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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That fluid potential is the mechanical energy per unit mass of a fluid at any given point in space and time with regard to an arbitrary state and datum [22].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for folds (Keyword) returned 26 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 26
Orientations and Origins of Joints, Faults and Folds in the Carboniferous Limestones of N.W. England, 1973, Moseley F.

Detailed tectonic trends on the central part of the Hellenic Outer Ridge and in the Hellenic Trench System, 1982, Kenyon N. H. , Belderson R. H. , Stride A. H. ,
Extensive new sonograph coverage in the Eastern Mediterranean allows a re-assessment of the complex relief outside the Hellenic Arc. The trenches to the SE and SW of Crete are similar in their plan view appearance, each having predominantly sinuous or curved structures that are interpreted as the surface expression of major thrusts. Thrusting, possibly imbricate, is also suggested on the central, shallowest part of the Hellenic Outer Ridge where interlocking convex-outward, curved structures occur, along with other faults and folds. These are thought to relate to decollement-type displacement within or beneath evaporite sediments. The structural style deduced from the morphology is consistent with a continuing outward radial push of the Hellenic Arc to the SW, S and SE, rather than with a migration to the SW and strike-slip on the SE side of the arc as proposed by other workers

Cave dams of the Guanyan System, Guangxi, China, 1987, Smart P. L. , Waltham A. C. ,
With well over 1 million km2 of carbonate rocks exposed at the surface, and a history of exploitation spanning in excess of 2000 years, the Chinese probably have more experience than any other people in developing the water resources of carbonate aquifers. Interestingly, many of the smaller scale projects are carried out by local farmers and co-operatives, with little recourse to the advice of professional engineers and hydrologists, although even in large regional schemes, much local expertise and labour is involved (see for example Hegtkcar 1976). While recently some of the Chinese work on karst hydrology has become available in the west (Song 1981; Song et al 1983; Yuan 1981, ) much of the practical experience resulting from these local and small scale developments remains unpublished even in China. We were therefore very fortunate to be able to examine the engineering works associated with the Guanyan cave system, just south of Guilin, Guangxi Province, SE China, during a recent joint venture with the Institute of Karst Research, Ministry of Geology, Guilin. The Guanyan (Crown Cave) system is developed in a sequence of relatively pure, predominantly finegrained limestones and dolomites over 2600 m thick, and ranging from Devonian to Carboniferous in age (Yuan 1980). These are folded into thrust faulted, NW-SE-trending folds, but dips are generally less than 30{degrees}. The underlying impermeable shales, siltstones and sandstones form a mountainous terrain rising to 1400 m above sea-level east of the limestone, and provide the headwaters for streams feeding into the caves (Fig. ... This 250-word extract was created in the absence of an abstract

Le massif de la Chartreuse, Alpes franaises du Nord : paysages karstiques et organisation des rseaux souterrains, 1990, Lismonde B. , Delannoy J. J.
The massif of Chartreuse: karsts features and underground systems (Alps, France) - The Chartreuse massif is the smallest of the subalpine massifs, but it contains the most important underground systems of French Alps. The massif of Chartreuse is characterised by parallel folds directed N020. The eastern plateau spreads out urgonian limestone (perched syncline); it contains the two largest cave systems: "Alpe-Alpette" (54 km) and "Dent de Crolles" (54 km). To the W, the limestone layers are uplifted by the orogenic strains and thereby, the caves are very deep: "rseau Ded" (- 780m), "puits Francis" (- 723m), "gouffre de Gnieux" (- 675m). Two transverse rivers make the hydrologic drainage: the "Guiers Vif" and the "Guiers Mort", which cut up the region into small hydrological basins. The greatest of them is "Guiers Vif" basin, with an area of 9.2 km2.

Etude d'un chevauchement dans les gouffres du Calernam et des Baoudillouns (Cipires, Alpes-Maritimes), 1991, Gilli, E.
Study of a trust plane in the Baoudillouns and Calernam Caves (Alpes Maritimes, France) - The shafts of Calernam and Baoudillouns are to be found in the Prealps of Grasse (Alpes-Maritimes). They are formed in inclined and over-lap folds, issued from the southward sliding of the sedimentary cover during the alpine orogeny. The cave studied here is the only example to date of a cave that totally crosses a tectonic slice and permits the observation of the thrust plane. Through this study, it can be observed that the bottom of the limestone series has been entirely planed and that abnormal contact (mechanical unconformity) resembles in most cases a normal one. No obvious neotectonic sign has been observed for the moment.

DISLOCATION OF THE EVAPORITIC FORMATIONS UNDER TECTONIC AND DISSOLUTION CONTROLS - THE MODEL OF THE DINANTIAN EVAPORITES FROM VARISCAN AREA (NORTHERN FRANCE AND BELGIUM), 1993, Rouchy J. M. , Groessens E. , Laumondais A. ,
Within the Franco-Belgian segment of the Hercynian orogen, two thick Dinantian anhydritic formations are known, respectively in the Saint-Ghislain (765 m) and Epinoy 1 (904 m) wells. Nevertheless, occurrences of widespread extended breccias and of numerous pseudomorphs of gypsum/anhydrite in stratigraphically equivalent carbonate deposits (boreholes and outcrops), suggest a larger extent of the evaporitic conditions (fig. 1, 2). The present distribution of evaporites is controlled by palaeogeographical differentiation and post-depositional parameters such as tectonics and dissolution. These latter have dissected the deposits formerly present in all the structural units. By using depositional, diagenetic and deformational characters of these formations, the article provides a model for the reconstruction of a dislocated evaporitic basin. This segment of the Hercynian chain is schematically composed of two main units (fig. 1, 3) : (1) the autochthonous or parautochthonous deposits of the Namur synclinorium, (2) the Dinant nappe thrusted northward over the synclinorium of Namur. The major thrust surface is underlined by a complex fault bundle (faille du Midi) seismically recognized over more than 100 km. A complex system of thrust slices occurs at the Hercynian front. Except for local Cretaceous deposits, most of the studied area has been submitted to a long period of denudation since the Permian. Sedimentary, faunistic and geochemical data argue for a marine origin of the brines which have generated the evaporites interbedded with marine limestones. Sedimentary structures. - The thick evaporitic formations are composed of calcium-sulfates without any clear evidence of the former presence of more soluble salts (with the exception of a possible carbonate-sulfate breccia in the upper part of the Saint-Ghislain formation). As in all the deeply buried evaporitic formations, the anhydrite is the main sulfate component which displays all the usual facies : pseudomorphs after gypsum (fig. 4A, B), nodular and mosaic (fig. 4C), laminated. The gypsum was probably an important component during the depositional phase despite the predominant nodular pattern of the anhydrite. Early diagenetic nodular anhydrite may have grown during temporary emersion of the carbonates (sabkha environments), but this mechanism cannot explain the formation of the whole anhydrite. So, most of the anhydrite structures result from burial-controlled gypsum --> anhydrite conversion and from mechanical deformations. Moreover, a complex set of diagenetic processes leads to various authigenic minerals (celestite, fluorite, albite, native sulfur, quartz and fibrous silica) and to multistaged carbonate <> sulfate replacements (calcite and dolomite after sulfate, replacive anhydrite as idiomorphic poeciloblasts, veinlets, domino-like or stairstep monocrystals...). These mineral transformations observed ill boreholes and in outcrops have diversely been controlled during the complex evolution of the series as : depositional and diagenetic pore-fluid composition, pressure and temperature changes with burial, bacterial and thermochemical sulfate reduction, deep circulations favored by mechanical brecciation, mechanical stresses, role of groundwater during exhumation of the series. Deformational structures. - A great variety of deformational structures as rotational elongation, stretching, lamination, isoclinal microfolding, augen-like and mylonitic structures are generated by compressive tectonic stresses (fig. 4D to J). The similarities between tectonic-generated structures and sedimentary (lamination) or diagenetic (pseudo-nodules) features could lead lo misinterpretations. The calcareous interbeds have undergone brittle deformation the style and the importance of which depend of their relative thickness. Stretching, boudins, microfolds and augen structures F, H. I) affect the thin layers while thicker beds may be broken as large fractured blocks dragged within flown anhydrite leading to a mylonitic-like structure (fig, 4G). In such an inhomogeneous formation made of interlayered ductile (anhydrite) and brittle (carbonate) beds, the style and the intensity of the deformation vary with respect to the relative thickness of each of these components. Such deformational features of anhydrite may have an ubiquitous significance and can result either from compressive constraints or geostatic movements (halokinesis). Nevertheless, some data evidence a relation with regional tangential stresses: (1) increase of the deformation toward the bottom of the Saint-Ghislain Formation which is marked by a deep karst suggesting the presence of a mechanical discontinuity used as a drain for dissolving solutions (fig. 3, 4); (2) structural setting (reversed series, internal slidings) of the Epinoy 1 formation under the Midi thrust. However, tectonic stresses also induce flowing deformations which have contributed to cause their present discontinuity. It can be assumed that the evaporites played an active role for the buckling of the regional structure as detachment or gliding layers and more specifically for the genesis of duplex structures. Breccia genesis. - Great breccia horizons are widely distributed in outcrops as well as in the subsurface throughout the greater part of the Dinant and Namur units (fig. 2). The wide distribution of pseudomorphosed sulfates in outcrops and the stratigraphical correlation between breccia and Saint-Ghislain evaporitic masses (fig. 2) suggest that some breccia (although not all) have been originated from collapse after evaporites solution. Although some breccia may result from synsedimentary dissolution, studied occurrences show that most of dissolution processes started after the Hercynian deformation and, in some cases, were active until recently : elements made of lithified and fractured limestones (Llandelies quarries) (fig. 5A), preservation of pseudomorphs of late replacive anhydrite (Yves-Gomezee) (fig. 5B, C), deep karst associated with breccia (Douvrain, Saint Ghislain, Ghlin boreholes) (fig. 3, 4, 5D)). Locally, the final brecciation may have been favored by a mechanical fragmentation which controlled water circulations (fig. 5E). As postulated by De Magnee et al. [19861, the dissolution started mostly after the Permian denudation and continued until now in relation with deep circulations and surface weathering (fig. 6). So, the above-mentioned occurrences of the breccia are logically explained by collapse after dissolution of calcium-sulfates interbeds of significant thickness (the presence of salt is not yet demonstrated), but other Visean breccia may have a different origin (fig. 5F). So, these data prove the extension of thick evaporitic beds in all the structural units including the Dinant nappe, before dissolution and deformation. Implications. - Distribution of Visean evaporites in northern France and Belgium is inherited from a complicated paleogeographic, tectonic and post-tectonic history which has strongly modified their former facies, thicknesses and limits (fig. IA, 6). Diversified environments of deposition controlled by both a palaeogeographical differentiation and water level fluctuations led to the deposition of subaqueous (gypsum) or interstitial (gypsum, anhydrite) crystallization. Nevertheless, most of the anhydrite structures can be interpreted as resulting from burial conversion of gypsum to anhydrite rather than a generalized early diagenesis in sabkha-like conditions. Deformation of anhydrite caused by Hercynian tangential stresses and subsequent flow mechanisms, have completed the destruction of depositional and diagenetic features. The tectonic deformations allow us to consider the role of the evaporites in the Hercynian deformations. The evaporites supplied detachment and gliding planes as suggested for the base of the Saint-Ghislain Formation and demonstrated by the structural setting of Epinoy 1 evaporites in reverse position and in a multi-system of thrust-slices below the Midi overthrust (fig. 7). So, although the area in which evaporation and precipitation took place cannot be exactly delineated in geographic extent, all the data evidence that the isolated thick anhydritic deposits represent relics of more widespread evaporites extending more or less throughout the different structural units of this Hercynian segment (fig. 1B). Their present discontinuity results from the combination of a depositional differentiation, mechanical deformations and/or dissolution

The influence of tectonic structures on karst flow patterns in karstified limestones and aquitards in the Jura Mountains, Switzerland, 2000, Herold T. , Jordan P. , Zwahlen F. ,
The development of karst systems is often assumed to be related to tectonic structures, i. e. joints and faults. However, detailed studies report many of these structures to be indifferent ui even obstacles to karst development. The aim of our study is to present a systematic which helps to explain or even predict whether a specific fault or joint, or a class of such structures are permeable (and therefore likely to be widened to karat conduits) or impermeable. Therefore three extended multi-tracer experiments followed by three months of monitoring were performed at some 95 springs and streams in the Eastern Jura fold-and-thrust belt. In addition, detailed mapping of tectonic and hydrogeological structures, including sinkholes and some 600 springs, has been carried out. The study area is characterised by two large anticlines, which have been affected by pre-fold normal faulting and synorogenic folding and thrusting as well as oblique reactivation of pre-existing faults. Hydrogeologically, two karst aquifers can be distinguished, the lower Mid Jurassic Hauptrogenstein (Dogger Limestone) and the upper Late Jurassic Malm Limestone. Both karst aquifers are confined and separated From each other hy impermeable layers. This study has shown that karst development and groundwater circulation is strongly controlled by tectonic structures resulting in specific meso- to macro-scale anisotropies. Fast long distance transport along fold axes in crest and limb at cas of anticlines is found to be related to extension joints resulting from synorogenic folds. Concentrated lateral drainage of water now from anticline limbs is exclusively related to pre-orogenic normal faults, which have been transtensively reactivated during folding. The same structures are also responsible for the significant groundwater exchange between the lower (inner) and upper (outer) aquifer. This water now, through otherwise impermeable layers, which is reported at several places and in both directions, is suspected to take place in porous calcite fault gouges or fault breccias. Transpressively reactivated normal faults and synorogenic reverse faults, on the other band. are found to have no influence on karst development and groundwater circulation. It is proposed that the systematic found in the Weissenstein area, i.e. that karst conduit development is mainly controlled by extensive or transtensive (reactivated) joints and faults, may also be applied to other tectonically influenced karat regions. Transpressive structures have no significant influence on karst system development and may even act as obstacles

The speleological objects in the area of the Rjecina nappe structure., 2001, Kuhta M.
According to the new geotectonic concept of the Dinarides (Herak 1986, 1991), the investigated carbonate region of the Rjecina nappe structure is locate along the margin of the mega-structural unit of the Adriatic carbonate platform, the Adriaticum. Folds and numerous reverse faults and thrusts of the Dinaric strike manifest the main structural and tectonical features. These structures are incised by younger diagonal faults. The whole structure is inclined towards the north-west, with a succession of younger deposits towards that direction and the structure terminates with flysch beds. The flysch forms a rim around the structure in contact with the Obruc nappe, which represents the boundary with the Dinaricum mega-structural unit. In a geomorphologic sense the studied area is a part of a karst plateau situate at an altitude of 580 m above sea level. The typical karst morphology on the surface extends to the underground were it is manifested by the existence of caves and pits formed by karstification. During the most recent speleological investigations 10 up to now unknown caves and pits were studied. For six objects located in the vicinity the data used was presented from previous studies (Bozicevic, 1969, Biondic and Dukaric, 1986). Together with four objects which were not investigated as jet in the studied region of the Rjecina nappe structure there are 20 registered speleological objects. The main data concerning these objects are given in the table and the morphological features are presented on topographic maps.

Development of the Scythian series in the Orlica anticline area (Sava folds), 2001, Anič, Ič, Bogoljub, Dozet Stevo, Ramovš, Anton

This paper deals with the development of the Scythian series in the Orlica anticline area. The Scythian beds of the Orlica anticline area lie discordantly upon various Carboniferous and Permian rocks. They are composed of five lithostratigraphic members: The older two members belong to the Lower Scythian, Seis beds respectively, and the younger three to the Upper Scythian, Campilian beds in the wider sense respectively. In the sandy beds of the Seis succession the pelecypods Eumorphotis venetiana and Anodontophora occur. On the other hand, in the Campilian beds the gastropods Natiria costata and Natica, as well as the pelecypod Myophoria costata and the foraminifera Meandrospira pusilla occur.


Tertiary and Quaternary tectonic movements in the Kočevje area - Wallachian tectonic epoch, pliocene/pleistocene, southern Slovenia, 2001, Dozet, Stevo

In this preliminary article a review of tectonic events in the Tertiary and Quaternary period in the Kočevje area and its surroundings with special emphasis on the tectonic activity on the Tertiary/Quaternary border has been presented. On the basis of results of regional and detailed geological mappings in the Kočevje area giving interesting data on stratigraphic development, facial composition and structure of that part of Slovenia, we came to the significant discover that some folds in the Kočevje area originated on the border between the Tertiary and Quaternary as a consequence of the last strokes of the Alpine orogeny being ascribed to the Wallachian tectonic epoch. In the Kočevje area, the neotectonic activity is in the narrower sense limited on the Quaternary period.


Interpretation of recent structures in an area of cryptokarst evolution - neotectonic versus subsidence genesis, 2002, Dias Rp, Cabral J,
The study area (Algarve) is located near the Eurasia-Africa plate boundary, experiencing significant tectonic and seismic activities. Regional geology is characterised by the presence of Mesozoic and Miocene carbonate rocks which are affected by karst phenomena. This karst is covered by terrigenous sediments of Upper Miocene and Pliocene-Pleistocene age. In the study area, the Pliocene-Quaternary cover deposits are affected by a large number of mesoscopic structures, including joints, faults, and a few folds, which indicate neotectonic activity. However, these sediments also present similar structures that result from underground karst evolution, raising the need to differentiate the neotectonic structures from those of non-tectonic origin. In fact, a variety of ductile, semi-brittle and brittle structures develop in the sediments that fill up the karst wells, controlled by different theological behaviour of the cover deposits, various strain rates associated with sudden collapse or progressive sinking, and the variable shape of the karst pits walls. The structure's geometry, geographical dispersion and directional scattering were used as criteria to infer a non-tectonic genesis. It is discussed whether some karst related structures may be controlled by the contemporary tectonic stress field and consequently are interpreted in the regional geodynamical framework. (C) 2002 Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved

Cave Genesis and its relationship to surface processes: investigations in the Siebenhengste region (BE, Switzerland), PhD Thesis, 2002, Haeuselmann, Ph.

This PhD thesis deals with the speleogenesis of the youngest six phases in the Siebenhengste system (Switzerland). A speleogenetic model is developed, linking the four-state-model with the model of Audra (1994), taking into account the speleogenetic processes in the flooding zone. The refinement of the speleogenetic phases allowed to reconstruct the valley deepening processes in the late Quarternary. Moreover, an idea about the landscape evolution since the Mio-Pliocene is sketched. U/Th datings allowed the timing of the last four speleogenetic phases as well as glacial advances and retreats during the last 400'000 years, thus considerably enhancing the continental Quarternary record. With information from Baerenschacht and St. Beatus Cave, the tectonic history and the geometry of the folds could be retraced. A comprehensive analysis of all dye tracing experiments is given. 


Geology and models of salt extrusion at Qum Kuh, central Iran, 2004, Talbot C. J. , Aftabi P. ,
Profiles through the summit of a small nearly axisymmetric extrusion of Oligocene and Miocene salt, and simple analogue models of it, simulate the profiles of piles of ductile nappes extruded from convergent orogens. The salt extrudes from a reactive diapir along a major strike-slip fault at about 82 mm a(-1) and rises 315 m above the central plateau of Iran. The salt has the distinctive smooth profile of a viscous fountain in which an asymmetric apron of allochthonous salt gravity-spreads over its surroundings from a summit dome. Curtain folds developed in the source layer extrude from the diapir and are refolded by major recumbent folds with circumferential axes that simulate nappes. Minor flow folds with circumferential axes refold major folds in the top 10-50 m of surficial salt. Master joints > 100 m long indicate brittle failure of dilated salt by regional stress fields. Tuned to the dimensions of Qum Kuh, analytical and analogue models of viscous extrusions constrain the dynamic salt budget and a time of extrusion of at least 42000 years. New analogue models suggest that the number, amplitude and spacing of major recumbent folds within the extruded salt (and ductile nappe piles) record the number, amount and relative timing of fluctuations in the driving forces

Lithological control on water chemistry in karst aquifers of the Zagros Range, Iran, 2006, Ashjari, Javad And Ezzat Raeisi.
The Zagros Range of south-central Iran is characterized by long and regular anticlinal and synclinal folds. Most highlands are karstified limestone and dolomite aquifers, which are sandwiched between thick non-karstic marl, marlstone, manly limestone, gypsum and anhydrite formations. Hydrochemical data from 195 karst springs, emerging from five different karstic formations, were used to determine the factors controlling spring water quality. The size and boundaries of catchment area of each spring were determined using water balance and geological methods. The springs were classified based on water type and specific conductance; and discrimination analysis was performed on the major anions, cations, and the specific conductance of all the springs to confirm the proposed classification. The Piper diagram reveals bicarbonate, bicarbonate-dominant, sulphate-dominant, or chloride water type with specific conductances ranging from 190 to 13500S/cm. The lithology of the neighbouring formations and its extent of outcrop into the catchment area of the karst springs have a major effect on water quality. Large exposures of marl, marlstone, and manly limestone on the catchment area of the karst springs can change bicarbonate water to bicarbonate-sulphate, whereas gypsum and anhydrite produce sulphate-type waters. Salt domes, and saline water from adjacent lakes or alluvial aquifers are the main sources for chloride-type water.

The effect of syndepositional deformation within the Upper Permian Capitan Platform on the speleogenesis and geomorphology of the Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico, USA, 2006, Kosa Eduard, Hunt David W. ,
The Guadalupe Mountains in New Mexico and Texas are home to more than 300 caves. Caves have been formed within the Upper Permian Capitan carbonate platform and are oriented along two structural trends, one of which is parallel to the platform margin and the other of which is roughly perpendicular to it. Our recent studies of the Capitan Platform have identified syndepositional faults associated with growth monoclines and synclines in Slaughter Canyon, New Mexico, and these are also parallel to the platform margin. In this study, we demonstrate that syndepositional faults and folds are also present in Rattlesnake and Walnut Canyons, as much as 19 km along strike, and that they have exerted control on karstification of the Guadalupe Mountains from the Upper Permian until present.Three distinctive episodes of karst formation have been recognised in outcrops on the basis of karst-filling deposits and crosscutting relationships. The syndepositional 'Phase 1 karst' was formed along syndepositional faults and fractures and is filled by platform-derived sediments. The burial 'Phase 2 karst' is filled by post-Permian siliciclastics and is limited to the youngest syndepositional faults and fractures that penetrate the platform in the proximity of its terminal margin. Connectivity of these youngest faults and fractures to the platform top and the overlying stratigraphy is inferred to have controlled the distribution of the Phase 2 karst. The 'Phase 3 karst' includes the present cave systems, which were mainly formed by sulphuric acid produced by mixing of fossil and fresh underground waters in conjunction with the uplift of the Guadalupe Mountains in the Late Tertiary, and have since been modified by vadose karst processes. The Phase 3 karst caves are not solely developed along syndepositional faults and fractures as the earlier karst palaeocaverns are, but also follow another, uplift-related, structural trend.Syndepositional folds, faults, and fractures in the Capitan Platform have influenced the shaping of the modern surface geomorphology of the Guadalupe Mountains by controlling drainage and, hence, erosion. Trellis drainage parallel to the platform margin is developed where syndepositional folds, faults, and fractures occur. The morphology of the trellis drainage varies systematically across the range in response to the character of the deformation structures and karst features along which the drainage channels have developed

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