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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That brine is water containing more than 100,000 ppm of total dissolved solids [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for cave protection (Keyword) returned 8 results for the whole karstbase:
Working with knowledge at the science/policy interface: a unique example from developing the Tongass Land Management Plan, 2000, Shawiii Charles G. , Everest Fred H. , Swanston Douglas N. ,
An innovative, knowledge-based partnership between research scientists and resource managers in the U.S. Forest Service provided the foundation upon which the Forest Plan was developed that will guide management on the Tongass National Forest for the next 10-15 years. Criteria developed by the scientists to evaluate if management decisions were consistent with the available information base were applied to major components of the emerging final management strategy for the Forest. While the scientists remained value neutral on the contents of the Forest Plan and the management directions provided in it, their evaluation indicated that the decisions it contained for riparian and fish sustainability, wildlife viability, karst and cave protection, slope stability, timber resources, social/economic effects, and monitoring achieved a high degree of consistency with the available scientific information. The Forest Plan, revised to conform with existing scientific knowledge, represents a management strategy designed to sustain the diversity and productivity of the ecosystem while producing goods and services commensurate with the agency’s multiple-use mandate. Execution of this research/management partnership highlighted the role of scientific knowledge in forestry decision-making and provided a new mechanism to input such information into the decision making process. The partnership continues as the scientists are addressing high priority information needs generated by the planning effort in order to have additional information available for plan implementation and revision through adaptive management over the next 3-5 years

TEMPERATURE MONITORING IN ŠKOCJANSKE JAME CAVES, 2002, Kranjc Andrej, Opara Bogdan

In 1884 J. Marinitsch started to measure and note down the data of temperature in the Škocjanske jame caves and nearby. The results for the period 1886-1914 are recorded in the "Höhlenbuch". During the year 1928 detailed microclimatic measurements are performed simultaneously on the surface and underground. In the years 1960-1962 the members of the Ljubljana University have carried on the meteorological observations in the cave and specially in the collapse doline Velika dolina. In 1992 Karst Research Institute started to monitor the temperatures. Later on 5 temperature recorders were placed into different parts of the cave. The results of the two years (May 1997 - May 1999) were analysed and are presented in this paper. Although the annual mean values are rather similar (10.6° and 10.1°C), there is a great amplitude between the monthly mean values (1.6° to 17.3°). The absolute temperatures range between -1.5° and 21.9°C. The most important factors are distance from the entrance, and the vertical position. The comparison between temperatures of the Reka river and the air temperatures bears an important correlation. Previous results of this short period already show that the part of Škocjanske jame, where the Reka river is flowing, is an extremely dynamic cave and the visitors cannot have much impact on it's meteorology.


MICROCLIMATIC RESEARCH IN THE SLOVAKIAN SHOW CAVES, 2002, Zelinka, Jan

The paper deals with the activities of the Cave Protection Department of the Slovak Caves Administration in the field of speleoclimatic monitoring in the Slovakian show caves since 1996. The monitoring is concentrated on detail survey of basic climatic parameters processes (temperature, relative air humidity, dew point, air velocity, atmospheric pressure etc.) in by now studied show caves during minimally one year. The essence of obtained knowledge is to enhance cave protection in the practice of show caves, better understand the geoecosystems; determine visitors' influence, the period of regeneration and evaluation of possible negative influences. The results of the monitoring are used for determining the carrying capacity of individual caves, limits for visitors, guiding the manageiant and other necessary measures. Presented caves were surveyed by priorities like: World Heritage site, ice caves, natural air mass communication with surface climate, potential threats - all in relation to cave utilization and operation. Technical eqqipment, as well as research methodology are described in detail in the paper.


Der Naturzustand der sterreichischen Hhlen - Vollerhebung in den Testgebieten Hochtor, Brgeralpe und Anninger., 2005, Herrmann, E.
The first part of a study concerning the status of naturalness (virginity) of Austrian caves comprises overall statistics of three cave regions in Styria and Lower Austria differing in geomorphology and land use. Except in high alpine areas nearly no cave was kept free of human influence if not transformation. Regarding the different motives, the influence of tourism is widespread but never destructive to caves while extraction of raw materials especially in quarries damaged a considerable part of all registered caves. Other cave uses are only of historic interest (like housing, defence) or were never of great importance (like traffic). This paper demonstrates that each karst region shows the effects of its specific human stress on caves. Unfortunately those caves held most important as well as those with large entrances are at the same time most endangered regarding all important aspects: their morphological integrity, their ecological functionality and their aesthetic attractiveness. The rather uniform legislation of cave protection that we have at present is quite unsuitable to guard against the manifold threats caves are facing today. So there is an urgent need for much more diversified strategies and provisions to conserve at least a few remarkable caves in their originality.[Vollerhebung von 120 Hhlen zeigt erhebliche Differenzen im Ausma der menschlichen Einflussnahme auf den unterirdischen Naturraum; Auswertung nach Eingriffsursachen, Hufigkeit der Eingriffe, Eingriffscharakteristik und Regenerierbarkeit auch im Hinblick auf Lage und Erreichbarkeit der Eingnge]

Der Naturzustand der sterreichischen Hhlen - Vollerhebung in den Testgebieten Hochtor, Brgeralpe und Anninger, 2005, Herrmann, E.
The first part of a study concerning the status of naturalness (virginity) of Austrian caves comprises overall statistics of three cave regions in Styria and Lower Austria differing in geomorphology and land use. Except in high alpine areas nearly no cave was kept free of human influence if not transformation. Regarding the different motives, the influence of tourism is widespread but never destructive to caves while extraction of raw materials especially in quarries damaged a considerable part of all registered caves. Other cave uses are only of historic interest (like housing, defence) or were never of great importance (like traffic). This paper demonstrates that each karst region shows the effects of its specific human stress on caves. Unfortunately those caves held most important as well as those with large entrances are at the same time most endangered regarding all important aspects: their morphological integrity, their ecological functionality and their aesthetic attractiveness. The rather uniform legislation of cave protection that we have at present is quite unsuitable to guard against the manifold threats caves are facing today. So there is an urgent need for much more diversified strategies and provisions to conserve at least a few remarkable caves in their originality.

The Virginia Cave Protection Act: a review (19662009), 2009, Lera T.
The Virginia Cave Protection Act was first ratified in 1966, with a major revision in 1979, yet Virginia cave and karst resources are still threatened by vandalism, pollution, and poorly planned development. As public interest in outdoor recreation continues to grow and land development accelerates in the Appalachian Valley and Ridge Province west of the Blue Ridge Mountains, increased pressure will be put on Virginias limited and fragile cave resources. Over the past thirty years, there have been many important court cases in Virginia, as well as countless state and federal actions. The difficulty of apprehension and prosecution of vandals demonstrates the inadequacy of current penalties. More prosecutions and harsher penalties will invariably serve as a deterrent to future potential vandals. Complex state projects, like highway widening and the construction of new prisons and airports, put additional pressure on karst areas. In order to preserve the unique educational, recreational, scientific, historic, and economic values of Virginia caves and karst, the Virginia Cave Board has been authorized to safeguard these resources.

Underground meteorology - Whats the weather underground?, 2010, Badino, Giovanni

The aim of this work is to provide a synthetic outline of some of the processes of transient nature occurring in caves, focusing on poorly studied general aspects of underground physics and mainly making use of original experimental data. In the first part, the average climatic conditions of a caves, their connection to the external climate, and the general role played by rock, water, air and external morphology are discussed. The variation of the internal temperature with the altitude is a key parameter for the cave physics: the related energetic consequences are briefly discussed. In the second part, transient processes are considered, and a general overview of main meteorological phenomena occurring underground is given. The physics of thermal sedimentation, of underground temperature ranges, of infrasonic oscillations of cave atmospheres and, above all, of water vapour condensation in caves is synthetically described. The experimental study of these processes is extremely difficult, because they are time dependent and have very small amplitude; the first measurements show, however, that their variability from one cave to another, and from point to point inside a cave, is surprisingly high. To provide a more correct interpretation of underground climatic measurements, for their speleogenetic role and importance in cave environment protection, a better understanding of the processes described here is essential.


Delineating Protection Areas for Caves Using Contamination Vulnerability Mapping Techniques: The Case of Herreras Cave, Asturias, Spain, 2012, Marn A. I. , Andrea B. , Jimnezsnchez M. , Dominguezcuesta M. J. , Melndezasensio

 

Diverse approaches are adopted for cave protection. One approach is delineating protection areas with regard to their vulnerability to contamination. This paper reports the main results obtained from the delineation of a protection zone for Herrerı´as Cave, declared of Cultural Interest by the Asturias Regional Government, based on assessing its vulnerability to contamination. The cave is situated in a complex karst hydrogeologic environment in which groundwater flows from southwest to northeast, following the bedrock structure. A stream flows inside the cave, emerging in a spring located to the northeast of the system. Karst recharge occurs by direct infiltration of rainfall over limestone outcrops, concentrated infiltration of surface runoff in the watershed draining the cave, and deferred infiltration of water from alluvial beds drained by influent streams. The soil and vegetation covers are natural in the majority of the test site, but land uses in the watershed, including scattered farming, stock breeding, quarrying, and tourist use, are changing the natural characteristics and increasing the cave’s vulnerability to contamination. The procedure followed for delineating protection zones is based on the method COP+K that is specifically designed for vulnerability mapping of groundwater springs in carbonate aquifers. To cover the hydrological basin included in the cave’s catchment area, the protection zones established includes two different areas, the hydrogeological catchment basin and adjacent land that contributes runoff. Different degrees of protection in the zones have been proposed to make human activity compatible with conservation of the cave, and our results show remarkable differences from the protection zone previously proposed for the same area.


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