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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That elastic properties is the properties describing deformation of a solid [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for cantabria (Keyword) returned 13 results for the whole karstbase:
Duration of the molts and intermolts of adults and the life span of Stenasellus virei Dollfus (troglobe Asellote Crustacean)., 1971, Magniez Guy
The author's observations of numerous cases of molting in the hypogean asellid Stenasellus virei Dollfus, 1897 appear to show that the phenomenon occurs in two steps. The loss of the anterior exuvium is separated from that of the posterior exuvium by a period of 8 to 16 days in adults from cavernicolous populations of Stenasellus virei in the Pyrenees and Cantabrian Alps. The intermolts last from 9 to 18 months for the same individuals. One must allow, for this species, a minimun life span of 10 years. Values of the same order of magnitude are anticipated for the two other Pyrenees species, Stenasellus breuili Racovitza, 1924 and Stenasellus buili Remy, 1949. These observations agree with those previously made on other cavernicolous peracarid crustaceans, such as Caecosphaeroma burgundum Dollfus and Niphargus virei Chevreux, by Daum (1954), Husson (1959) and Ginet (1960).

Duration of the molts and intermolts of adults and the life span of Stenasellus virei Dollfus (troglobe Asellote Crustacean)., 1971, Magniez Guy
The author's observations of numerous cases of molting in the hypogean asellid Stenasellus virei Dollfus, 1897 appear to show that the phenomenon occurs in two steps. The loss of the anterior exuvium is separated from that of the posterior exuvium by a period of 8 to 16 days in adults from cavernicolous populations of Stenasellus virei in the Pyrenees and Cantabrian Alps. The intermolts last from 9 to 18 months for the same individuals. One must allow, for this species, a minimun life span of 10 years. Values of the same order of magnitude are anticipated for the two other Pyrenees species, Stenasellus breuili Racovitza, 1924 and Stenasellus buili Remy, 1949. These observations agree with those previously made on other cavernicolous peracarid crustaceans, such as Caecosphaeroma burgundum Dollfus and Niphargus virei Chevreux, by Daum (1954), Husson (1959) and Ginet (1960).

Caves of the Cantabrian Mountains, North-West Spain, 1973, Cox G.

Observations on the biology of Stenasellus virei (Crustacea Isopoda Asellota of subterranean waters), 1975, Magniez Guy
St. virei has been bred in the laboratory for many years (1960-1974). Most of the St.v.hussoni were captured in karstic waters, near the Moulis subterranean laboratory. Some St.v.virei from the Padirac sink-hole; St.v.buchneri from Cantabrian caves; St.v.boui and St.v.virei from phreatic waters; and St.buili and St.breuili have also been bred. Since Stenasellids are unable to swim, very low aquariums are used, with a bed of cave clay, some calcareous stones, dead wood and dead elm tree leaves. Little depth of water is necessary. Stenasellus was originally carnivorous, being able to capture and devour living prey, such as Chironomid larvae, but the populations of cave waters have developed a different diet: silt, guano, plant remains..., because they have been often insulated from their original phreatic biocenosis. Nevertheless, the existence of cannibalism among them points out that the predatory behaviour has not completely disappeared. Adult St.virei can be fed with Cerophyl. Some observations on the burrowing activity and on the reactions to light, temperature and salt water have been made. All postmarsupial molts of Stenasellus occur in two steps (isopodian molts). The intramolt is extremely long (from 83 h 30 mi for the first molt of the free young), to 8-12 days, for the adult male and female, 14 days for female reproductive molts and 16-21 days for the molts of aged or senile individuals). The intermolts last from 2 1/2 months (first intermolt of the free young), to 9-12 months (non-reproductive ones of the adult) and 12-18 months (average: 15-16), for reproductive 9 intermolts. The normal lifespan of karstic subspecies of St.virei and related species must be estimated as 12 years (males) and 15 years (females). All these values are 10-20 times longer than these of an epigean Asellid of the same size (Asellus aquaticus). The reproductive cycle has been studied. The adult female is larger than the male. There is no precopulatory pairing ("nuptial ride"d 6-7 years or more, fur the female. In the juvenile male, the morphogenesis of I and Il pleopods takes place normally on intermolts 4-9 and lasts 3 years or more. On intermolt 10, it seems that the male is able to mate.

Geological observations in the Garma Ciega Cave (Cantabrian Mts., Spain). [in Polish], 1978, Grodzicki, Jerzy

Mirabilite from the Garma Ciega Cave. [in Polish], 1978, Grodzicki Jerzy, Koisar Bernard, Zawidzki Pawe?

Palaeosecular variation observed in speleothems from western China and northern Spain, PhD thesis, 1996, Openshaw, S. J.

This study has produced records of the palaeosecular variation (PSV) of the earth's magnetic field from Speleothems from China and Spain. The ultimate aim of this project was to produce contemporaneous PSV records which would show that Speleothems accurately record ambient geomagnetic field behaviour. From Sichuan Province, China, five Speleothems were collected of which four were studied for their records of PSV. Eight Spanish Speleothems from the Cantabrian coast were collected but their weak magnetisation allowed only one record of PSV to be produced.
All speleothem sub-samples were weakly magnetised and had, on average, initial intensities of <100 x 10-8 Am2kg-1. Despite this, the majority of sub-samples were stable during stepwise alternating-field and thermal demagnetisation and each displayed a single component of magnetisation after removal of any secondary overprints. Rock magnetic experiments were hampered by low mineral concentrations but suggested that the remanences of each speleothem were carried by a mixture of multi and single-domain (titano-) magnetite and also by haematite present in significant quantities. The primary method of remanence acquisition appeared to be a depositional remanence sourced from flooding. This was corroborated by a linear relationship between sub-sample intensities and weight % acid insoluble detritus.
A selection of sub-samples from each speleothem were dated using uranium-thorium disequilibrium and alpha spectrometry. For the majority of sub-samples the low concentrations of uranium, high levels of detrital contamination and initially low chemical yields raised the associated dating inaccuracies above the quoted level for alpha spectrometry of 5-10%. Two Spanish Speleothems had high uranium concentrations and little, or no, detrital contamination. Percent age errors of these Speleothems ranged from 1 to 6%. Comprehensive experiments on the efficiencies of three electrodeposition methods were also undertaken. The most efficient method was found to be a modified version of the Hallstadius method (Hallstadius, 1984), which consistently achieved chemical yields between 40 and 90% for uranium and thorium.
In order to correct more analytically for the presence of detrital contamination, the leachate/leachate method of Schwarcz and Latham (1989) was tested. The maximum likelihood estimation data treatment technique (Ludwig and Titterington, 1994) was used to calculate dates from these analyses. Tests on Mexican speleothem SSJ2 gave excellent results allowing a revised dating scheme to be adopted. Tests on some sub-samples from Chinese Speleothems were generally unsuccessful due to analytical errors.
The isotope 210Pb was used to date the top surface of one speleothem. A constant growth rate was inferred which was significantly less than that calculated from the 230Th - 234U dating method. This was thought to be due to the former techniques inability to resolve growth rates of periods of less than 200 years.
Despite the dating errors associated with each speleothem the records of PSV compare well with each other and with contemporaneous records from China, Japan and also the UK (for the Spanish record). In addition. agreement with PSV data modelled from observatory records suggested that westward drift of the non-dipole geomagnetic field was predominant during the past 10ka.


Geological features, permeability and groutability characteristics of the Zimapan Dam Foundation, Hidalgo State, Mexico, 1997, Foyo A, Tomillo C, Maycotte Ji, Willis P,
The geology of the Zimapan Dam foundation has a significant influence on the permeability and groutability characteristics. The dam foundation is composed of a sequence of dolomitic limestones and dolomitic breccia of the late Jurassic period. Karst phenomena contribute the main structural features. In this paper the relationships between the karstic features and the permeability characteristics of the Zimapan Dam foundation have been evaluated. A modification of the low pressure test (Foyo and Cerda, 1990) for analyzing the permeability characteristics was carried out. This type of permeability test permits the determination of the critical pressure and the analysis of the differences between the critical manometric pressures and the real critical pressures induced during the test performance. Permeability and hydrofracture tests results were used in the foundation for the design of the grouting programme, and the karstic features of the formation were grouted using a special treatment process. The relationships between the permeability and the grouting results have been analyzed

Cave development along the water table in Cobre System (Sierra de Penalabra, Cantabrian Mountain, N. Spain), 1997, Rossi C. , Munoz A. , Cortel A.

Geology and Geochemistry of the Reocin Zinc-Lead Deposit, Basque-Cantabrian Basin, Northern Spain, 2003, Velasco Francisco, Herrero Jose Miguel, Yusta Inaki, Alonso Jose Antonio, Seebold Ignacio, Leach David,
The Reocin Zn-Pb deposit, 30 km southwest of Santander, Spain, occurs within Lower Cretaceous dolomitized Urgonian limestones on the southern flank of the Santillana syncline. The Reocin deposit is one of the largest known strata-bound, carbonate-hosted, zinc-lead deposits in Europe. The total metal endowment of the deposit, including past production and remaining reserves, is 62 Mt of ore grading 8.7 percent Zn and 1.0 percent Pb. The epigenetic mineralization consists of sphalerite and galena, with lesser marcasite and trace pyrite with dolomite as gangue. Microprobe analyses of different generations of dolomite revealed nonstoichiometric compositions with various amounts of iron (up to 14 mol % of FeCO3). Replacement of host dolomite, open-space filling of fractures, and cementation of breccias derived from dissolution collapse are the principal types of ore occurrence. Detailed cross-section mapping indicates a stratigraphic and structural control on the deposit. A stratiform morphology is present in the western part of the orebody (Capa Sur), whereas mineralization in the eastern part is highly discordant but strata bound (Barrendera). Stratigraphic studies demonstrate that synsedimentary tectonic activity, related to the rifting of the North Atlantic (Bay of Biscay), was responsible for variation in sedimentation, presence of unconformities (including paleokarsts), local platform emergence and dolomitization along the N60 fault trend. In the Reocin area, two stages of dolomitization are recognized. The first stage is a pervasive dolomitization of the limestone country rocks that was controlled by faulting and locally affected the upper part of the Aptian and the complete Albian sequence. The second dolomitization event occurred after erosion and was controlled by karstic cavities. This later dolomitization was accompanied by ore deposition and, locally, filling of dolomite sands and clastic sediments in karstic cavities. The circulation of hydrothermal fluids responsible for sulfide deposition and the infilling of karst cavities were broadly contemporaneous, indicating a post-Albian age. Vitrinite reflectance data are consistent with previously measured fluid inclusion temperatures and indicate temperatures of ore deposition that were less than 100{degrees}C. Carbon and oxygen isotopic data from samples of regional limestone, host-rock dolostone and ore-stage dolomite suggest an early hydrothermal alteration of limestone to dolostone. This initial dolomitization was followed by a second period of dolomite formation produced by the mixing of basinal metal-rich fluids with local modified seawater. Both dolomitization events occurred under similar conditions from fluids exhibiting characteristics of basinal brines. The{delta} 34S values of sulfides are between -1.8 and .5 per mil, which is consistent with thermochemical sulfate reduction involving organic matter as the main source of reduced sulfur. Galena lead isotope compositions are among the most radiogenic values reported for Zn-Pb occurrences in Europe, and they are distinct from values reported for galena from other Basque-Cantabrian deposits. This suggests that a significant part of the lead was scavenged from the local underlying Asturian sediments. The stratigraphic and structural setting, timing of epigenetic mineralization, mineralogy, and isotopic geochemistry of sulfide and gangue minerals of the Reocin deposit are consistent with the features of most of Mississippi Valley-type ore deposits

Black Mn-Fe Crusts as Markers of Abrupt Palaeoenvironmental Changes in El Soplao Cave (Cantabria, Spain), 2011, Gzquez Fernando, Calaforra Jose Maria, Forti Paolo

Peculiar iron and manganese deposits coating walls, floors and ceilings of many galleries are one of the special features of the El Soplao Cave (Cantabria, Spain). These speleothems appear to have been deposited over wall clay deposits, as well as forming part of flowstones. Structure of crusts is essentially amorphous but several manganese and iron oxides were identified like goethite and birnessite, though all occur with a low degree of crystallinity. In the outer layer of the crusts, alteration iron minerals appear that derive from previous minerals in a process probably mediated by microorganisms. EDX microanalyses report fairly high values of Fe and Mn in the crusts, though the Mn/Fe ratio varies considerably as a function of distance from the substrate/bedrock. The present study proposes a genetic model for crust speleothems in El Soplao, based on oscillations of the phreatic level. The origin of these deposits is related to mobilization, under phreatic conditions, of polymetallic sulfides in the host rock. Metal ions (including Fe²⁺ and Mn²⁺) released into the cave under reducing conditions, are oxidized and fixed in a process mediated by bacteria, giving rise to oxides and hydroxides of low crystallinity. The presence of various black intercalated layers in aragonite flowstones indicate periods when cave conditions suddenly changed from vadose, when aragonite is precipitated, to phreatic and epiphreatic conditions, when the Mn-Fe deposits are precipitated. Subsequently, vadose conditions were re-established, leading to the final stages of precipitation of aragonite recorded in the flowstone and recent aragonite helictites on the surface of the Mn-Fe crusts.


Geological methods applied to speleogenetical research in vertical caves: the example of Torca Teyera shaft (Picos de Europa, northern Spain), 2011, Ballesteros Daniel, Jimenezsanchez Montserrat, Garciasansegundo Joaquin, Giralt Santiago

Research in large vertical caves (shafts) is rare and usually restricted to speleological explorations because of difficult access. The systemic methodology of work in shafts has not been established. Picos de Europa massif, in the Cantabrian Mountains of Spain, has a spectacular development of shafts deeper than 500 m. One of them is Torca Teyera cave, which is 738 m deep and 4 km long.
The present study established a methodology to characterize the geological and geomorphological aspects of this special group of caves and to identify the factors contributing to karst development. The research is multidisciplinary, needs data from the cave and the caves’ surroundings and involves (1) the speleological cave survey at a 1:500 scale: the construction of a 3D model and morphometric analyses; (2) the geomorphological mapping on the cave survey at 1:500; (3) the geological and fracture mapping of the cave environment and cross section at 1:5.000; and (4) the comparison in stereographic projection of the obtained survey data and joint measures.


Organic matter of fossil origin in the amberine speleothems from El Soplao Cave (Cantabria, Northern Spain), 2012, Gzquez Fernando, Jose Maria Calaforra, Fernando Rull, Paolo Forti, And Antonio Garcacasco.

Unusual amberine-coloured speleothems were recently found in El Soplao Cave (Cantabria, Spain). Chromophore elements such as Fe, Mn, Cd, Co or Ti were not present in significant quantities. Rather, our data show that their colour comes from leachates of fossilized organic material hosted in the carbonaceous Urgonian facies of the host rock. These leachates are related to the Cretaceous amber deposit that has been recently discovered in the vicinity of El Soplao Cave. The presence of humic and fulvic acids of fossil origin were confirmed by IR and Raman spectroscopic analysis of the carbonaceous strata and the speleothems. In addition, the mineralogy of the amberine speleothems was studied. Alternating bands made of calcite and aragonite reveal that periods of humidity and aridity occurred within the cave during the speleothem genesis.


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