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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That azimuth is the true bearing of a survey line, determined by measurement from an accurate survey or by observations of sun or stars [25].?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for fuel (Keyword) returned 5 results for the whole karstbase:
RESOURCE USE IN THE TROPICAL KARSTLANDS OF CENTRAL BELIZE, 1993, Day M,
Rural tropical ecosystems are subject to many traditional land uses that employ the indigenous karst resources: rock, water, soil, vegetation, and wildlife. Individual resource pressures often arc subtle, but their combined impact can precipitate instability in the tropical karst environment, potentially resulting in disruption of food, water, and fuel supplies. The karst of central Belize was used intensively for some six centuries by Maya farmers. but between the 10th and 19th centuries AD most of it reverted to secondary forest. Commercial logging dominated the 19th and early 20th centuries, followed by the expansion of subsistence and commercial agriculture after 1945. In the 1980s resource use has accelerated as population and other pressures increase. Much karst remains forested, but there is increasing clearance for agricultural uses, particularly for citrus cultivation and small-scale mixed agriculture. Soil depletion has begun to occur, water resources are increasingly taxed, and some wildlife is threatened by habitat destruction and increased hunting. Lime production for the citrus industry has promoted quarrying, water extraction, and fuelwood use. Environmental stresses currently do not exceed the threshold of instability, but the rapidly developing rural economy warrants careful monitoring of resource pressures

Ecological incidents in Northern Adriatic Karst (Croatia), 2000, Geres D, Rubinic J, Ozanic N,
In spite of growing efforts to preserve the quality of groundwater resources, accidental pollution is becoming increasingly frequent, resulting in long-lasting impact on the groundwater status. The consequences of ecological accidents are particularly expressed in karst regions, which are caused by the geological properties of the area where the groundwater aquifers are situated, as well as by hydrological circumstances which also influence the dynamic mechanisms of water flow and transportation of pollution in the karst environment. The paper stresses the hydrological component of karst aquifer function and the related role of hydrology in assessment of the hazards caused by accidental pollution and, once the accident has happened, in monitoring the situation and forecasting the possible impact on water resources. The analysis of ecological accidents in the karst has been made, based on the actual examples of accidents involving fuel substances recorded in the Northern Adriatic karst area in Croatia in the period from 1990 to 1998. The basic characteristics of the mechanism of water movement in the karst are presented from the hydrological standpoint, as well as the related risk of rapid transportation of pollutants into the parts of the aquifers used for water supply. The paper also contains proposals for possible approaches to protection of particularly valuable water resources in the karat from accidental pollution occurring in road transport

Spatial and temporal patterns of bacterial density and metabolic activity in a karst aquifer, 2001, Simon K. S. , Gibert J. , Petitot P. , Laurent R. ,
Karst aquifers are heterotrophic ecosystems fueled by organic matter imported from the surface. The temporal pattern of floods influences organic matter import and the spatial distribution of organic matter and biofilms in aquifer structural zones. We investigated spatial and temporal patterns of bacterial density and activity as indicators of energy availability and microbial dynamics in a karst aquifer. During baseflow, bacterial density and microbial hydrolytic activity were similar in the upper and lower zones of the aquifer. Floods apparently scoured aquifer biofilms and trans ported soil bacteria into the aquifer, increasing inactive bacterial density in the water column. Respiring bacterial density did not respond to floods and changed little over time. The overall proportion of total bacteria that were respiring was very high on some dates, resulting from a reduction of inactive cell density during flood recession. Floods appear to be key events in scouring senescent microbial assemblages in karst aquifers and stimulating microbial recolonization of the aquifer matrix. We conclude that a conceptual model of karst aquifer structure and function should incorporate changes caused by alternation between flooding and drying in the aquifer

A mineralogical and phytolith study of the middle stone age hearths in Sibudu Cave, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, 2004, Schiegl S. , Stockhammer P. , Scott C. , Wadley L. ,
Sediments from Middle Stone Age hearths and burnt deposits in Sibudu Cave (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) were analysed for their mineral and phytolith contents. The mineral compositions were determined by FT-IR spectroscopy. The phytoliths were classified and counted by transmitted polarized light microscopy. Burning experiments using wood and grasses from species native to the cave's environment yielded the reference ashes. The visible hearths and ash dumps contain phytolith assemblages characteristic of wood fuel. A significant portion of the phytoliths of hearths and ash layers display morphologies related to intense heating. This finding is suggestive of long-burning wood fires and/or reuse of the same fireplace. The heat-altered phytoliths are useful in tracing fires, especially if hearth structures are not preserved and ash deposits have been diagenetically and heavily altered. The phytolith contents and mineralogical composition of the ash deposits and the surrounding sedimentary matrix are very similar. This feature suggests that the sedimentary matrix originally contained fireplaces and ash deposits, whose structures were destroyed shortly after deposition, presumably by trampling.(21) The intact circular hearths are most likely the product of intense fires. Similar results from hearths and their surrounding matrix have been reported from Middle Palaeolithic cave sites in Israel

Distribution of authigenic and allogenic fractions in recent lake sediment: Isotopic and chemical compositions, 2011, Bareić, Jadranka, Horvatinč, Ić, Nada, Vreč, A Polona, Sironić, Andreja

Recent sediments in Lake Kozjak, in the Plitvice Lakes National Park, Croatia, were used to study the impact of the material delivered
to the lake sediment via Rječica Brook. Sediment cores, top 40 cm, were taken near the mouth of the Rječica Brook at three locations in the lake at different distances from the shore, water depth 2-9 m and analyzed using different isotopic and chemical methods. Sediment depth profiles of the following parameters were obtained: organic and carbonate fraction, C/N analyses of organic fraction, 14C activity (a14C) and d13C values of carbonate (d13Ccarb) and organic fraction (d13Corg) and d15N of total nitrogen. The results were compared with sediment
core collected in the middle of Lake Kozjak, water depth 21 m. Distribution of organic matter, C/N values, d13Corg and d13Ccarb in sediment profiles showed strong influence of terrestrial
organic and carbonate fraction run-off via Rječica Brook which decreased rapidly in the direction of the open lake. The sedimentation rate as well as the ratio of allogenic and authigenic
fraction in sediments was estimated. Lower d13Corg values in surface sediments might be a consequence of the increase in algal productivity but might also be a contribution of fossil fuel combustion. The anthropogenicaly induced 14C in the atmosphere
in 1963/64 is visible though shadowed in sediments.


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