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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That dispersivity is a geometric property of a porous medium which determines the dispersion characteristics of the medium by relating the components of pore velocity to the dispersion coefficient [22].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for decision-making (Keyword) returned 9 results for the whole karstbase:
Predicting travel times and transport characterization in karst conduits by analyzing tracer-breakthrough curves, , Morales Tomas, De Valderrama Inigo, Uriarte Jesus A. , Antiguedad Inaki, Olazar Martin,
SummaryThis paper analyzes data obtained in 26 tracer tests carried out in 11 karstic connections following solutional conduits in karst aquifers in the Basque Country. These conduits are preferential drainage pathways in these aquifers and so they confer a marked anisotropy and high vulnerability to them. Consequently, their consideration in protection and management studies and projects is a priority.The connections studied cover a wide hydrogeological spectrum (a wide range of sizes, slopes, geomorphic and hydrologic types) and the tests have been carried out at different hydrodynamic states. It is noteworthy that they all follow a similar trend, which has allowed for the development of a statistical approximation for the treatment of the whole information.Relationships have been established involving velocity, solute time of arrival, attenuation of peak concentration and time of passage of tracer cloud. These relationships are a valuable tool for management and supporting decision-making and allow for making estimates in connections in which the information available was scarce. This information is especially useful, given that the complexity of transport in karst conduits gives way to important deviations between real data (empirical observations) and the data obtained by simple approaches based on the Fickian-type diffusion equation

Mapping groundwater vulnerability: the Irish perspective, 1998, Daly D, Warren Wp,
The groundwater protection scheme used in the Republic of Ireland since the 1980s had not encompassed the vulnerability mapping concept. Yet internationally, vulnerability maps were becoming an essential part of groundwater protection schemes and a valuable tool in environmental management. Consequently, following a review of protection schemes world-wide, the scheme used in Ireland was updated and amended to include vulnerability maps as a crucial component of the scheme. The approach taken to vulnerability assessments and mapping in the Republic of Ireland has been dictated by the following fundamental questions: Vulnerability of what? Vulnerability to what? Which factors determine the degree of vulnerability? What is the appropriate scale for map production? How can limitations and uncertainties be taken into account? How can vulnerability assessments be integrated into environmental and resource management? The following decisions were made: (i) we should map the vulnerability of groundwater, not aquifers or wells/springs; (ii) the position in the groundwater system specified to be of interest is the water-table (i.e. first groundwater encountered) in either sand/gravel aquifers or in bedrock; (iii) we should map the vulnerability of groundwater to contaminants generated by human activities (natural impacts are a separate issue); (iv) as the main threat to groundwater in Ireland is posed by point sources, we should map the vulnerability of groundwater to contaminants released at 1-2 m below the ground surface; (v) the characteristics of individual contaminants should not be taken into account; (vi) the natural geological and hydrogeological factors that determine vulnerability are the sub-soils above the watertable, the recharge type (whether point or diffuse) and, in sand/gravels, the thickness of the unsaturated zone; (vii) based on these factors, four vulnerability categories are used (extreme, high, moderate and low); (viii) map scales of 1:50 000 and 1:10 000 are preferred; (ix) limitations and uncertainties are indicated by appropriate wording on the maps and a disclaimer; (x) vulnerability maps should be incorporated into groundwater protection schemes, which should be used in decision-making on the location and control of potentially polluting developments. Vulnerability maps have now been produced for a number of local authority areas. They are an important part of county groundwater protection schemes as they provide a measure of the likelihood of contamination, assist in ensuring that protection schemes are not unnecessarily restrictive of human economic activity, help in the choice of engineering preventative measures, and enable major developments, which have a significant potential to contaminate, to be located in areas of relatively low vulnerability and therefore of relatively low risk, from a groundwater perspective

Working with knowledge at the science/policy interface: a unique example from developing the Tongass Land Management Plan, 2000, Shawiii Charles G. , Everest Fred H. , Swanston Douglas N. ,
An innovative, knowledge-based partnership between research scientists and resource managers in the U.S. Forest Service provided the foundation upon which the Forest Plan was developed that will guide management on the Tongass National Forest for the next 10-15 years. Criteria developed by the scientists to evaluate if management decisions were consistent with the available information base were applied to major components of the emerging final management strategy for the Forest. While the scientists remained value neutral on the contents of the Forest Plan and the management directions provided in it, their evaluation indicated that the decisions it contained for riparian and fish sustainability, wildlife viability, karst and cave protection, slope stability, timber resources, social/economic effects, and monitoring achieved a high degree of consistency with the available scientific information. The Forest Plan, revised to conform with existing scientific knowledge, represents a management strategy designed to sustain the diversity and productivity of the ecosystem while producing goods and services commensurate with the agency’s multiple-use mandate. Execution of this research/management partnership highlighted the role of scientific knowledge in forestry decision-making and provided a new mechanism to input such information into the decision making process. The partnership continues as the scientists are addressing high priority information needs generated by the planning effort in order to have additional information available for plan implementation and revision through adaptive management over the next 3-5 years

Chalk engineering geology - Channel Tunnel Rail Link and North Downs Tunnel, 2003, Warren C. D. , Mortimore R. N. ,
Agreat part of the Channel Tunnel Rail Link (CTRL) is constructed through the Chalk and the ground investigation for the CTRL has yielded a mass of new information on allaspects of the Chalk. A precise bed by bed lithostratigraphy obtained from cored boreholes has aided engineering description, classification, decision making on design of machines and construction methods/specifications. Correlation of Chalk marker beds between boreholes drilled for the tunnels beneath London illustrated the influence of sub-Tertiary erosion and of faulting onpreservation of different stratigraphic levels in the Chalk. These different stratigraphic levels affect materials through which the tunnels will be constructed andconsequently tunnel vertical alignment or choice of construction method. The marker bed stratigraphy in the Thames Tunnel boreholes has enabled the same stratigraphic levels to be identified in local quarries and detailed analyses to be carried out for the design of Tunnel Boring Machines. Using individual marker beds, a detailed ground profile was constructed for the North Downs Tunnel which allowed fault zones to be predicted accurately and the different rock mass character of the Chalk formations to be delimited for numerical modelling, design zones and construction monitoring. The project also provided the opportunity to evaluate the CIRIA Chalk Grading scheme

Suitability Assessment for New Minia City, Egypt: A GIS Approach to Engineering Geology, 2005, Aly Mh, Giardino Jr, Klein Ag,
Urban development is a high priority in Egypt. New Minia City, located on the eastern bank of the Nile River, approximately 250 km south of Cairo, is one of 16 new development communities. Urban development in New Minia City may encounter several geo-environmental problems. Karst conditions and structural features in the local heterogeneous bedrock limit its suitability for constructional purposes. In this research, suitability of the area for urban development was assessed using a geographic information systems (GIS)-based approach. A weighted GIS model that incorporated land use/cover, types of soil, karst feature distribution, fracture densities, slopes, distances to major faults and streams, road network, and city boundaries was established to create a map of site suitability for the city. Model weights were developed using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) approach. Current urban land use within New Minia City falls into four classes of suitability. Approximately 7 percent of the area built by 2002 is in the low suitability class, which suggests that the map of site suitability can serve as a reliable base for planning sustainable development in New Minia City. The developed map of site suitability is effective for assessing and revealing ratings of suitability for urban development. Furthermore, the map of suitability provides the foundation for informed decision making in the development of New Minia City

Validation of vulnerability mapping methods by field investigations and numerical modelling, 2008, Neukum Christoph, Hotzl Heinz, Himmelsbach Thomas

Vulnerability maps illustrate the potential threat of contaminants to groundwater and can be considered as important tools for land-use planning and related legislation. For karst areas with characteristic preferential infiltration conditions, vulnerability maps are also excellent tools for source and resource protection. However, the resulting qualitative maps are often inconsistent and even contradictive and thus might lead to inconclusive vulnerability assessments. The results of a validation of vulnerability maps produced using four different methods, DRASTIC, GLA, PI and EPIK, are reported for a karst area in southwest Germany. By means of measured hydraulic and transport parameters of the geological sequence, numerical simulations were used based on a conceptual model for the area under study. The mean transit time through the unsaturated zone (resource protection) was used as the validation parameter. The study demonstrates that the highest level of accuracy is achieved with the GLA- and PI methods. Both DRASTIC and EPIK are not able to incorporate highly variable distributions and thickness of cover sediments and their protective properties in the respective mapping procedure. Thus, vulnerability maps produced with DRASTIC, EPIK, and related methods should be used with care when employed in vulnerability assessments for land use planning and related decision-making.
Les cartes de vulnerabilite illustrent la menace potentielle des contaminants envers les eaux souterraines, et peuvent etre considerees comme des outils importants en matiere d'amenagement foncier et de reglementation associee. Sur les domaines karstiques, caracterises par des conditions d'infiltration preferentielle, ces cartes sont egalement d'excellents outils de protection des sources et des ressources. Cependant, les cartes qualitatives resultantes sont generalement incoherentes voire contradictoires, et peuvent par la-meme mener a des evaluations de vulnerabilite peu concluantes. La presente etude expose les resultats de validation de cartes de vulnerabilite produites selon quatre methodes differentes (DRASTIC, GLA, PI et EPIK), dans le cas d'un domaine karstique du sud-est de l'Allemagne. Par le biais des parametres de transport et hydrauliques mesures sur la sequence geologique, des simulations numeriques basees sur un modele conceptuel du secteur d'etude ont ete utilisees. Les temps de transit moyens a travers la zone non saturee (protection de la ressource) ont ete utilises comme parametres de validation. L'etude demontre que le niveau maximum de precision est obtenu par les methodes GLA et PI. Dans la phase de cartographie, les methodes EPIK et DRASTIC sont incapables d'integrer une forte variabilite dans les distributions et les epaisseurs de sediments de couverture, ainsi que dans leurs potentiels de protection. Aussi, les cartes de vulnerabilite produites par les methodes DRASTIC et EPIK doivent etre utilisees avec precaution dans le cadre des evaluations de vulnerabilite a but decisionnaire pour les amenagements fonciers.
Los mapas de vulnerabilidad ilustran la amenaza potencial de contaminantes para el agua subterranea y pueden ser considerados herramientas importantes para planeamiento del uso de la tierra y legislacion relacionada. Para areas carsticas con sus caracteristicas condiciones de infiltracion preferencial, los mapas de vulnerabilidad son tambien excelentes herramientas para proteccion de fuentes y recursos. Sin embargo, los mapas cualitativos resultantes son frecuentemente inconsistentes y hasta contradictorios y por lo tanto podrian conducir a evaluaciones de vulnerabilidad no concluyentes. Los resultados de una validacion de mapas de vulnerabilidad producidos usando cuatro metodos diferentes, DRASTIC, GLA, PI y EPIK, son presentados aqui para un area carstica en Alemania suroccidental. Se usaron simulaciones numericas usando parametros hidraulicos y de transporte medidos de la secuencia geologica y basandose en un modelo conceptual del area en estudio. El tiempo promedio de transito a traves de la zona no saturada (proteccion del recurso) fue utilizado como el parametro de validacion. El estudio demuestra que el maximo nivel de precision es alcanzado con los metodos GLA y PI. DRASTIC y EPIK no fueron capaces de incorporar distribuciones altamente variables ni espesor de sedimentos de cubierta y sus propiedades protectivas en el respectivo procedimiento de elaboracion de mapas. Por lo tanto los mapas de vulnerabilidad producidos con DRASTIC, EPIK y metodos relacionados deberian ser usados con cuidado cuando se usen en evaluaciones de vulnerabilidad para planeamiento del uso de tierra


Laser Scanning Technology for the Hypogean Survey: the case of Santa Barbara Karst System (Sardinia, Italy), 2011, Canevese Erminio Paolo, Forti Paolo , Naseddu Angelo, Ottelli Luciano, Tedeschi Roberta

The morphological knowledge of the territory, both in its surface and subterranean aspects, is the main premise to all decision-making procedures as well as all planning and management activities. Knowledge takes shape into reliable precise and complete thematic cartography and databases, which are necessary for anybody dealing with underground contexts: speleologists, scientists, public administrations, managing authorities etc.
Surveys in caves are normally carried out with traditional techniques and instruments, which are essential for a first representation but not enough for a pragmatic effective topographic approach. Laser scanning technique can be an alternative to the traditional systems. Laser scanning quickly acquires the shape of cavities as “point clouds” (x, y, z coordinates and colour values) and produces a high precision database of the surveyed object. Laser scanning technology is therefore a feasible way to document caves in a precise exhaustive way, limiting risks relating to lack and/or inadequacy of data.
The present paper explains the laser scanning survey carried out in San Giovanni mine near Iglesias (Sardinia, Italy), particularly in Santa Barbara and Santa Barbara 2 caves, the data post-processing and three-dimensional modelling of “point clouds” (operations performed with a dedicated software), and
the use of the obtained digital model. Moreover, the paper describes
the advantages of laser scanning for the hypogean survey
in comparison to traditional methods and the future potentialities
of a broad application of laser scanning instruments
in caves.


Overview of karst geo-environments and karst water resources in north and south China, 2011, Keqiang H. , Jia Y. , Wang F. , Lu Y.

The karst geological system in north China is different from that in the south. Due to differences in basic geological conditions and environment, the karst evolutional pattern and karst water resources, among other things, are also different in the two regions. This paper, based on on-site fieldwork and analysis of an extensive database of karst in China, presents a systematic and contrastive analysis of karst geological environment and karst water resources in north versus south China, highlights the differences between the two regions in basic karst geological conditions, groundwater dynamics and karst water resources, and concludes with the economic, environmental and engineering implications of these differences. These findings will be helpful for the strategic planning and decision-making processes associated with exploitation of karst geological resources and with prevention and control of karst geological hazards.


Mapping and monitoring geological hazards using optical, LiDAR, and synthetic aperture RADAR image data, 2014, Joyce K. E. , Samsonov S. V. , Levick S. R. , Engelbrecht J. , Belliss S.

Geological hazards and their effects are often geographically widespread. Consequently, their effective mapping and monitoring is best conducted using satellite and airborne imaging platforms to obtain broad scale, synoptic coverage. With a multitude of hazards and effects, potential data types, and processing techniques, it can be challenging to determine the best approach for mapping and monitoring. It is therefore critical to understand the spatial and temporal effects of any particular hazard on the environment before selecting the most appropriate data type/s and processing techniques to apply. This review is designed to assist the decision-making and selection process when embarking on a hazard mapping or monitoring exercise. It focuses on the application of optical, LiDAR, and synthetic aperture RADAR technologies for the assessment of pre-event risk and postevent damage. Geological hazards of global interest summarized here are landslides and erosion; seismic and tectonic hazards; ground subsidence; and flooding and tsunami


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