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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology

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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That exhumed karst is a karstic outcrop which has been exposed by the erosion of an allochthonous cover; there is an implication that karstification (partial or complete) had preceded the removal of the cover [20]. mantled karst or buried karst which has been divested of its cover. it is the re-exposed portion of a former landscape [17]. see also buried karst; exposed karst; mantled karst. synonyms: (french.) karst denude; (german.) wiederaufgedeckter karst; (greek.) gymnothen karst; (italian.) carso riesumato; (spanish.) karst exhumado; (turkish.) acik karst; (yugoslavian.) ogoljeli krs (kras).?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for geomech (Keyword) returned 9 results for the whole karstbase:
Geological-evolutionary model of a gravity-induced slope deformation in the carbonate Central Apennines (Italy), 2004, Martino S. , Prestininzi A. , Mugnozza G. S. ,
This paper discusses the findings from a study conducted on gravity-induced deformations occurring along the SW slope of Mount Nuria linking the village of Pendenza (Rieti, Italy) to the area of San Vittorino, in the alluvial plain of the Velino river, where important infrastructures are present. The dominantly carbonate composition of the rocks outcropping along the slope, the occurrence of a main spring fed by a regional karst aquifer and the interaction of gravity-induced deformations with buildings and infrastructures resting on the slope or located at its base make the investigated case extremely interesting and reflective of phenomena that are common in similar geological-hydrogeological conditions. Insights from this case and their use for the construction of a 'geological-evolutionary model' shed more light on the complex interactions existing between jointed carbonate rocks, seepage, karst dissolution, genesis of gravity-induced deformations and their evolution in space and time, through the analysis of stress-strain conditions within the slope. According to the selected methodological approach, data from detailed geological, geomorphological and geomechanical surveys were integrated with those from laboratory tests and from a complex slope monitoring system. From the results of the study it was possible to: i) refer the investigated phenomena to gravity-induced deformations on the slope scale; ii) build a representative 'geological-evolutionary model' and iii) develop an analytical approach to assess the hazard represented by these deformations for local buildings and infrastructures. The identification of different hazard conditions can help define the type and value of possible mitigation efforts. The investigated case also provided inputs for testing new approaches to the geomechanical characterization of rock masses, to the description of their jointing and to the correlation of their main discontinuities with tectonic and gravity-induced elements

Rock Mechanics for Underground Mining, 2004, Brady B. M. G. , Brown E. T.

From the geological to the numerical model in the analysis of gravity-induced slope deformations: An example from the Central Apennines (Italy), 2005, Maffei A. , Martino S. , Prestininzi A. ,
This paper presents the findings from a study on gravity-induced slope deformations along the northern slope of Mt. Nuria (Rieti-Italy). The slope extends from the village of Pendenza to the San Vittorino plain and hosts the Peschiera River springs, i.e. the most important springs of the Central Apennines (average discharge: about 18 m(3)/s). Detailed geological-geomorphological and geomechanical surveys, supported by a site stress-strain monitoring system and laboratory tests, led us to define the main evolutionary features of the studied phenomena. Based on the collected data, a 'geological-evolutionary model' was developed with a view to identifying a spatio-temporal correlation between relief forms, jointing of the rock mass and its stress conditions. The geological-evolutionary model was expected to improve numerical simulations and to test our assumptions. The numerical model also allowed us to simulate changes in the stress-strain conditions of the rock mass and correlate them with jointing, seepage, as well as with site-detected and site-monitored forms and deformations. In particular, significant relations between seepage, tensile stresses within the rock mass, karst solution and collapse of cavities were identified. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

The Geological Characteristics of Buried Karst and Its Impact on Foundations in Hong Kong, China, 2005, Chan Steve H. M. And Lai K. W.

In the past 20 years, new towns development in Hong Kong resulted in the discovery of areas of buried marble and karstic cavities. The buried karst has caused serious problems which significantly impact on foundation design and construction. Carbonate rocks include Carboniferous marble, Permian limestone and. Jurassic marble clast-bearing igneous rocks. These different carbonate rock types show various degrees of karst development. Based on a detailed ground investigation, the most intense karst development and the largest cavities occur in massive pure marble, in which the karst zone can extend to depths of more than .127 mPD. The degree of karst development of impure marble is less than that of pure marble. Marble clast-bearing igneous rocks show the least karst development, with large cavities being rare and smaller-scale honeycomb weathering being more typical. The influence factors of buried karst on foundation engineering are also recognized. These factors include geological structure, rock types, hydrogeology, paleogeomorphology and geomechanics. Among these factors, correct classification of rock types is very important in the design of ground investigation and construction works. The misinterpretation may increase property development costs substantially.

Chemical, geomechanical and geomorphological aspects of Karst in sandstone and marl of flysch formations in north east Italy, 2005, Mocchiutti Andrea, Maddaleni Paolo

Geomphology, geomechanical and geochemical features of some caves in flysch sediments in Prealpi Giulie, Friuli, North east Italy are described.

Karst and Cryokarst, 2007,

"Karst and Cryokarst", dedicated to the memory of Teresa Wiszniowska (authority on research of large fossil mammals, cave bear especially) and Marian Pulina (authority on speleology and geomorphology), contains works covering the subjects of their broad scientific interests.
The book is a joint publication of IGU Karst Commission and UIS Commission Glacier Caves and Cryokarst in Polar and High Mountain Regions /GLACKIPR/.

Eraso A., Domìnguez M.C.
Subpolar glacier network as natural sensors of global warming evolution
Mavlyudov B.R.
Internal drainage systems of glaciers
Schroeder J.
Moulins of a subpolar glacier seen as a thermal anomaly Domìnguez M.C., Eraso A.
Frequent systematic errors In the measurements of the glacier discharge
Domínguez M.C., Eraso A.
Substantial changes happened during the last years in the icecap of King George, Insular Antarctica
Eraso A., Domínguez M.C.
Physicochemical characteristics of the subglacier discharge in Potter Cove, King George Island, Antarctica
Sauro U.
Forms of mixed origin in the karst environment of the Venetian Prealps
Auly T.
Quelques morphologies de rapport karst/glaciaire dans les Pyrénées (France)
Pawłowska-Bielawska P.
Evolution of Wielka Śnieżna Cave in the light of geomorphologic observations
Dobrowolski R.
Model of glaciogenic transformation of the Lublin-Volhynia chalk karst (Poland SE, Ukraine NW)
Bieroński J., Socha P., Stefaniak K.
Deposits and fauna of the Sudetic caves ? the state of research Trofimova E.V.
Particularités du développement récent du karst calcaire de Sibérie et d'Extrême-Orient (Russie)
Cao Jianhua, Yuan Daoxian, Zhang Cheng, Jiang Zhangcheng
Karst ecosystem of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region constrained by geological setting: Relationship between carbonate rock exposure and vegetation coverage
Smieja A., Smieja-Król B.
Springs with active calcium carbonate precipitation in the Polish part of the Tatra Mountains
Parise M., Trisciuzzi M.A.
Geomechanical characterization of carbonate rock masses in underground karst systems
Piasecki J., Sawiński T.
Acoustic measurements of airflow in speleo-climatological studies
Kadebskaya O.
News in monitoring system and recommendations in development of use and protection of Kungur Ice cave
Mokrushina O.
Ordinskaya cave as new object of speleoturism

Book is available at the Department of Geomorphology University of Silesia ordering via e-mail:

Structurally complex reservoirs: an introduction, 2007, Jolley S. J. , Barr D. , Walsh J. J. , Knipe R. J.

Structurally complex reservoirs form a distinct class of reservoir, in which fault arrays  and fracture networks, in particular, exert an over-riding control on petroleum trapping and production  behaviour. With modern exploration and production portfolios commonly held in geologically  complex settings, there is an increasing technical challenge to find new prospects and to  extract remaining hydrocarbons from these more structurally complex reservoirs. Improved  analytical and modelling techniques will enhance our ability to locate connected hydrocarbon  volumes and unswept sections of reservoir, and thus help optimize field development, production  rates and ultimate recovery. This volume reviews our current understanding and ability to model the  complex distribution and behaviour of fault and fracture networks, highlighting their fluid compartmentalizing  effects and storage-transmissivity characteristics, and outlining approaches for predicting  the dynamic fluid flow and geomechanical behaviour of structurally complex reservoirs.  This introductory paper provides an overview of the research status on structurally complex reservoirs  and aims to create a context for the collection of papers presented in this volume and, in doing  so, an entry point for the reader into the subject. We have focused on the recent progress and outstanding  issues in the areas of: (i) structural complexity and fault geometry; (ii) the detection and  prediction of faults and fractures; (iii) the compartmentalizing effects of fault systems and complex  siliciclastic reservoirs; and (iv) the critical controls that affect fractured reservoirs.


The authors have founded a new hypothesis that relates various karsts’ genesis, including hydrothermal-karstic ore deposits, and evolution of rock masses in the areas of endogenous ring structures. The hypothesis is backed by the fact that karstic manifestations stick to the ring morpho-structures. The presented substantiation grows strong with the physical and numerical modeling of the kasrt formation mechanics and comparison of the modeling results and field data.

On the applicability of geomechanical models for carbonate rock masses interested by karst processes, 2015,

Rock mass classification and geomechanical models have a particular importance for carbonate rocks, due to their peculiar fabric, variability of the main features, and scarce availability of experimental data. Carbonates are particularly sensitive to syn-depositional and post-depositional diagenesis, including dissolution and karstification processes, cementation, recrystallisation, dolomitisation and replacement by other minerals. At the same time, as most of sedimentary rocks, they are typically stratified, laminated, folded, faulted and fractured. The strength and deformability of carbonate rock masses are, therefore, significantly affected by the discontinuities, as well as by their pattern and orientation with respect to the in situ stresses. Further, discontinuities generally cause a distribution of stresses in the rock mass remarkably different from those determined by the classical elastic or elasto-plastic theories for homogeneous continua. Goal of this work is the description of the difficulties in elaborating geomechanical models to depict the stress–strain behavior of karstified carbonate rock masses. Due to such difficulties, a high degree of uncertainty is also present in the selection of the most proper approach, the discontinuum one or the equivalent continuum, and in the numerical model to be used within a specific engineering application as well. The high uncertainty might cause wrong assessments as concerns the geological hazards, the design costs, and the most proper remediation works. Even though recent developments in the application of numerical modeling methods allow to simulate quite well several types of jointed rock masses, as concerns carbonate rock masses many problems in representing their complex geometry in the simulation models still remain, due to peculiarity of the structural elements, and the presence of karst features. In the common practice, the improper use of the geomechanical models comes from a superficial geological study, or from the lack of reliable geological and structural data that, as a consequence, bring to erroneous evaluations of the influence of the geological-structural features on the in situ stress state and the stress–strain rock mass behavior.

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