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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That phreatic rise is the upward movement of the water table [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for high resolution (Keyword) returned 34 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 34
Paleoclimate and location of the border between Mediterranean climate region and the Saharo-Arabian Desert as revealed by speleothems from the northern Negev Desert, Israel, , Vaks A. , Barmatthews M. , Ayalon A. , Matthews A. , Frumkin A. , Dayan U. , Halicz L. , Mogilabin A. , Schilman B. ,
Speleothem bearing karstic caves of the northern Negev Desert, southern Israel, provides an ideal site for reconstructing the paleoclimate and paleo-location of the border between Mediterranean climate region and the Saharo-Arabian Desert. Major periods of speleothem deposition (representing humid periods) were determined by high resolution 230Th-U dating and corresponding studies of stable isotope composition were used to identify the source of rainfall during humid periods and the vegetation type. Major humid intervals occurred during glacials at 190-150[no-break space]ka, 76-25[no-break space]ka, 23-13[no-break space]ka and interglacials at 200-190[no-break space]ka, 137-123[no-break space]ka and 84-77[no-break space]ka. The dominant rainfall source was the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, with a possible small contribution from southern tropical sources during the interglacial periods. When the interglacial interval rainfall was of Eastern Mediterranean origin, the minimum annual rainfall was ~ 300-350[no-break space]mm; approximately twice than of the present-day. Lower minimum amounts of precipitation could have occurred during glacial periods, due to the cooler temperatures and reduced evaporation. Although during most of the humid periods the vegetation remained steppe with mixed C3 C4 vegetation, Mediterranean C3 type steppe-forest vegetation invaded southward for short periods, and the climate in the northern Negev became closer to Mediterranean type than at present. The climate was similar to present, or even more arid, during intervals when speleothem deposition did not occur: 150-144[no-break space]ka, 141-140[no-break space]ka, 117-96[no-break space]ka, 92-85[no-break space]ka, 25-23[no-break space]ka, and 13[no-break space]ka-present-day.Precipitation increase occurred in the northern Negev during the interglacial monsoonal intensity maxima at 198[no-break space]ka, 127[no-break space]ka, 83[no-break space]ka and glacial monsoonal maxima at 176[no-break space]ka, 151[no-break space]ka, 61[no-break space]ka and 33[no-break space]ka. However, during interglacial monsoonal maxima at 105[no-break space]ka and 11[no-break space]ka, the northern Negev was arid whereas during glacial monsoonal minima it was usually humid. This implies that there is not always synchroneity between monsoonal activity and humidity in the region.Oxygen isotopic values of the northern Negev speleothems are systematically lower than contemporaneous speleothems of central and northern Israel. This part is attributed to the increased rainout of the heavy isotopes by Rayleigh fractionation processes, possibly due to the farther distance from the Mediterranean coast

A high resolution record of Holocenc climate change in speleothem calcite from Cold Water Cave, northeast Iowa, 1992, Dorale J. A. , Gonzalez L. A. , Reagan M. K. Et Al.

We collected 43 km of high resolution seismic reflection profiles from a 14.5-hectare lake in the central Florida sinkhole district and data from three adjacent boreholes to determine the relationship between falling lake levels and the underlying karst stratigraphy. The lake is separated from karstified Paleogene to early Neogene carbonates by 65-80 m of siliciclastic sands and clays. The carbonate and clastic strata include three aquifer systems separated by clay-confining units: a surficial aquifer system (fine to medium quartz sand in the upper 20-30 m), the 25-35 m thick intermediate aquifer system (in Neogene siliciclastics), and the highly permeable upper Floridan aquifer system in Paleogene to early Neogene limestones. Hydraulic connection between these aquifer systems is indicated by superjacent karst structures throughout the section. Collapse zones of up to 1000 m in diameter and > 50 m depth extend downward from a prominent Middle Miocene unconformity into Oligocene and Upper Eocene limestones. Smaller sinkholes (30-100 m diameter, 10-25 m depth) are present in Middle to Late Neogene clays, sands, and carbonates and extend downward to or below the Middle Miocene unconformity. Filled and open shafts (30-40 m diameter; 10-25 m depth) ring the lake margin and overlie subsurface karst features. The large collapse zones are localized along a northeast-southwest line in the northern ponds and disrupt or deform Neogene to Quaternary strata and at least 50 m of the underlying Paleogene carbonate rocks. The timing and vertical distribution of karst structures are used to formulate a four-stage model that emphasizes stratigraphic and hydrogeologic co-evolution. (1) Fracture-selective shallow karst features formed on Paleogene/early Neogene carbonates. (2) Widespread karstification was limited by deposition of Middle Miocene clays, but vertical karst propagation continued and was focused because of the topographic effects of antecedent karst. (3) Groundwater heads, increase with the deposition of thick sequences of clastics over the semipermeable clays during Middle and Late Neogene time. The higher water table and groundwater heads allowed the accumulation of acidic, organic-rich soils and chemically aggressive waters that percolated down to Paleogene carbonates via localized karst features. (4) After sufficient subsurface dissolution, the Paleogene carbonates collapsed, causing disruption and deformation of overlying strata. The seismic profiles document an episodic, vertically progressive karst that allows localized vertical leakage through the clay-confining units. The spatial and temporal karst distribution is a result of deposition of sediments with different permeabilities during high sea levels and enhanced karst dissolution during low sea levels. Recent decreases in the potentiometric elevation of the Floridan Aquifer System simulates a sea-level lowstand, suggesting that karst dissolution will increase in frequency and magnitude

A geophysical test was carried out over a well-located and fairly embedded karstic conduit. The MT-VLF method was selected because of its high resolution and its ability to provide a resistivity parameter sensitive to water and clay. This method was used together with DC resistivity methods which allow vertical adjustment of the VLF data and show consistency between the investigation and target depths. After correcting the deformations due to the polarization of the primary field, the MT-VLF data show clearly, in the central part of the site, that the conduit does not coincide with an anomaly axis but coincides with the boundary between a conductive area and a resistive area. 2D modelling confirms that direct detection of the conduit is not feasible and that the conduit is located close to a conductive zone corresponding to a completely clay-filled fractured zone. This situation was observed on the whole site and the conduit seemed systematically to thread its way between the conductive zones to join the outlet. The distribution of the conductive fractured zones and the direction of the hydraulic gradient were two important elements in predicting the location of the conduits. A 3D approach would increase the probability of finding the conduits in such a case

Sensitivity of karst process to environmental change along the Pep II transect, 1997, Yuan D. X. ,
It has been known since as early as the last century that karst formation is a geologic process related to chemical reaction, but not until the last couple of decades were karst processes viewed as being sensitive to environmental change. The direction and intensity of karst processes are controlled by environmental factors such as temperature, climate, hydrology, vegetation, geology, and the openness of the system to the atmosphere. Accordingly, karst features, as a product of the carbon cycle, differ in space and time. This is clearly evident from the world karst correlation project, IGCP 299. There is a sharp contrast between karst types on both sides of the Qingling Mountain range of central China. Semi-arid karst is located to the north, and humid subtropical karst to the south. Karst features are capable of recording high resolution paleoclimatic change. AMS C-14, isotope and geochemical studies of thin laminae from a giant stalagmite located near Guilin, in southern China, have clearly identified rapid climate changes during the past 40 ka. In karst areas with active neotectonism, huge deposits of calcareous travertine record the amount of deeply sourced CO2 emitted into the atmosphere and can aid studies on modem tectonism because of the association of calcareous travertine with active faults.

The last sea level changes in the Black Sea: evidence from the seismic data, 1999, Demirbag E, Gokasan E, Oktay Fy, Simsek M, Yuce H,
High resolution shallow seismic data collected from the southwestern shelf of the Black Sea indicate five different seismic stratigraphical units. The lower three of them belong to the Upper Cretaceous-Eocene, Oligocene-Miocene and Early Quaternary (prior to Holocene) sediments, respectively. These units are considered as a basement for the recent sediments deposited related to the latest connection of the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. The surface of these units are truncated to form an etchplain developed before the Flandrian transgression. The fourth unit covers the older units by an onlap. Its contact with the older units seen at -105 m is the shoreline of the Black Sea prior to the last major sea-level change. The fifth unit has been deposited since drowning of the Black Sea shelf. The principal cause of drowning of the Black Sea shelf is not only the last sea level rise as it is at the shelves of the Sea of Marmara but also the opening of the Strait of Istanbul. It is also realised by the comparison of the shelf area and the Catalca-Kocaeli etchplain that, the present continental part of this etchplain has been considerably uplifted with respect to the shelf area along the present shoreline. This uplifting must have also reactivated the faults around the Strait of Istanbul foundering the strait valley and, thus, permitting the Mediterranean waters to pass into the Black Sea, and initiating the sudden drowning of the Black Sea shelf

Symposium Abstract: Climate variability in the last interglacial - New evidence using a high resolution speleotham stable isotope record from Lancaster Hole caves, North Yorkshire, 2001, Hodge E. J. , Smart P. L. , Richards D. A. , Mattey D. P. , Maslin M. A.

The sedimentary records in Mediterranean rockshelters and caves: Archives of environmental change, 2001, Woodward J. C. , Goldberg P. ,
It is important to develop rigorous methods and robust conceptual models for the interpretation of rockshelter and cave sediment records so that the cultural sequences they contain can be considered in their proper environmental context. Much of what we know about the prehistory of the Mediterranean region and adjacent areas has largely been pieced together from materials excavated from sedimentary sequences in these environments. The rockshelters and caves of the region form important environmental and sedimentary archives. Recent work has begun to consider if the remarkable climatic variability evident in the high resolution lacustrine and ice core records is manifest in the rockshelter and cave sediment records of the area, In this context, the two main characteristics of a rockshelter or cave site which control its usefulness as an archive of environmental change are the temporal resolution of the sedimentary record and the environmental sensitivity of the site. Many rockshelters and caves can be described as either Active Karst Settings (AKS) or Passive Karst Settings (PKS) and site type is an important influence on climatic sensitivity with a direct influence upon the usefulness of the sedimentary sequence as a proxy record of climate change. It is now clear that some sites may preserve detailed paleoclimatic records and the climatic signal may be represented by distinctive suites of micromorphological features, by variations in the input of allogenic sediment, or by fluctuations in the mineral magnetic properties of the fine sediment fraction. It can be argued that data derived from the analysis of bulk coarse-grained samples often lacks the stratigraphic resolution and environmental sensitivity that can be obtained from other approaches. The most favorable sites for detailed paleoclimatic reconstruction appear to be in active karst settings such as Theopetra Cave (Greece) and Pigeon Cave (Morocco) where micromorphological analyses offer insights into the stratigraphic record that are not otherwise obtainable. The temporal resolution of a site can only be established through a rigorous stratigraphic analysis and a comprehensive dating program. These are fundamental considerations in the study of rockshelter sediment records, especially when attempting to correlate between sites and draw comparisons with other proxy records of environmental change derived from sedimentary environments with rather different characteristics. Rockshelters and caves are part of a wider sediment system, and their investigation must be accompanied by detailed geomorphological, sedimentological, paleoecological, and geochronological studies of the off-site Quaternary record.

Remote Sensing and GIS-Based Analysis of Cave Development in the Suoimuoi Catchment (Son La - NW Vietnam), 2002, Hung, L. Q. , Dinh, N. Q. , Batelaan, O. , Tam, V. T. , Lagrou, D.
Integration of remotely sensed imagery with ground surveys is a promising method in cave development studies. In this research a methodology was set up in which a variety of remote sensing and GIS techniques support cave analysis in the tropical karst area of the Suoimuoi catchment, NW Vietnam. In order to extract the maximum information from different remotely sensed data, the hue invariant IHS transformation was applied to integrate Landsat multispectral channels with the high resolution Landsat 7 ETM panchromatic channel. The resulting fused image was used, after enhancement, to visually and digitally extract lineaments. Aerial photos evaluated the extracted lineaments. Based on lineament density indices a fracture zone favorable for cave development is defined. The distance between caves and faults was investigated as well as the correspondence between the cave occurrence and the fracture zone.

The effects of the North Anatolian Fault Zone on the latest connection between Black Sea and Sea of Marmara, 2002, Oktay Fazli Y. , Gokasan Erkan, Sakinc Mehmet, Yaltirak Cenk, Imren Caner, Demirbag Emin,
The development of the Strait of Istanbul is also one of the principal results of the tectonics which led to the evolution of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) in the Marmara Region 3.7 Ma ago. High resolution seismic profiles from the Marmara entrance of the Strait of Istanbul show a folding which occurred after the deposition of the parallel reflected Tyrrhenian sediments. Over the Tyrrhenian strata, a fondoform zone of a deltaic sequence and marine sediments of the latest sea level rising are present. These sediments also display syn-depositional folding. This situation implies that a local compressional stress field was created over the area probably since the Wurm Glacial age. This recent variation of the tectonic regime in the northern shelf of the Sea of Marmara may indicate a significant change in the development of the NAFZ through the Sea of Marmara. This variation of evolution of the NAFZ affected the latest development of the Strait of Istanbul via clockwise rotation of the Istanbul and Kocaeli peninsulas by right-lateral shearing between two zone bounding faults. This rotation has led to the development of NNE-SSW left-lateral faults in the Strait of Istanbul and local compressional and tensional areas explaining the compressional structures seen in the southern entrance of the Strait of Istanbul. Therefore, the latest Mediterranean-Black Sea connection was established by means of the sufficient deepening of the Bosphorus channel by a variation in the evolution of NAFZ through the Sea of Marmara

Cambial growth of Swietenia macrophylla King studied under controlled conditions by high resolution laser measurements, 2003, Dunisch O, Schulte M, Kruse K,
The kinetics of phloem and xylem formation of two-year-old plants of Swietenia macrophylla King (true mahogany) was studied in a model system along the shoot circumference (experiment 1) and along the shoot axis (experiment 2). The radius increment of the shoot was registered by high resolution laser measurements (accuracy: 2 mum) in a spatial resolution of 7.8 to 41.3 mum along the stem circumference and 1.5 mm along the stem axis. The temporal resolution of the measurements was 2 s in experiment 1 and 20 s in experiment 2. The radius increment of the shoot detected by the laser measurements was predominately due to the radial enlargement of the phloem and xylem derivatives. On the phloem side the reinitiation of radial cell enlargement after a cambial dormancy occurred first in sieve tubes with contact to ray parenchyma cells, while on the xylem side the radial cell enlargement of vessels and paratracheal parenchyma was induced almost simultaneously along the shoot circumference. In the phloem and xylem derivatives, which were formed first after the cambial reactivation, radial cell enlargement was induced almost simultaneously along the shoot axis. In more advanced phases of phloem and xylem formation, radial cell enlargement of phloem and xylem derivatives was induced shoot downwards with a rate of approximately 13 mm per min. The mean rate of radial cell enlargement of the phloem and xylem derivatives was 2.26 and 4.37 mum per min, respectively. These findings suggest that the kinetics of cambial growth of tropical tree species differ significantly from kinetics observed in trees from temperate regions. The laser measurements might provide a useful experimental approach for studies of cambial activity in situ

Lower carboniferous (late Visean) platform development and cyclicity in southern Ireland: Foraminiferal biofacies and lithofacies evidence, 2003, Gallagher Sj, Somerville Id,
The stratigraphy of several well exposed late Visean carbonate successions in southern Ireland have been correlated using high resolution foraminiferal/algal biostratigraphy and detailed biofacies analysis. This study has revealed that during the lower late Visean (early Asbian) time platform mudbank and intrabank facies were deposited on a rimmed ramp that dipped southward. By upper late Visean (late Asbian to Brigantian) time, well bedded carbonates were deposited on a shallow, unrimmed platform expanse that prograded southward through a series of shallowing-upward minor cycles. Within the late Asbian successions numerous minor cycles (2-15 m thick) occur that contain distinctive lithofacies and three distinct foraminiferal biofacies. The top of these cycles can usually be identified by palaeokarst surfaces with relief of to 0.5 m associated with pedogenic features and fissures indicating initial palaeocave-forming processes. Deposits on these emergent boundary surfaces include thick palaeosols (up to I in thick) and eroded boulders of the underlying karst surfaces. The lower transgressive facies of each minor cycle often began with the deposition of shallow-water, subtidal, algal-rich limestone containing diverse foraminiferal biofacies (Biofacies type 2). New foraminiferal taxa may appear in this part of the cycle. Towards the middle part of each cycle deeper water, subtidal, foraminiferal biofacies occur, but with no significant first appearance data. The biofacies at this level in the cycle are often algal-poor limestone rich in bryozoans or crinoids (Biofacies type 1). Biostratigraphically important foraminiferal taxa often first appear or reappear in low diversity assemblages toward the top of most cycles in shallower water grainstone microfacies (Biofacies type 3) rich in dasycladacean algae

Symposium Abstract: High resolution isotopic and amino acid data from an Ethiopian speleothem, 2004, Moss J. , Collins M, Baker A, Umer M, Gilmour M. , Leng M.

Symposium Abstract: Underground sedimentary deposits as a natural record: High resolution study in view of Palaeoenvironmental reconstructions (Choranche Caves, Vercours, France), 2004, Perroux A. S. , Desmet M. Perrette Y. , Delannoy J. J.

Intrt de lapproche morphognique pour la comprhension globale dune grotte haute valeur patrimoniale, la grotte Chauvet (Ardche - France), 2004, Delannoy Jeanjacques, Perrette Yves, Debard Evelyne, Ferrier Catherine, Kervazo Bertrand, Perroux Annesophie, Jaillet Stphane, Quinif Yves
Interest of the morphogenesis approach to improve the knowledge of a high-value heritage: Chauvet cave (Ardche, France) - This paper describes the shapes and cave deposits of the Chauvet cave. Especially, the geomorphologic approach improves the global understanding of the Chauvet cave characteristics while Man and animal prehistoric occupancies. Access to the cave, painting location in the cave, and finally cave closing, are discussed on geomorphologic basis to answer the questions asked by prehistorians and archaeologists. The ultimate goal of this paper is to enhance the contribution of the geomorphologic high resolution mapping to the prehistoric investigations. To answer the three questions above, we used shapes and deposits to relate the past cave environments. Soil detailed map allows to describe deposits and shapes in a stratigraphic approach. Some U/Th dating complete the chronology especially during Man and animal occupancy; thus, the closing of the prehistoric entrance has been dated older than 15000 years. Also, this paper shows the interest of crossing the disciplinary approaches in the understanding of such a complex scientific object: the Chauvet cave, a high value Man heritage

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