the Cayman Formation, for example, most endogenetic micrite is produced by etching of meteoric calcite crystals that formed as a cement in the cavities or by microbial calcification. As a result, the distribution of the endogenetic micrite is ultimately controlled by the distribution of the calcite cement and/or the microbes-factors controlled by numerous other extrinsic variables. Irrespective of the factors involved in its formation, it is apparent that endogenetic micrite can be produced by a variety of processes that are operating in the confines of cavities in karst terrains

The Chalk as a karstified aquifer: closed circuit television images of macrobiota, 1997,
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Waters A. , Banks D. ,
The use of closed circuit television (CCTV) imaging in the Chalk aquifer of the Thames catchment of southern England, has shed much light on the aquifer's flow mechanisms. CCTV images indicate that flow to a Chalk abstraction borehole is typically via a limited number of highly transmissive solutionenhanced fracture features. These bear some similarities to conduits found in true karstic aquifer systems, and have implications for the modelling of mass transport in the Chalk aquifer. Another feature, typical of karst aquifers, noted during CCTV surveys is the occasional presence of macroscopic biota, arthropods and annelids, apparently inhabiting the Chalk aquifer system

Carbonate platform systems: components and interactions -- an introduction, 2000,
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Insalaco Enzo, Skelton Peter, Palmer Tim J. ,
Carbonate platforms are open systems with natural boundaries in space and time. Across their spatial boundaries there are fluxes of energy (e.g. light, chemical energy in compounds, and kinetic energy in currents and mass flows) and matter (e.g. nutrients, dissolved gases such as CO2, and sediment -- especially, of course, carbonates). Internally, these fluxes are regulated by myriads of interactions and feedbacks (Masse 1995), and the residue is consigned to the geological record. The most distinctive aspect of carbonate platforms is the predominant role of organisms in producing, processing and/or trapping carbonate sediment, even in Precambrian examples. Because of evolutionary changes in this strong biotic input, it is harder to generalize about carbonate platforms than about most other sedimentary systems. Evolution has altered both the constructive and destructive effects of platform-dwelling organisms on carbonate fabrics, with profound consequences for facies development. Moreover, changing patterns in the provision of accommodation space (e.g. between greenhouse and icehouse climatic regimes) have also left their stamp on facies geometries, in turn feeding back to the evolution of the platform biotas. Hence simplistic analogies between modern and ancient platforms may give rise to misleading interpretations of what the latter were like and how they formed. Although a number of carbonate platform and reef specialists have warned of the dangers of such misplaced uniformitarianism (e.g. Braithwaite 1973; Gili et al. 1995; Wood 1999), it remains depressingly commonplace in the literature on ancient carbonate platforms. The endless quest in the literature for an allpurpose definition of reefs' ... This 250-word extract was created in the absence of an abstract

Investigations of microbial origin of karst corrosion of soils depending on different temperatures, 2001,
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Zambo L. , Horvath G. , Telbisz T. ,
The acids accumulating in soils and controlling the solution of carbonates including the predominant CO2, mostly derive from three processes: i) root respiration of higher plants; ii) decomposition of soil organic matter by microorganisms (microbiota) and iii) other decomposition processes not associated with microbial activities. The solution effect under rendzina soils is primarily used for the dissolution of the enclosed limestone fragments and thus here the solution of bedrock is of limited scale. Below karst soils of high clay content the corrosion of bedrock is more intensive than under rendzinas. On the whole, the amount of carbonates dissolved and transported Into the depths of the karst is smaller than below rendzinas. In each soil type studied the solution caused by microbial activities manifold exceeds the rate of solution resulting from temperature factor but there is a manifest dropping trend from rendzina to clays

Partitions, Compartments and Portals: Cave Development in internally impounded karst masses., 2003,
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Osborne, R. A. L

Dykes and other vertical bodies can act as aquicludes within bodies of karst rock. These partitions separate isolated bodies of soluble rock called compartments. Speleogenetically each compartment will behave as a small impounded-karst until the partition becomes breached. Breaches through partitions, portals, allow water, air and biota including humans to pass between sections of caves that were originally isolated.


Nowranie Caves and the Camooweal Karst Area, Queensland: Hydrology, Geomorphology and Speleogenesis, with Notes on Aquatic Biota, 2003,
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Eberhard, Stefan
Development of the Nowranie Caves includes both phreatic and vadose components, with prominent influences on cave geomorphology exerted by joints, bedding and past changes in watertable levels. Active circulation is occurring within a phreatic conduit at moderate depth (22-30 m) below the level of the present watertable. Slugs of flood water can penetrate well into the flooded section of the cave, and it appears that dissolutional enlargement of the conduit may be occurring under present conditions. Speleogenesis in Nowranie Caves incorporates deeper phreatic processes in addition to shallow phreatic (i.e. watertable) processes. A series of three fossil, or occasionally re-flooded, phreatic horizontal levels in the Nowranie Caves correspond with similar levels in other Camooweal caves, and reflect a regional pattern and multi stage history of watertable changes linked with cave development. The stacked series of cave levels may reflect episodic uplift, wetter climatic episodes, or a combination of both - possibly dating from early to mid Tertiary times. Caves and dolines are the major points for groundwater recharge in the Camooweal area, and these are susceptible points for injection of contarninants into the groundwater system. A climatic and distributional relict, and locally endemic, fauna is present in the groundwater. The Nowranie Caves, and Camooweal area generally, has conservation significance as a karst hydrogeological and ecological system that has preserved a history of regional landscape and faunal evolution in northern Australia during the Quaternary.

Environmentally acceptable effect of hydrogen peroxide on cave “lamp-flora”, calcite speleothems and limestones, 2003,
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Faimon J, Stelcl J, Kubesova S, Zimak J,
Mosses, algae, and cyanobacteria (lamp-flora) colonize illuminated areas in show caves. This biota is commonly removed by a sodium hypochlorite solution. Because chlorine and other deleterious compounds are released into a cave environment during lamp-flora cleansing, hydrogen peroxide was tested as an alternative agent. In a multidisciplinary study conducted in the Katerinska Cave (Moravian Karst, Czech Republic), 12 algae- and cyanobacteria taxons and 19 moss taxons were detected. The threshold hydrogen peroxide concentration for the destruction of this lamp-flora was found to be 15 vol.%. Based on laboratory experiments in stirred batch reactors, the dissolution rates of limestones and calcite speleothems in water were determined as 3.77 x 10-3 and 1.81 x 10-3 mol m-2 h-1, respectively. In the 15% peroxide solution, the limestone and speleothem dissolution rates were one order of magnitude higher, 2.00 x 10-2 and 2.21 x 10-2 mol m-2 h-1, respectively. So, the peroxide solution was recognised to attack carbonates somewhat more aggressively than karst water. In order to prevent the potential corrosion of limestone and speleothems, the reaching of preliminary peroxide saturation with respect to calcite is recommended, for example, by adding of few limestone fragments into the solution at least 10 h prior to its application

Nowranie Caves and the Camooweal Karst Area, Queensland: Hydrology, Geomorphology and Speleogenesis, with Notes on Aquatic Biota, 2003,
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Eberhard, Stefan

Development of the Nowranie Caves includes both phreatic and vadose components, with prominent influences on cave geomorphology exerted by joints, bedding and past changes in watertable levels. Active circulation is occurring within a phreatic conduit at moderate depth (22-30 m) below the level of the present watertable. Slugs of flood water can penetrate well into the flooded section of the cave, and it appears that dissolutional enlargement of the conduit may be occurring under present conditions. Speleogenesis in Nowranie Caves incorporates deeper phreatic processes in addition to shallow phreatic (i.e. watertable) processes. A series of three fossil, or occasionally re-flooded, phreatic horizontal levels in the Nowranie Caves correspond with similar levels in other Camooweal caves, and reflect a regional pattern and multi stage history of watertable changes linked with cave development. The stacked series of cave levels may reflect episodic uplift, wetter climatic episodes, or a combination of both - possibly dating from early to mid Tertiary times. Caves and dolines are the major points for groundwater recharge in the Camooweal area, and these are susceptible points for injection of contarninants into the groundwater system. A climatic and distributional relict, and locally endemic, fauna is present in the groundwater. The Nowranie Caves, and Camooweal area generally, has conservation significance as a karst hydrogeological and ecological system that has preserved a history of regional landscape and faunal evolution in northern Australia during the Quaternary.


Biota and biological processes associated with subaerial tufa in the tropics, 2004,
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Taborosi D. , Hirakawa K.

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