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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That horst is a block having been uplifted along its boundary faults [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for canopy (Keyword) returned 7 results for the whole karstbase:
The nutritional status of healthy and declining stands of Banksia integrifolia on the Yanakie Isthmus, Victoria, 1997, Bennett Lt, Attiwill Pm,
Banksia integrifolia L.f. has been in decline an calcareous sands of the Yanakie Isthmus, southern Victoria, since early 1980. Early studies indicated that the decline is associated with a particular soil condition possibly a nutritional imbalance involving Fe. However, in foliage samples collected from the three main soil types of the Isthmus, declining trees had similar concentrations of Fe but lower concentrations of Ca than healthy trees. Comparisons were made of seasonal variation in concentrations of macro- and micro-nutrients in foliage and litterfall from healthy trees (to minimise secondary changes associated with decline) within healthy and declining sites on the same soil type. On average, litterfall and the nutrient content of litterfall was greatest within the canopy area of B. integrifolia of the healthy stand. Banksias of the healthy stand also had greater concentrations of N, P, K and Na in fully-expanded leaves, resorbed greater proportions of phloem-mobile nutrients from senescent leaves and accumulated more Ca in senescent leaves. However, there was no evidence of nutritional imbalance in healthy trees within declining stands. It is argued that the lower foliar Ca in declining trees on three soil types and lower nutritional status of healthy trees within declining stands were due to lower productivity and lower water use and were therefore a result or an indication of decline rather than a cause

Variations in stalagmite luminescence laminae structure at Poole's Cavern, England, AD 1910{}1996: calibration of a palaeoprecipitation proxy, 1999, Baker A, Proctor Cj, Barnes Wl,
Duplicate records of variations in the structure of stalagmite annual luminescence laminae are investi gated for the period ad 1910 to 1996 for Poole's Cavern, Buxton, central England. For the two stalagmites, 88% of the years have luminescence laminae that exhibit a near sinusoidal shape with no structural variations. However 10 laminae (12% of total) exhibit a double band structure; these are demonstrated to occur in years with high monthly or daily mean precipitation. It is suggested that high intensity (.60 mm d- 1) and high quantity (.250 mm per month) of precipitation may flush luminescent organic material onto the stalagmites from either the soil or groundwater zones and generate a double lamina. However, not all precipitation events generated double laminae. High-intensity events in summer were ineffective due to a soil moisture deficit and/or interception by the woodland canopy. High-rainfall months (.250 mm) failed to generate double laminae when preceded by two or more months of greater than 150 mm, suggesting exhaustion of the organic acid supply can occur. When compared to monthly precipitation data for Buxton, laminae shape and the percentage of double laminae of the Poole's Cavern stalagmites are best explained by a centre-weighted running mean of the preceding six to seven months' precipitation. The palaeoclimate potential of structural variations in stalagmite luminescence laminae is discussed

Dissolved organic carbon in precipitation, throughfall, stemflow, soil solution, and stream water at the Guandaushi subtropical forest in Taiwan, 2003, Liu C. P. , Sheu B. H. ,
The concentration and flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were measured in precipitation, throughfall, stemflow, soil solution, and stream water for three types of subtropical forest stands, a Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantation, a secondary hardwood, and a natural hardwood stand in Guandaushi forest in central Taiwan from January 1998 to December 1998. The mean DOC concentration in precipitation was 4.7 mg l(-1). However, in the rain passing through the tree canopies and barks as throughfall and stemflow, the mean concentrations were 7.0 and 30.8, 9.9 and 10.0, and 8.3 and 7.2 mg l(-1) in the Chinese fir plantation, the secondary hardwood, and the natural hardwood, respectively. Mean DOC concentrations in soil solution were lower in the Chinese fir plantation than both hardwoods, and decreased with depth of soil profiles. Stemflow DOC flux (132.4 kg ha(-1)) in the Chinese fir plantation was much higher than the other hardwood stands (15.3 and 6.7 kg ha(-1) in secondary and natural hardwood, respectively). The monthly variations of DOC concentrations were very similar in throughfall and stemflow at the three stands, showing an increase in the beginning of the growing season in April. No clear monthly variations in soil solution DOC concentrations (mean from 3.2 to 21.3 mg l(-1) in different stands and for different depths) were found in our study. DOC concentrations (mean 2.7 mg l(-1)) in the stream draining the watershed were higher in spring and in winter. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Tectonic and Talus Caves at Pilchers Mountain, New South Wales, 2007, Smith, Garry K.
There are fourteen known caves within the Pilchers Mountain Environmental Protection Reserve, in New South Wales, Australia. The reserve contains five main chasms which run generally East-West for approximately one kilometre, over a total width of half a kilometre. The chasms and caves were formed by massive sandstone block separation along sub-parallel joint planes. Movement of the blocks toward the valley floor was aided by the dip of the sandstone layers and presence of underlying shale bands which acted as slip planes when lubricated by groundwater. There are two distinct types of caves at Pilchers Mountain, "tectonic" caves formed by the movement of large blocks of bedrock, and "talus" caves amongst large breakdown rocks and boulders. The chasms provide a micro-climate which supports a pocket of dense, high canopy, subtropical rainforest, and the caves are home to populations of bats and other fauna. The European history of Pilchers Mountain is detailed in chronological order from the early 1800s to the present day. A Plan of Management is in the process of being formulated by stakeholders and interested parties to ensure the continued preservation of the reserve.

Tectonic and Talus Caves at Pilchers Mountain, New South Wales, 2007, Smith G. K.

There are fourteen known caves within the Pilchers Mountain Environmental Protection Reserve, in New South Wales, Australia. The reserve contains five main chasms which run generally East-West for approximately one kilometre, over a total width of half a kilometre. The chasms and caves were formed by massive sandstone block separation along sub-parallel joint planes. Movement of the blocks toward the valley floor was aided by the dip of the sandstone layers and presence of underlying shale bands which acted as slip planes when lubricated by groundwater. There are two distinct types of caves at Pilchers Mountain, "tectonic" caves formed by the movement of large blocks of bedrock, and "talus" caves amongst large breakdown rocks and boulders. The chasms provide a micro-climate which supports a pocket of dense, high canopy, subtropical rainforest, and the caves are home to populations of bats and other fauna. The European history of Pilchers Mountain is detailed in chronological order from the early 1800s to the present day. A Plan of Management is in the process of being formulated by stakeholders and interested parties to ensure the continued preservation of the reserve. 


Tectonic and Talus Caves at Pilchers Mountain, New South Wales, 2007, Smith, Garry K.

There are fourteen known caves within the Pilchers Mountain Environmental Protection Reserve, in New South Wales, Australia. The reserve contains five main chasms which run generally East-West for approximately one kilometre, over a total width of half a kilometre. The chasms and caves were formed by massive sandstone block separation along sub-parallel joint planes. Movement of the blocks toward the valley floor was aided by the dip of the sandstone layers and presence of underlying shale bands which acted as slip planes when lubricated by groundwater. There are two distinct types of caves at Pilchers Mountain, "tectonic" caves formed by the movement of large blocks of bedrock, and "talus" caves amongst large breakdown rocks and boulders. The chasms provide a micro-climate which supports a pocket of dense, high canopy, subtropical rainforest, and the caves are home to populations of bats and other fauna. The European history of Pilchers Mountain is detailed in chronological order from the early 1800s to the present day. A Plan of Management is in the process of being formulated by stakeholders and interested parties to ensure the continued preservation of the reserve.


Detection and morphologic analysis of potential below-canopy cave openings in the karst landscape around the Maya polity of Caracol using airborne LiDAR, 2011, Weishampel J. F. , Hightower J. N. , Chase A. F. , Chase D. Z. , Patrick R. A.

Locating caves can be difficult, as their entranceways are often obscured elow vegetation. Recently, active remote-sensing technologies, in particular laser-based sensor systems (LiDARs), have demonstrated the ability to penetrate dense forest canopies to reveal the underlying ground topography. An airborne LiDAR system was used to generate a 1 m resolution, bare-earth digital elevation model (DEM) from an archaeologically- and speleologically-rich area of western Belize near the ancient Maya site of Caracol. Using a simple index to detect elevation gradients in the DEM, we identified depressions with at least a 10 m change within a circular area of no more than 25 m radius. Across 200 km2 of the karst landscape, we located 61 depressions. Sixty of these had not been previously documented; the other was a cave opening known from a previous expedition. The morphologies of the depressions were characterized based on the LiDAR-derived DEM parameters, e.g., depth, opening area, and perimeter. We also investigated how the measurements change as a function of spatial resolution. Though there was a range of morphologies, most depressions were clustered around an average maximum depth of 21 m and average opening diameter of 15 m. Five depression sites in the general vicinity of the Caracol epicenter were visited; two of these were massive, with opening diameters of ,50 m, two could not be explored for lack of climbing gear, and one site was a cave opening into several chambers with speleothems and Maya artifacts. Though further investigation is warranted to determine the archaeological and geological significance of the remaining depressions, the general methodology represents an important advancement in cave detection.


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