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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology


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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That Reynolds number is a numerical quantity used as an index to characterize the type of flow in a hydraulic structure in which resistance to motion depends on the viscosity of the liquid in conjunction with the resisting force of inertia. it is the ratio of inertia forces to viscous forces, and is equal to the product of a characteristic velocity of the system (e.g. the mean, surface, or maximum velocity) and a characteristic linear dimension, such as diameter or depth, divided by the kinematic viscosity of the liquid; all expressed in consistent units in order that the combinations will be dimensionless. the number is chiefly applicable to closed systems of flow, such as pipes or conduits where there is a free water surface, or to bodies fully immersed in the fluid so the free surface need not be considered [1]. see also chezy equation; froude number; manning equation.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for fluvio-karst (Keyword) returned 6 results for the whole karstbase:
Karst Geomorphology of the Bruce Peninsula, Ontario, PhD Thesis, 1976,
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Cowell, Daryl William

This is the first detailed examination of the karst geomorphology of the Bruce Peninsula. It attempts to review all aspects including pavement phenomena and formation (microkarst features), surface and subsurface karst hydrology (meso to macro scale) and water chemistry. The latter is based on over 250 samples collected in 1973 and 1974.
The dolomite pavement is the best example of its kind that has been described in the literature. It covers much of the northern and eastern parts of the peninsula and can be differentiated into three types based on karren assemblages. Two of these are a product of lithology and the third reflects local environmental controls. The Amabel Formation produces characteristic karren such as rundkarren, hohlkarren, meanderkarren, clint and grike, kamentizas and rillenkarren on glacially abraded biohermal structures. The Guelph Formation develops into a very irregular, often cavernous surface with clint and grike and pitkarren as the only common recognizable karren. The third assemblage is characterized by pitkarren and is found only in the Lake Huron littoral zone. Biological factors are believed to have played a major role in the formation of the pavement. Vegetation supplies humic acids which help boost the solution process and helps to maintain a wet surface. This tends to prolong solution and permit the development of karren with rounded lips and bottoms.
Three types of drainage other than normal surface runoff are found on the Bruce. These are partial underground capture of surface streams, complete underground capture (fluvio-karst), and wholly vertical drainage without stream action (holokarst). Holokarst covers most of the northern and eastern edge of the peninsula along the top of the escarpment. Inland it is replaced by fluvial drainage, some of which has been, or is in the process of being captured. Four perennial streams and one lake disappear into sinkholes. These range from very simple channel capture and resurgence, as shown by a creek east of Wiarton, to more mature and complex cave development of the St. Edmunds cave near Tobermory. Partial underground capture represents the first stage of karst drainage. This was found to occur in one major river well inland of the fluvio-karst and probably occurs in other streams as well. This chapter also examines the possible future karst development of the Bruce and other karst feature such as isolated sinks and sea caves.
The water chemistry presented in Chapter 5 represents the most complete data set from southern Ontario. It is examined on a seasonal basis as well as grouped into classes representing water types (streams, Lake Huron and Georgian Bay, inland lakes, swamps, diffuse springs and conduit springs). The spring analyses are also fitted into climatic models of limestone solution based on data from other regions of North America. It was found that solution rates in southern Ontario are very substantial. Total hardness ranges from 150 to 250 ppm (expressed as CaCO3) in most lakes and streams and up to 326 ppm in springs. These rates compare with more southerly latitudes. The theoretical equilibrium partial pressure of CO2 was found to be the most significant chemical variable for comparing solution on different kinds of carbonates and between glaciated and non-glaciated regions. Expect for diffuse flow springs and Lake Huron, the Bruce data do not separate easily into water types using either graphical or statistical (i.e. Linear Discriminant Analysis) analyses. This is partly because of the seasonality of the data and because of the intimate contact all waters have with bedrock.


Un karst subalpin mditerranen : la rgion Audibergue-Mons (Alpes-Maritimes et Var), 1984,
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Julian M. , Nicod J.
THE KARSTIC AREA AUDIBERGUE-MONS (Prealps of Grasse, Maritime Alps and Var departments) - This area, very important for the karstic superficial features and the caves, is formed by the proximity of plateaus belonging to the structural system of Provence and the higher main subalpine unit of Audibergue. Three fields of sinkholes are especially characteristic: 1/ central Audibergue, controlled by shear fractures and under the influence of nival phenomena; 2/ Fort d'Esclapon, with more various forms and perhaps an older karstic evolution that explains the large inheritance of terra rossa; 3/ Biron that shows deep furrows and sinkholes. The study of the poljes, fluvio-karstic (Caille) or half-opened (Canaux), introduces the problem of the underground karstic hydrology. The dynamics of neotectonics and morphoclimatic systems, specially the old periglacial processes, is considered with reference to the main forms and deposits shown on the map.

Le karst des Arbailles (Pyrnes-Atlantiques, France), 2000,
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Vanara, Nathalie
The Arbailles massif (200 - 1200 m) is located in the french north face of Pyrnes, Atlantic side. It forms a folded 165 square-kilometres unit of jurassic and cretaceous limestones under an oceanic climate of altitude (2000 mm/year). Observations jointly made on the surface and in the numerous underground galleries allow an occurate correlation of alternate surrective and karstic periods. The dismantled cavities and deposits pockets of the upper surface show two series of minerals, those from weathered marly-albian limestones and others supplied from the conglomerates pudding-stones of Mendibelza. During the Miocene, the Arbailles massif is a low area of tropical erosion on the side of the main mounts. Its surrection caused the scouring of the alterites cover, the formation of fields of karstic butts and a definitive drying of the fluviatile paleosystem. The different levels of dried valleys and the karstic hydrographic systems are successive stations of the karstic levels of origine. Paleomagnetic datations in Etxanko Zola and U/Th datations in Nbl show that the surrection has been of about 500 m since lower Pleistocene. At the present time, water collection is made through drainage systems without any connection to the fossil topography. Three aquifers can be distinguished: in lower cretaceous, in jurassic and in north and south limits. They are water-repellent because of more or less impermeable screens. Waters are aggressive in summer and at equilibrium or lightly undersaturated the rest of the year. The modern human activities create a recent destabilisation of the environment with local erosions of grounds and an increasing turbidity of springs. An occurate study in the fail of Istaurdy allows a mesure of the effect of deforestation for the whole massif.

Field assessment of the microclimatology of tropical flank margin caves, 2000,
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Gamble Dw, Dogwiler Jt, Mylroie J,
Temperature observations were collected inside 2 caves in the Bahamas and 1 cave in Puerto Rico to characterize the microclimatology of tropical flank margin cave systems. Three aspects of these tropical cave temperatures agree with temperate cave microclimate theory. Specifically, external atmospheric disturbances can affect temperatures inside tropical flank margin cave systems, tropical flank margin caves are warmer than the exterior temperatures during winter, and water can impact temperatures deep into a tropical flank margin cave system. The temperature observations collected also indicate potential differences between the microclimatology of tropical and temperate cave systems. In particular, the temperate 3-zone cave microclimate model may not be applicable to tropical flank margin caves, diurnal fluctuations were not apparent in tropical flank margin cave systems, and the existence of a temperature inversion in a down-sloping cave may not be applicable to all tropical flank margin caves. The potential differences in temperate and these tropical cave systems can be linked to the physical dimensions of the tropical flank margin cave systems and the unique hydrology of small carbonate islands. Specifically, tropical flank margin caves have a width greater than length while temperate fluvio-karst caves have a length greater than width and tidal water can exist in the pits and depressions of tropical flank margin caves as opposed to flowing streams in temperate cave systems

Formes et formations superficielles de la partie ouest du Causse de Sauveterre (Grands Causses, Aveyron et Lozre), 2007,
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Bruxelles Laurent , Simoncoinon Rgine, Guendon Jeanlouis, Ambert Paul
MORPHOLOGY AND SUPERFICIAL FORMATIONS OF THE WESTERN PART OF THE CAUSSE DE SAUVETERRE (GRANDS CAUSSES, AVEYRON AND LOZ?RE, FRANCE). In 2002, the Natural Regional Park of Grands Causses has coordinated a hydrogeological study of the western part of the Causse de Sauveterre, the northernmost of the Grands Causses. A multidisciplinary approach (geology, geomorphology, geochemistry and hydrology) was used to delineate the catchment area of the main springs and to estimate the vulnerability of karstic aquifers. The Grands Causses are situated in the southern part of the French Massif Central. The landscape is characterised by huge limestone plateaus cut by deep canyons. The morphologic study of the western part of the Causse de Sauveterre (Causse de Massegros and Causse de S?v?rac), combined with analysis of superficial formations, allows us to identify the main steps of landscape evolution. The discovery of bauxite and of many outcrops of Upper Cretaceous sandstone confirm that the Coniacian ingression invaded some paleo-landscapes developed within a long period of continental evolution which was initiated at the end of the Jurassic. During the Tertiary, many residual formations form covers of the limestone plateaus. We can distinguish alterites developed from different formations of the stratigraphic series (clay with cherts from Bajocian, dolomitic sand from Bathonian and Callovian, sandy clays from Cretaceous deposits) from some allochtonous deposits which can be found in some parts of the Causse de Massegros. These formations are found in association with morphological features (shelves, polj?s, fluvio-karstic valleys, sinkholes) and are more or less responsible of their development. Furthermore, some volcanic rocks cut through or even reused some of them. With the deepening of canyons and the base level drop, horizontal morphologies are preserved only where superficial formations are abundant and thick enough to maintain crypto-corrosion. Elsewhere, karst unplugging removes most of the superficial formations, and the karstic evolution tends to show a vertical development of morphologies and caves. Some springs, which benefit from a favourable lithologic, structural and hydrologic context, are more competitive and expand their catchment area at the expense of the other springs. Many superficial features express this dynamism on the plateau and allow us to determine the most sensible areas for water pollution and the most fragile ones for human activities.

Karst of Sicily and its Conservation, 2012,
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Di Maggio C. , Madonia G. , Parise M. , Vattano M.

In Sicily, karst is well developed and exhibits different types of landscapes due to the wide distribution of soluble rocks in different geological and environmental settings. Karst affects both carbonate rocks, outcropping in the northwest and central sectors of the Apennine chain and in the foreland area, and evaporite rocks, mainly gypsum, that characterize the central and the southern parts of the island. The carbonate and gypsum karsts show a great variety of surface landforms, such as karren, dolines, poljes, blind valleys, and fluvio-karst canyons, as well as cave systems. Karst areas in Sicily represent extraordinary environments for the study of solution forms. In addition, they are of great environmental value because they contain a variety of habitats that hold species of biogeographic significance. Unfortunately, karst areas are increasingly threatened by human activity, mainly in the form of grazing and other agricultural practices, wildfires, quarrying, urbanization, building of rural homes, and infrastructure development. The value of karst features has been recognized by the Sicilian Regional Government since 1981 when it enacted laws to create several nature reserves to preserve the peculiar karst landscapes, including caves. At present, the state of conservation of karst areas in Sicily may be considered to be at an acceptable level, yet numerous issues and difficulties need to be overcome for the effective protection and enhancement of karstlands.


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