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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That imported water is water coming from outside the ground-water basin under consideration [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for glauconite (Keyword) returned 4 results for the whole karstbase:
Palaeoenvironment of lateritic bauxites with vertical and lateral differentiation, 1983, Valeton Ida,
Formation of lateritic bauxites of the type described in this paper occurs world-wide in Cretaceous and Tertiary coastal plains. The bauxites form elongate belts, sometimes hundreds of kilometres long, parallel to Lower Tertiary shorelines in India and South America and their distribution is not related to a particular mineralogical composition of the parent rock. The lateral movement of the major elements Al, Si, Fe, Ti is dependent on a high level and flow of groundwater. Varying efficiency of subsurface drainage produces lateral facies variations. Interfingering of marine and continental facies indicate a sea-land transition zone where the type of sediments also varies with minor tectonic movements or sea-level changes. A typical sediment association is found in India, Africa, South and North America. It consists of (i) red beds rich in detrital and dissolved material of reworked laterites, (ii) lacustrine sediments and hypersaline precipitates, (iii) lignites intercalated with marine clays, layers of siderite, pyrite, marcasite and jarosite, and (iv) marine chemical sediments rich in oolitic iron ores or glauconite. A model is developed to account for element distributions in lateritic bauxites in terms of groundwater levels and flow. Finally it is shown that many high-level bauxites are formed in coastal plains and that they are subsequently uplifted to their present altitude

Mthodes et lments de cartographie dun palokarst. Lexemple de la Carrire du Clypot (Hainaut, Belgique), 2002, Quinif Yves, Quinif Gilles
Palaeokarsts have been often considered like geological objects different from the present karst systems, which can be explored partially by speleological ways. But it is obvious that their genesis have not been different from the genesis of the neogene karst systems, in same environmental conditions. The study of palaeokarsts has a great importance for the comparison with present systems. Moreover, they conserve continental sediments which generally disappear, but with possibility of dating by marine trangressive series which cover the palaeokarsts or by absolute dating like K-Ar or Ar-Ar on glauconite or ferriferous illite. We present here an interesting example of palaeokarstic features in a quarry where the works permit to map those features. This map constitutes the basis for future studies; it has shown different types of morphological features and deposits, their geometrical relations and their genetic links. We have (i) ghosts-rocks and pseudo-endokarsts, which result from the alteration in situ of the host-rock with formation of residual alterite. Those features organise like linear channels along tectonic fractures. Some channels can joint together in great pockets. At the summit of the limestone formation, (ii) palaeo-clints develop under the transgressive cover where we find pebbles and sands. Finally, (iii) endokarstic galleries can come from an autonomous hollowing (classical karst) or from old ghost-rocks, which become partially empty by a new hydrological activity.

Authigenic halloysite from El-Gideda iron ore, Bahria Oasis, Egypt: characterization and origin, 2004, Baioumy Hm, Hassan Ms,
Halloysite in El-Gideda iron mine occurs as very soft, light and white-to-pinkish white pockets and lenses ranging in diameter from 50 cm to 1 m within the iron ore. Highly hydrated halloysite is the main constituent of these pockets beside some kaolinite and alunite. The diffraction pattern of the clay fraction (<2 {micro}m) shows a rather broad and diffuse 001 reflection spread between 10.3 and 13.6{degrees}2{theta}. Upon treatment, the 001 reflection of halloysite expands up to 10.94 A and 11.9 A corresponding to ethylene glycol and dimethyl formamide treatment, respectively. After these treatments, kaolinite appeared with its characteristic basal spacing (~7 A ). The percentage of halloysite in halloysite-intercalated kaolinite ranged between 80 and 90%. Heating to 350{degrees}C, produces a kaolinite-like structure (~7.1 A ) that developed to a metakaolinite-structure when heated to 550{degrees}C. Morphologically, halloysite appears as well developed tubes composed entirely of SiO2 and Al2O3, while kaolinite is characterized by very fine platelets arranged in book-like or rosette-like shapes. A differential thermal analysis curve of the studied halloysite showed an endothermic peak at ~138{degrees}C due to the dehydration of interlayer water of halloysite. The small shoulder at ~540{degrees}C and the endothermic peak at ~593{degrees}C is attributed to the dehydroxylation of halloysite, kaolinite and alunite. On the other hand the exothermic peak that appeared at 995{degrees}C is due to the formation of new phases such as mullite and/or spinel. The infrared vibrational spectrum is typical of highly disordered halloysite and kaolinite. Halloysite was formed as a result of alteration of the overlying glauconite suggesting intensive chemical alteration during a humid wet period that prevailed in the Bahria Oasis during the late Eocene. Glauconite alteration releases K, Fe, silica and alumina. Iron forms at least part of the iron ore in the El-Gideda mine while alumina forms halloysite as well as alunite when interacted with silica in an acidic environment

Uncommon cave minerals associated to hypogene speleogenesis in Southern France, 2013, Audra, Philippe

Five hypogenic-origin caves from Southern France are presented. Investigations using XRD, SEM and Raman spectroscopy, reveal the presence of uncommon cave minerals. Oilloki Cave is a small lead ore mine-cave containing galena, cerussite, and bismuth (present as native element or as sulfide).La Baume Cave is a hydrothermal breccia-pipe, filled with colorful (red, green, white) clays. Some of the clay minerals (clinochlore se-piolite), could originate from hydrothermal weathering of clastic material. The Mala-coste Quarry, harbors a hydrothermal chimney with enlarged vugs lined with calcite spar and filled with iron oxyhydroxides poolfingers (goethite-hematite) and manganese oxides (birnessite, todorokite). Deposition of iron and manganese oxides results of the pH-Eh evolution along the hydrothermal chimney. Pigette Cave is a hydrothermal ver-tical maze with calcite lining and small iron oxyhydroxides and manganese oxides mass-es. The hydrothermal weathering of the walls deposited grains of lithiophorite, barite, and celadonite, which could originate from glauconite. Baume Galinière Cave is a small horizontal maze originating from the oxidation of sulfide masses of pyrite. Beside the common byproducts (gypsum, goethite, sulfur), the six members of the jarosite sub-group are present: jarosite, ammoniojarosite, argentojarosite, hydronium jarosite, natro-jarosite, plumbojarosite, together with fibroferrite. In these caves, three minerals are new cave minerals (bismuth, celadonite, argentojarosite); some others have been men-tioned before only in a few caves worldwide (clinochlore, lithiophorite, ammoniojaro-site, hydronium jarosite, natrojarosite, plumbojarosite, fibroferrite). The mineralogene-sis involves different processes: (i) Deposition in mixing zone from species carried by rising deep flow (barite, galena, bismuth, birnessite, todorokite, lithiophorite); (ii) Hy-drothermal weathering of clay minerals contained in host rock or present as clastic sediments (clinochlore, sepiolite, celadonite); (iii) Oxidation of sulfide masses (goethite, cerussite, jarosite subgroup minerals, fibroferrite).


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