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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That bridge is 1. may be a natural bridge of bedrock normally formed outside a cave entrance by partial collapse leaving an isolated roof segment, as in the famous examples of rakov skocjan, slovenia. rock bridges may also occur inside caves due either surrounding phreatic dissolution or collapse between superimposed passages. another common type inside a cave is a span of false floor where sediment is washed from below, as at the bridge in gb cavern in the mendip hills [9]. 2. in a cave, a residual rock span across a passage [10]. 3. in water wells, an obstruction in the drill hole or annulus. a bridge is usually formed by caving of the wall of the well bore, by the intrusion of a large boulder, or by filter pack materials during well completion. bridging can also occur in the formation during well development [16]. see also natural bridge.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for element content (Keyword) returned 5 results for the whole karstbase:
Evaluation of terra rossa geochemical baselines from Croatian karst regions, 1999, Miko S. , Durn G. , Prohic E. ,
In karst regions of Croatia, regolith is the only favourable medium for geochemical mapping. Mediterranean climate and good drainage due to hard, fissured, permeable limestones and dolomites result in a spacious distribution of terra rossa (FAO-luvisols and cambisols) - a polygenetic type of soil. Samples of terra rossa from coastal and inland Croatian Dinaric karst terrains were collected during the initial studies for the Geochemical Map of Croatia at a density of 1 site/25 km(2). A total of 87 terra rossa soil samples taken from a depth of 5-25 cm together with 27 samples from deeper profiles (down to 850 cm) were analysed for total Al, Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, La, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Na, Sr, Ti, V and Zn concentrations. A stoichiometric approach was applied by modeling of terra rossa baselines on the basis of Linear regressions of metals on Al and the calculation of enrichment factors (EF and CEFs) on the basis of soil standards. A noticeable enrichment of Pb was found in surface samples compared to the terra rossa deeper in the soil profile. Using these baseline relationships, an attempt is made to partition terra rossa metal concentrations into natural and anthropogenic fractions. Also, the models from both polluted and less polluted (uninhabited) karstic terrains improve the comparability of element contents through correction of variable background concentrations. A comparison of elemental concentrations revealed that due to contributions of bauxite debris, a number of studied samples is enriched in Cr and Ni (also with variable amounts of boehmite). The corrections will serve to reduce data variability and to increase the detection of spatial and temporal differences presented on the geochemical maps. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Further dates of heavy metal content on the soil and vegetation of Aggtelek Karst (Hungary), 2004, Kaszala Rita, Bá, Rá, Nykevei Ilona, Polyá, K Klá, Ra

During the previous investigation of the Aggtelek Karst we published physical and chemical parameters of the soils and the microelement content of the greenery. The presentation now gives further information about the soil (e.g. EDTA soluble heavy metal content), and the greenery (more species, more elements). The presentation shows the relationship between the heavy metal content of the karstic soil, and the sprout of plants.

'Sour gas' hydrothermal jarosite: ancient to modem acid-sulfate mineralization in the southern Rio Grande Rift, 2005, Lueth V. W. , Rye R. O. , Peters L. ,
As many as 29 mining districts along the Rio Grande Rift in southern New Mexico contain Rio Grande Rift-type (RGR) deposits consisting of fluorite-barite sulfide-jarosite, and additional RGR deposits occur to the south in the Basin and Range province near Chihuahua, Mexico. Jarosite occurs in many of these deposits as a late-stage hydrothermal mineral coprecipitated with fluorite, or in veinlets that crosscut barite. In these deposits, many of which are limestone-hosted, jarosite is followed by natrojarosite and is nested within silicified or argillized wallrock and a sequence of fluorite-barite sulfide and late hematite-gypsum. These deposits range in age from similar to 10 to 0.4 Ma on the basis of Ar-40/Ar-39 dating of jarosite. There is a crude north-south distribution of ages, with older deposits concentrated toward the south. Recent deposits also occur in the south, but are confined to the central axis of the rift and are associated with modem geothermal systems. The duration of hydrothermal jarosite mineralization in one of the deposits was approximately 1.0 my. Most Delta(18)O(SO4)-OH values indicate that jarosite precipitated between 80 and 240 degrees C, which is consistent with the range of filling temperatures of fluid inclusions in late fluorite throughout the rift, and in jarosite (180 degrees C) from Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico. These temperatures, along with mineral occurrence, require that the jarosite have had a hydrothermal origin in a shallow steam-heated environment wherein the low pH necessary for the precipitation of jarosite was achieved by the oxidation of H2S derived from deeper hydrothermal fluids. The jarosite also has high trace-element contents (notably As and F), and the jarosite parental fluids have calculated isotopic signatures similar to those of modem geothermal waters along the southern rift; isotopic values range from those typical of meteoric water to those of deep brine that has been shown to form from the dissolution of Permian evaporite by deeply circulating meteoric water. Jarosite delta(34)S values range from -24 parts per thousand to 5 parts per thousand, overlapping the values for barite and gypsum at the high end of the range and for sulfides at the low end. Most delta(34)S values for barite are 10.6 parts per thousand to 13.1 parts per thousand and many delta(34)S values for gypsum range from 13.1 parts per thousand to 13.9 parts per thousand indicating that a component of aqueous sulfate was derived from Permian evaporites (delta(34)S = 12 2 parts per thousand). The requisite H2SO4 for jarosite formation was derived from oxidation of H2S which was likely largely sour gas derived from the thermochemical reduction of Permian sulfate. The low delta(34)S values for the precursor H2S probably resulted from exchange deeper in the basin with the more abundant Permian SO42-- at similar to 150 to 200 degrees C. Jarosite formed at shallow levels after the PH buffering capacity of the host rock (typically limestone) was neutralized by precipitation of earlier minerals. Some limestone-hosted deposits contain caves that may have been caused by the low pH of the deep basin fluids due to the addition of deep-seated HF and other magmatic gases during periods of renewed rifting. Caves in other deposits may be due to sulfuric acid speleogenesis as a result of H2S incursion into oxygenated groundwaters. The isotopic data in these 'sour gas' jarosite occurrences encode a recod of episodic tectonic or hydrologic processes that have operated in the rift over the last 10 my. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Significance and dynamics of drip water responding to rainfall in four caves of Guizhou, China, 2005, Zhou Y. C. , Wang S. J. , Xie X. N. , Luo W. J. , Li T. Y. ,
In rainy season, NaCl is adopted to trace sources of cave drip water, time scales of drip water responding to precipitation, and processes of water dynamics in four caves of Pearl watershed in Guizhou, China (Liang-feng cave in Libo, Qixing cave in Duyun, Jiangjun cave in Anshun and Xiniu cave in Zhenning). Because of the variety of karst cave surroundings, interconnections of water transporting ways, water dynamics processes etc., time scales of drip-water in four caves responding to rainfall is 0-40 d. According to the characteristics of water transport in cave roof, pathways of water movement, types of water head etc., drip water of four caves can be divided into five hydrodynamics types. The differences of time scales, and ways of water-soil and water-rock interaction during water transporting in cave roof make it difficult to correctly measure speleothem record and trace material sources. In addition, there exist great differences in water dynamic conditions among the four caves. So the interpretation of the paleoenvironment records of speleothem must be supported by the understanding of hydrodynamics conditions of different drip sites. Based on the data got from drip sites in four caves, drip conductivity accords with precipitation, which indicates that element contents in speleothem formed by drip water record the change of karst paleoenvironment. But results of multi-points study are needed to guarantee the correctness of interpretation

A model for the formation of layered soda-straw stalactites, 2013, Paul Bence, Drysdale R. , Green Helen, Woodhead Jon, Hellstrom John, Eberhard Rolan

Climate records based upon instrumental data such as rainfall measurements are usually only available for approximately the last 150 years at most. To fully investigate decadal-scale climate variation, however, these records must be extended by the use of climate proxies. Soda-straw stalactites (straws) are a previously under-utilised potential source of such data. In this contribution we investigate the structure and formation of straws and look at some issues that may affect the reliability of straw-based palaeoclimate records. We use laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) trace element analysis to document surface contamination features that have the potential to obscure annual trace element variations, and develop a method to reveal the underlying layering. We also use LA- ICP-MS to map the two-dimensional trace element distribution in straws. These maps reveal straw-layer geometry, in which layers are widest at the outside edge of the straw, narrowing and becoming almost parallel on the interior of the straw.

Based upon these observations, we present a model for the formation of straws of this type, where rapid degassing of CO2 from the drip extending below the straw forms the wider outer layers. Summers are defined by increased layer widths and higher trace element contents relative to winter layers. In palaeoclimate studies, where such annual variations can be used to construct time-lines, we suggest that, ideally, the outside surface of the straw be analysed where the trace element content difference is greatest and layering is widest.

The terminal phase of one straw (FC-02) shows decreasing layer widths and increased trace element contents. These features may also be representative of soda-straw responses to drought-induced decreases in percolation water.

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