MWH Global

Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology

Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That chemical mobility is the tendency of an element to move in a given hydrogeochemical environment [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

What is Karstbase?

Search KARSTBASE:

keyword
author

Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for gypsum speleothems (Keyword) returned 14 results for the whole karstbase:
The sulfate speleothems of Thampanna cave, Nullarbor Plain, Australia, 1991, James, Julia M.

Examination of gypsum speleothems and chemical analysis of the cave drip waters (ions to chloride mole ratios, tot. dissolved solids, nitrate) confirm that the major source of the sulfate in Thampanna cave (Western Australia) is from seawater transported by rain.


Two New Types of Gypsum Speleothems from New Mexico: Gypsum Trays and Gypsum Dust, 1994, Calaforra Jos Mara, Forti Paola

Observations sur le karst de Bardas Blancas-Malarge (Andes de Mendoza, Argentine), 1995, Mikkan, R. A.
The karst of Bardas Blancas, situated south of Mendoza province, deve-lops in Jurassic and Cretaceous limes-tones. The continental and semi-arid climate (300 mm/year) is characterized by temperate summers and cold winters. The periglacial processes are actives. The relief presents a semi-karstic morphology: structural landforms ("Schichttreppenkarst" with cuestas) and afew dolines, swallow-holes and pavements. The Los Brujas cave, about 1 000 m long, shows a labyrinthic network (3 siaged levels) with phreatic passages. The impor-tant gypsum speleothems (crusts, flowers) in the lower level and the calcite-opale speleothems indicate an hydrothermal speleogenesis (dissolution by sulfuric acid and gypsum deposit). The actual and active tectogenesis of this region (uphft, hydrothermalism, volcanism) plays an important part in the geomorphological evolution.

Gypsum Speleothems of Freezing Origin, 1998, Korshunov, V. V. , Shavrina, E. V.
Seasonal freezing affects the development of gypsum speleothems in caves of the Pinega area of the Russian European North including two types of deposits not previously described. One type, called gypsum yozh (hedgehog), grows in dense clay sediment within a high supersaturation environment. Originally growing in a direction away from the freezing front, they later enlarge almost symmetrically. Their shapes and characteristics are dependent on various factors and provide interesting comparisons with gypsum roses from arid regions. A second, very rare, type of gypsum speleothem appears to be produced from concretions of gypsum powder accumulated in cavities within an underground ice body. Recrystallization of the gypsum is controlled by fluctuating local temperature and seasonal freezing in an environment of low supersaturation

Sulfide-bearing palaeokarst deposits at Lune River Quarry, Ida Bay, Tasmania, 2001, Osborne R. A. L. , Cooper I. B. ,
The Lune River Quarry at ida Bay. Tasmania exposes numerous palaeokarst features developed in the Ordovician Gordon Limestone. These palaeokarst features contain carbonate and siliciclastic deposits probably representing Late Devonian to early Late Carboniferous and Late Carboniferous karstification and sedimentation. Five facies of palaeokarst deposits are recognised, namely megabreccia, graded-bedded carbonate, laminated sandstone/siltstone, diamictite/quartz-lithic sandstone and coarse crystalline calcite. Pyrite, dolomite and sphalerite were emplaced in the palaeokarst deposits after the Carboniferous. These deposits are probably associated with a phase of hydrothermal cave development in Exit Cave, which adjoins the quarry. Pyrite weathering accounts for the abundance of gypsum speleothems and cave breakdown in Exit Cave

Uranium-series dating of gypsum speleothems: methodology and examples, 2010, Sanna L. , Saez F. , Simonsen S. , Constantin S. , Calaforra J. M. , Forti P. , Lauritzen S. E.
The analytical problems of dating gypsum speleothems with the U-series technique are reviewed. Gypsum speleothems are, in general, very low in U content, challenging the limits of detection methods. Various approaches to dissolving gypsum and isolation of actinides from the matrix include ion-pairing dissolution with magnesium salts and using nitric acid. The most precise dating technique is Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS), combined with Fe(OH)3 scavenging and anionic exchange chromatography. Less satisfactory, but much quicker, is direct retention of actinides from HNO3 by means of TRU resin and MC-ICP-MS detection. We have tested these methods on gypsum speleothems from the Sorbas karst in Spain and from the Naica caves in Mexico.

Uranium-series dating of gypsum speleothems: methodology and examples, 2010, Sanna L. , Saez F. , Simonsen S. , Constantin S. , Calaforra J. M. , Forti P. , Lauritzen S. E.

The analytical problems of dating gypsum speleothems with the U-series technique are reviewed. Gypsum speleothems are, in general, very low in U content, challenging the limits of detection methods. Various approaches to dissolving gypsum and isolation of actinides from the matrix include ion-pairing dissolution with magnesium salts and using nitric acid. The most precise dating technique is Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS), combined with Fe(OH)3 scavenging and anionic exchange chromatography. Less satisfactory, but much quicker, is direct retention of actinides from HNO3 by means of TRU resin and MC-ICP-MS detection. We have tested these methods on gypsum speleothems from the Sorbas karst in Spain and from the Naica caves in Mexico.


Preliminary U/Th dating and the evolution of gypsum crystals in Naica caves (Mexico), 2011, Sanna Laura, Forti Paolo, Lauritzen Steinerik

The origin and the evolution of giant selenite crystals in Naica caves, together with the understanding of their growth mechanisms, is one of the aims of the international multidisciplinary research, called the “Naica Project”. In this context, the exact timing of when the gypsum nucleation started and whether its growth has been constant over time, have been investigated. The preliminary data obtained with the U–Th disequilibrium method show significant differences in ages for gypsum (between 191 ± 13 kyr for one of the Ojo de la Reina cave crystals and 57 ± 1.7 kyr for the base of Espadas cave’s spar) and have produced a coarse chronological interval of growth. The crystal depositional rates vary from 0.56 to 1.22 mm/kyr, in excellent agreement with the laboratory tests for gypsum deposition under present conditions performed in the deepest part of the mine. These results are also consistent with a multistage precipitation started at different times in the Naica caves (first in caves at the upper level, where gypsum was subsequently dissolved, and only later in the deeper part of the aquifer under stable conditions) and allow us to improve the knowledge on the speleogenetic evolution of these caves.


Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico, U.S.A., 2012, Kambesis, Patricia

Lechuguilla Cave in Carlsbad Caverns National Park, Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico, has a 2010 surveyed length of 130 km. It is a hypogene cave, formed by uprising H2S-bearing fluids which oxidize to form sulfuric acid when they reach oxygen-bearing meteoric water. The cave is formed in the Permian Capitan Reef Complex. Argon-argon dating suggests that the cave is on the order of 5 million years old. Lechuguilla Cave exhibits dramatic mineralization, particularly gypsum chandeliers, native sulfur, and many massive calcite speleothems. Of particular interest is the microbiology of the cave where microbes, present and past, formed without surface interactions.


Gypsum-carbonate speleothems from Cueva de las Espadas (Naica mine, Mexico): mineralogy and palaeohydrogeological implications, 2012, Gzquez Fernando, Calaforra Jos Maria, Forti Paolo, Rull Fernando, Martnezfras Jess

 

Some of the most outstanding hypogenic gypsum speleothems worldwide have been recently discovered in the Naica mines. The Cueva de las Espadas (Swords Cave), which lies at 120 m depth, hosts a rare type of speleothem called “espada” (“sword”). This study contributes to the understanding of the mineralogical composition of these singular speleothems, by means of their examination using micro-Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy and EDX microprobe. Our data revealed a complex mineralogy comprising a high-purity selenite core covered by several layers of calcite, aragonite and gypsum. Solid inclusions of polymetallic oxides (Mn-Pb-Zn) and graphite were also detected. The position of the water table during the genesis of the “espada” speleothems (over the past 60 kyr) was deduced from their mineralogy. Water level fluctuations at around -120 m depth led to environmental changes within the Cueva de las Espadas. The selenite core and gypsum layers were precipitated under biphasic (water-rock) conditions when the cave was submerged under hydrothermal water. The aragonite precipitation required triphasic (air-water-rock) conditions and occurred when the water table intercepted the cave, allowing the CO2 exchange necessary for carbonate precipitation. Solid inclusions were trapped in an aerobic environment when the gypsum-aragonite boundary condition occurred. A thin calcite layer was precipitated under vadose conditions after the water table definitively moved out of the cave.


Speleothem microstructure/speleothem ontogeny: a review of Western contributions, 2012, White William B.

Mineral ontogeny is the study of the growth and development of mineral deposits in general and, in the present context, speleothems in particular. Previous researchers, mainly in Russia, have developed a nomenclatural hierarchy based on the forms and habits of individual crystals and the assembly of individual crystals into both monomineralic and polymineralic aggegates (i.e. speleothems). Although investigations of the growth processes of speleothems are sparse, there is a large literature on growth processes of speleothem minerals and related crystals in the geochemical and materials science literature. The purpose of the present paper is to sort through the various concepts of crystal growth and attempt to relate these to observations on speleothems and to the Russian conceptual framework of mineral ontogeny. For calcite, the most common mineral in speleothems, the activation energy for two dimensional nucleation (required for the growth of large single crystals) is almost the same as the activation energy for three- dimensional nucleation (which would result in the growth of many small crystals). Calcite growth is highly sensitive to minor impurities that may poison growth in certain crystallographic directions or may poison growth altogether. Extensive recent research using the atomic force microscope (AFM) provides many details of calcite growth including the transition from growth on screw dislocations to growth by two-dimensional nucleation. The deposition of aragonite speleothems requires metastable supersaturation curve and is usually ascribed to the impurities Mg2+ and Sr2+. AFM studies reveal that Mg2+ poisons calcite growth by blocking deposition sites on dislocations, thus allowing supersaturation to build up past the aragonite solubility curve. Sr2+ precipitates as a Sr-rich nucleus with the aragonite structure which acts as a template for aragonite growth. The different morphology of gypsum speleothems can be explained by the different growth habit of gypsum. Examples of twinned growth, dendrite growth, and spherulitic growth are common in the crystal growth literature and can be used to interpret the corresponding cave forms. Interpretation of monomineralic aggregate growth follows from individual crystal mechanisms. Interpretation of polymineralic aggregate growth requires knowing the evolving chemistry which in turn requires new methods for the sampling and analysis of microliter or nanoliter quantities of fluid.


STRONTIUM ISOTOPE RATIOS (87SR/86SR) IN GYPSUM SPELEOTHEMS FROM THE NAICA MINE CAVES (CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO): GENETIC IMPLICATIONS, 2013, Gzquez Fernando, Calaforra Jos Maria, Garcacasco Antonio, Sanna Laura, Forti Paolo

The 87Sr/86Sr ratio of several gypsum speleothems from the caves of the Naica Mine (Chihuahua, Mexico) has been determined in order to evaluate the origin of the saline solution from which they precipitated. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the huge selenite crystals from the Cristales Cave (-290 m Level) and of the gypsum core of the “espadas” speleothems from the Espadas Cave (-120 m Level) are 0.707337 and 0.708343, respectively. These values are slightly higher than that of the carbonate host rock (0.7072) as well as that of the Tertiary felsic dikes emplaced in the carbonate sequence (0.7080). They are also lower than those expected for crystallization from seepage water solutions (>0.7090). Therefore, the 87Sr/86Sr values determined for the speleothems at Naica suggest that gypsum in these caves precipitated from a mixture of infiltration water and thermal water. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio of gypsum speleothems is regarded as a useful indicator to infer the rela- tive contribution of meteoric deep thermal water solutions during the genesis of the Naica’s gypsum speleothems.


The role of condensation in the evolution of dissolutional forms in gypsum caves: Study case in the karst of Sorbas (SE Spain), 2014, Gazquez F. , Calaforra J. M. , Forti P. , Waele J. D. , Sanna L.

The karst of Sorbas (SE Spain) is one of the most important gypsum areas worldwide. Its underground karst network comprises over 100 km of cave passages. Rounded smooth forms, condensation cupola and pendant-like features appear on the ceiling of the shallower passages as a result of gypsum dissolution by condensation water. Meanwhile, gypsum speleothems formed by capillarity, evaporation and aerosol deposition such as coralloids, gypsum crusts and rims are frequently observed closer to the passages floors. The role of condensation-dissolution mechanisms in the evolution of geomorphological features observed in the upper cave levels has been studied by means of long-term Micro-Erosion Meter (MEM) measurements, direct collection and analysis of condensation waters, and micrometeorological monitoring. Monitoring of erosion at different heights on gypsum walls of the Cueva del Agua reveals that the gypsum surface retreated up to 0.033 mm yr- 1 in MEM stations located in the higher parts of the cave walls. The surface retreat was negligible at the lowest sites, suggesting higher dissolution rates close to the cave ceiling, where warmer and moister air flows. Monitoring of microclimatic parameters and direct measurements of condensation water were performed in the Covadura Cave system in order to estimate seasonal patterns of condensation. Direct measurements of condensation water dripping from a metal plate placed in the central part of the El Bosque Gallery of Covadura Cave indicate that condensation takes place mainly between July and November in coincidence with rainless periods. The estimated gypsum surface lowering due to this condensation water is 0.0026 mm yr- 1. Microclimatic monitoring in the same area shows differences in air temperature and humidity of the lower parts of the galleries (colder and drier) with respect to the cave ceiling (warmer and wetter). This thermal sedimentation controls the intensity of the condensation-evaporation mechanisms at different heights in the cave.


The role of condensation in the evolution of dissolutional forms in gypsum caves: Study case in the karst of Sorbas (SE Spain), 2015, Gazquez Fernando, Calaforra José Maria, Forti Paolo, De Waele Jo, Sanna Laura

The karst of Sorbas (SE Spain) is one of the most important gypsum areas worldwide. Its underground karst network comprises over 100 km of cave passages. Rounded smooth forms, condensation cupola and pendant-like features appear on the ceiling of the shallower passages as a result of gypsum dissolution by condensation water. Meanwhile, gypsum speleothems formed by capillarity, evaporation and aerosol deposition such as coralloids, gypsum crusts and rims are frequently observed closer to the passage floors. The role of condensation–dissolution mechanisms in the evolution of geomorphological features observed in the upper cave levels has been studied by means of long-term micro-erosion meter (MEM) measurements, direct collection and analysis of condensation waters, and micrometeorological monitoring. Monitoring of erosion at different heights on gypsum walls of the Cueva del Agua reveals that the gypsum surface retreated up to 0.033 mm yr−1 in MEM stations located in the higher parts of the cave walls. The surface retreat was negligible at the lowest sites, suggesting higher dissolution rates close to the cave ceiling, where warmer and moister air flows. Monitoring of microclimatic parameters and direct measurements of condensation water were performed in the Covadura Cave system in order to estimate seasonal patterns of condensation. Direct measurements of condensation water dripping from a metal plate placed in the central part of the El Bosque Gallery of Covadura Cave indicate that condensation takes place mainly between July and November in coincidence with rainless periods. The estimated gypsum surface lowering due to this condensation water is 0.0026 mm yr−1. Microclimatic monitoring in the same area shows differences in air temperature and humidity of the lower parts of the galleries (colder and drier) with respect to the cave ceiling (warmer and wetter). This thermal sedimentation controls the intensity of the condensation–evaporation mechanisms at different heights in the cave.


Results 1 to 14 of 14
You probably didn't submit anything to search for